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AGRICULTURE BUISNESS MANAGEMENT
B.B.M.(Agri)
B.Sc(Honours)(ABM)
Course title-Livestock, Poultry and Fish Production
Management
Credits-2(1+1)
Compiled and Prepared by
Prof.Amruta Rajopadhye-Kulkarni
Asst.Proffesor
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Role of Livestock and poultry in Indian Economy Livestock Census,
Trends in Livestock Production
Livestock production performance has been more impressive than
that of food grain production. Milk, egg, meat, and fish showed
impressive growth rates of 5to10%.
The minimum targeted growth rate for attaining self sufficiency in
milk, fish, meat and egg by 2001 AD are 5.54, 6.25, and 5.54 % per
annum respectively
Livestock represents the only way in which the natural vegetation
that covers large parts of India can be converted in to products
that can be used by man.
It provides drought power and manure to the crop enterprise and
this in turn provides feed and fodder.
The value of output from the livestock sector was Rupees 79684
corers in 1994-95 which was 9. Fortunately India is blessed with a
tremendous livestock wealth.
It has the largest population of cattle and buffalo in the world and
its breeds are admired for heat tolerance and inherent resistance
to diseases and ability to thrive under different climatic condition.
The cattle population of India is very large. According 1991 census
the cattle population was estimated at 467.9 million this
comprised of 203.1 million catties, 83.1 million buffaloes
50.7million sheep, 115.3 million goats and 12.1 million pigs. The
others were estimated at 3.6 million. The poultry population
constituted a 400 million
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3% the Total (GDP).
Milk production
India ranks first with the average milk production of 78 million
tons per annum. This has been the achievement of 70 million
dairy farmers and also through the striated efforts of the animal
husbandry practices, cattle cross breeding projects and
cooperative dairy farming. It is worthwhile to mention that the
per capita availability of milk to the lacto vegetarian Indians is
estimated at 214 grams per day.
It has been the only source of sufficient energy, minerals, vitamins
and animal proteins. A 60% of the total milk production enters in
to the market in the form of dahi,butter,ghee,khoa and shrikhand.
Besides this the conventional dairy products including milk
powder, Ice cream and cheese are also manufactured.
During last 20 years the supply of milk has been possible in
sufficient quantities through the pasteurization plants and chilling
units.
Animal draught power
The bullock pair may be regarded as the backbone of Indian
Agriculture. Though the animal draught power does not relate
with human nutrition directly. Indirectly it contributes in the
production of food grains; the renowned draught animals (cattle
and buffaloes) include Khillar, Amrit mahal, Hallikar, Red kandhari,
Ongole, Malvi, Rathi, Nagore, Neman,Hariyana, Gir, and Deoni.
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There are about 86 million draft animals, which comprise of 76
million bullocks. 8 million buffaloes, 1 million camels and donkeys.
The horsepower obtained from 1 bullock is equivalent 0.75 H.P
Mechanization in Agriculture has been to the tune of 20% only.
Whereas 80% of the agriculture/farm operations are done by
bullock drawn implements.
It is estimated that 40,000 mega watts, of Energy (Traction power)
is made available through the use of draft animals and the value
of this has been estimated Rs. 5000/-corers
Meat production
Flesh foods are rich in protein and are good sources of vitamin
B12 which is absent in plant food. India's meat production is
hardly 2% (4.08 million tons) of the global meat production
209.31 million tons in 1995.
Out of total meat produce in India 54% is from mutton a chevon,
26% from beef 13% from chicken and 7% from pork. Even though
70% of India’s populations consume meat the per capita
availability of meat is less than 5 kg per year. As compared to
worlds average of 14 kg per year
Broiler production in India is recent one rearing poultry for meat
purposes started only in seventies, but the growth is significant
Broiler production which was only 4 million in 1971 increased to
around 215 million in 1991.
The poultry industry has achieved a spectacular growth during last
thirty years. The 24'billion eggs produced in 1991 represented 13
fold increase compared to 1951.
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With the annual production of 27 billion eggs (1995-96) India
stands fifth in world. The government has promoted the poultry
development through intensive poultry development project
(IPDP) launched in third five years plan, (1969-74).
Improved breeds like RIR, WLH and Australia. The per capita
availability of eggs in India is only 30 per annum as against the
ICMR recommendation of 180 per year.
Fish production
Fish is a cheap source of animal protein and a good source of
calcium. The fish production of India has risen to 4.95 million tons
in 1995-96.
The per capita availability of fish in 1996 was 5.4 kg whereas the
ICMR recommendation for total meat including fish is 10.95 kg
per annum.
Farm yard manure for organic farming:
A minimum of 10-20 kg dung is obtained on an average from
every cow or buffalo. This is an excellent source of F.Y.M. or
compost manure. This is badly needed to improve the inherent
soil fertility, and to have the extended manorial effect on the
crops parts.
Dung cakes are utilized as a source of fuel in rural parts of India. It
is estimated that 640 million tons of cow dung is being utilized to
meet the house hold fuel requirements. Besides the cow dung,
goat excreta and poultry dropping can also be better utilized for
organic manure.
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Employment generation
Animal Husbandry & Dairying may be regarded as a source to
create the employment in rural areas all round the year. Indian
Agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoon and hence
agriculture field faces certain bottlenecks to provide employment
during such periods. On an average Agriculture sector may
provide 200 days employment to the rural persons. This means
they have to find alternate source of employment for income
during the rest of the year. Dairy farming, sheep and goat rearing,
poultry production, pig farming rabbit rearing are the alternate
sources of mix farming
It may be possible to generate the employment for the farmers as
well as landless laborers who can do this job themselves, or it may
be possible to employ young and the old family persons as a side
business.
Many of the operations in Animal Husbandry and Poultry Farming
can be done by the rural women. It is estimated that on an
average 35 million human years/annum employment generation
has been potential through this sector.
Present Trends:
The country has now 122 intensive cattle development
programme (ICDP) 140 cattle breeding farms, 40 Exotic cattle
farms and 48 frozen semen banks in operation.
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These activities have resulted in enhancing the milk production
by 494.11% in the past three decades although increase in breed
able cows and buffaloes 22-23% during the same period.
Through a net work of over 4200C milk producers cooperative
organized under the operation flood programmed, National milch
grid has been successfully established.
This grid covers besides the four-metropolitan cities.
Nearly 200 cities and towns the fallen and slaughtered cattle and
buffaloes also contribute hides and skins, bones and hooves etc.
The hides and skins, from cattle and buffalo are estimated at 0.82
million tons annually.
TERMINOLOGY USED IN LIVESTOCK
TYPE: - It is a commonly accepted standard that combines
those characteristics essential in adopting an animal for a
particular purpose .e.g. Milk, Meat, Wool, Work.
BREED:-It is groups of animal that are result of breeding
and selection have certain distinguishable characteristics.
SPECIES: - A group of individuals which have certain
common characteristics that distinguish them from other
group of individuals with in species the individuals are fertile
when in different species they are not.
Beef -Meat of cattle, past calf stage.
Cara beef -Meat of Buffalo.
Pork -Meat of Swine or pig.
Mutton-Meat of sheep.
Chevon-Meat of Goat.
Chicken-Meat of Poultry
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Sire-Male parent of calf.
Dam-Female parent of calf.
Calf-Young of cattle or buffalo below the age of 6 months.
Heifer-Younger female of cattle above the age of 6 months to first
calving.
Cow-Adult female of cattle from the date of first calving.
Bull-Unsaturated of cattle used for breeding or covering the cow.
Buller-Castrated male of cattle used for work.
Service-The process in which mature male covers the female i.e.
heat with the object to deposit spermatozoa in the female genital
tract.
Conception-The successful union of male and female gametes and
implantation of zygote.
Gestation It is the condition of female when developing fetus in
present in the uterus.
Gestation Period- The period from the date of service (actual
conception) to the date of parturition is termed parturition period
or pregnancy period.eg.Cow-280days,Buffalo-310 days,Sheep-150
days ,Goat-152 days
Parturition-The act of giving birth to young one.
Lactation period- The period after parturition in which the animal
produces milk.
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Dry period-The period after lactation in which the animal does
not produce milk.
Calving interval- The period between two successive calving.
Average-It is the sum of production divided by number of animal.
West Average-It is the average daily milk yield of a cow in
lactation.
Herd Average- It is average daily milk yield of a milking animal in a
herd.
Overall Average-It is average daily milk yield of the animal in the
of calving interval.
Environment-The sum of all external influences to which an
individual is exposed.
Genotype-The complete genetic makeup of an individual or its
combination of genes it posses which influences its characters.
Phenotype-The external appearance or some other overall or
measurable characteristics of an individual or it’s the actual
expression of the character as determined by his genes and the
environment in which he has lived.
Half sib-Half brothers or half sisters. Same as FULL
Heredity-The occurrence of genetic factors derived from each of
its parent in an individual.
Heritability-Percentage of variation in an individual characteristic
between related individuals which is due to genetic difference.
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Repeatability It is the expression of the same trait at different
times in the life of the same individual or tendency of an
individual to repeat its performance.
Allele-One or two or more alternative forms of a gene.
Gene-Unit of inheritance which is transmitted in gametes or
reproductive cells.
Dominance-Gene is said to be dominant when its characteristic
effect is expressed in the heterozygote as well as homozygote.
Recessive-Gene which have no observable effect unless present in
both members of a chromosome pair.
Epitasis-Interaction of two or more pairs of gene that are not
allele to produce a phenotype that are not produces when they
occur separately.
Lethal-A gene or genes that cause death of an individual which
are possessed by them during pregnancy or at the time of birth.
Prepotency-Ability of certain individuals to stamp or impress their
characters upon their offspring or prepotency is the ability to
transmit characteristics to offspring to a marked degree.
Fertility-Ability of an animal to produce large number of living
young.
Fecundity-It is the potential capacity of the female to produce
functional ova regards of what happens to them after they are
produced.
Sterility-Inability to produce any offspring.
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Cryptorchids-Failure of testes to descend
Atavism-The reappearance of a character after it has appeared
for one or more generation.
Buller-Cow always in estrus condition.
Teaser-Castrated bull used to detect the heat or estrus of female.
Herd-Group of Cattle or buffalo.
Flock- Group of Sheep or Goat or Poultry
Wedder- Castrated Sheep
Prolificacy-Ability to produce large no. offspring's.
Inheritance-Transmission of genetic factors from parent to
offspring's.
Hen-Female young chicken from 9-20weeks.
Pullet-female matured chicken above 20 weeks.
Cockrel-Male young chicken from 5-8weeks.
Cock-Male matured chicken above 20 weeks.
Chick-Young male or female fowl below 8weeks of age.
Day old Chick-Hatched out chick.
Grower-Young chick of 9
th
week to 20
th
week of age of either sex.
Brood-Group of chick of same age raised in one batch.
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Brooding-Process of rearing the young chick from day old stage to
4-6 week of age during which heat is to be provided to keep them
warm.
Brooder-Device for providing artificial heat to the chicks.
Broiler-They are hybrid chicks having rapid growth and attaining
about 1.5kg wt. during the period of 6weeks of age sold for table
purpose within 8-10 weeks period.
Capon-Young male bird of which testical is removed.
Layer-An egg laying female chicken up to 1yr starting the laying of
eggs.
Broody-A hen which has stopped laying eggs temporary.
Clutch-Number of eggs laid by a bird on consecutive days. A clutch
of 3-4 eggs is preferred.
Moulting-Process of shading old feathers and growth of new
feather in their place normally occurs in 1yr.
Culling-Removal of unwanted birds from the flock.
Hen day production-This is arrived by dividing total eggs laid in
the season by the average number of bird in the house.
Hen housed average-This is arrived at by dividing the total no. of
eggs laid in the season by the number of birds originally placed in
the house.
Housing for Different Livestock and Poultry
For dairy cattle, care should be taken to provide comfortable
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Accommodation for individual cattle. No less important is the (1)
Proper sanitation, (2) durability, (3) arrangements for the
production of clean milk under convenient and economic
conditions etc.
Location of dairy buildings:
The points which should be considered before the
erection of dairy buildings are as follows:
1. Topography and drainage: A dairy building should be
at a higher elevation than the surrounding ground to
offer a good slope for rainfall and drainage for the wastes
of the dairy to avoid stagnation within. A leveled area
requires less site preparation and thus lesser cost of
building. Low lands and depressions and proximity to
places of bad odor should be avoided.
2. Soil type: Fertile soil should be spared for cultivation.
Foundation soil as far as possible should not be too
dehydrated or desiccated. Such a soil is susceptible to
considerable swelling during rainy season and exhibit
numerous cracks and fissures.
3. Exposure to the sun and protection from wind: A dairy
Building should be located to a maximum exposure to the
sun in the north and minimum exposure to the sun in the
south and protection from prevailing strong wind currents
whether hot or cold. Buildings should be placed so that
direct sunlight can reach the platforms, gutters and
mangers in the cattle shed. As far as possible, the long
axis of the dairy barns should be set in the north south
direction to have the maximum benefit of the sun.
4. Accessibility: Easy accessibility to the buildings i&
always desirable. Situation of a cattle shed by the side of
the main road preferably at a distance of about 100
meters should be aimed at.
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5. Durability arid attractiveness: It is always attractive
when the buildings open up to a scenic view and add to
the grandeur of the scenery. Along with this, durability of
the structure is obviously an important criterion in
building a dairy.
6. Water supply: Abundant supply of fresh, clean and soft
water should be available at a cheap rate.
7. Surroundings: Areas infested with wild animals and
dacoits should be avoided. Narrow gates, high manager
curbs, and loose hinges, protruding nails, smooth finished
floor in the areas where the cows move and other such
hazards should be eliminated.
8. Labor: Honest, economic and regular supply of labor is
available.
9. Marketing: Dairy buildings should only be in those
areas from where the owner can sell his products
profitably and regularly. He should be in a position to
satisfy the needs of the farm within no time and at a
reasonable price.
10. Electricity: Electricity is the most important sanitary
method of lighting a dairy. Since a modern dairy always
handles electric equipments which are also economical, it
is desirable to have an adequate supply of electricity.
11. Facilities, labor, food: Cattle yards should be so
constructed and situated in relation to feed storages, hay
stacks, silo and manure pits as to effect the most
efficient utilization of labor. Sufficient space per cow and
well arranged feeding mangers and resting areas
contribute not only to greater milk yield of cows
And make the work of the operator easier but also
minimizes feed expenses. The relative position of the
feed stores should be quite, adjacent to the cattle barn.
Noteworthy features of feed
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Stores are given below:
Feed storages should be located at hand near the centre
of the cow barn. Milk house should be located almost at
the centre of the barn.
Centre cross alley should be well designed with reference
to feed storage, the stall area and the milk house of
Housing:
Type of Housing:
The most widely prevalent practice in this country is to
tie the cows with rope on a Kutcha floor except some"
organized dairy farms belonging to Government,
cooperatives or Military where proper housing facilities
exist It is quite easy to understand that unless cattle
Are provided with good housing facilities, the animals will
move too far in or out of the standing space, defecting all
round and even causing trampling and wasting of, feed
by stepping into the mangers. The animals will be
exposed to extreme weather conditions all leading to
Bad health and lower production.
Dairy cattle may be successfully housed under a wide
variety of conditions, ranging from close confinement to
little restrictions except at milking time. However two
types of dairy barns are in general use at the present
time.
1. The loose housing barn in combination with some type
of milking barn or parlor.
2. The conventional dairy barn.
Loose housing system-Loose housing maybe defined as a
system where animals are kept loose except milking and
at the time of treatment. The system is most economical.
Some features of loose housing system are as follows.
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1. Cost of construction is significantly lower than
conventional type.
2. It is possible to make further expansion without much
change.
3. Facilitate easy detection of animals in heat
4. Animals feel free and therefore, prove more profitable
with even minimum grazing.
5. Animals get optimum exercise which is extremely
important for better health and production
6. Overall better management can be rendered.
The floor and manger space requirement of dairy cows
are give in Table below
Other provisions:
The animal sheds should have proper facilities for milking
barns; calf pens/calving pens and arrangement for store
rooms etc. In each shed, there should be arrangement
for feeding, manger, drinking area and loafing area.
The shed may be cemented or brick paved, but in any
case it should be easy to clean. The floor should be
rough, so that animals will not slip. "The drains in the
shed should be shallow and preferably covered with
removable tiles. The drain should have a gradient of 1"
for every 10' length. The roof may be have corrugated
Cement sheet, asbestos or brick and rafters. Cement
concrete roofing is too expensive.
Inside the open unpaved area it is always desirable to
plant some good shady trees for excellent protection
against direct cold winds in winter and to keep
cool in summer.
Cattle shed:
The entire shed should be surrounded by a boundary wall
of 5' height from three Sides and manger etc.on one
side. The feeding area should be provided with 2
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to 2 % feet of manger space per cow. All along the
manger/ there shall be 10"wide water through to provide
clean, even, available drinking water. The water trough
thus constructed will also minimize the loss of fodders
during feeding. Near the manger, under the roofed house
5' wide floor should be paved with bricks having a little
slope. Beyond that, there should be open unpaved area
(40' X 35') surrounded by 5' walls with one gate. A plan
for such a house along with the plan for calves shed and
their sections it is preferable that animals face north
when they are eating fodder under the shade.
During cold wind in winter the animals will automatically
lie down to have the protection from the walls.
Shed for calves: On one side of the main cattle shed
there shall be full covered shed 10' X 15' to
accommodate young calves. Such sheds with suitable
Partitioning, may also serve as calving pen under adverse
climatic conditions. Beyond this covered area there
should be a 20' X 10' open area having boundary wall so
that calves may move there freely.
In this way both cattle and calve sheds will need in all 50
X 50 area for 20 adult cows and followers. If one has
limited resources, he can build ordinary,katcha /semi
Kutcha boundary walls but feeding and water trough
should be cemented ones.
Conventional Dairy Barn
The conventional dairy barn is comparatively costly and
is now becoming less popular day by day. However, by
this system cattle are more protected from adverse
climatic conditions.
The following barns are generally needed for proper
housing of different classes of dairy stock on the farm.
1. Cow houses or sheds
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2. Calving box
3. Isolation box
4. Sheds for young stocks
5. Bull or bullock sheds.
Cow sheds:
Cow sheds can be arranged in a single row if the
numbers of cows are.
Small say less than 10 or in a double row if the herd is a
large one.
Ordinarily, not more than 80 to 100 cows should be
placed in one building. In double row housing, the stable
should be so arranged that the cows face out (tail to tail
system) or face in (head to head system)as preferred.
Advantages of Tail to tail system:
1. Under the average conditions, 125 to 150 man hours
of labor are required per cow per year. Study of Time:
Time motion studies in dairies showed that 15% of the
expended time is spent in front of the cow, and 25% in
other parts of the barn and the milk house, and 60% of
the time is spent behind the cows. 'Time spent at the
Back of the cows is 4 times more than, the time spent in
front of them.
2. In cleaning and milking the cows, the wide middle
alley is of great advantage.
3. Lesser danger of spread of diseases from animal to
animal.
4. Cows can always get more fresh air from outside.
5. The head gowala can inspect a greater number of
milkmen while milking. This is possible because milkmen
will be milking on