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COMMUNICATION SKILLS
2hrs
WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?
Communication is derived from the Latin word communicate, which means "to make common".
This can be taken to mean 'to share'. Communication is therefore generally defined as the
process of understanding and sharing meaning.
.Communication Defined
Theodorson (1969): Defines communication as the transmission of information, ideas,
attitudes, or emotions from one person or group to another or others primarily through
symbols.
Osgood et al. (1957) There is communication wherever one system or source influences
Another is by manipulation of alternative symbols transmitted over the channel.
Gerber (1957) defines communication as social interaction through messages.
Comprehensive Communication
Process of transmitting information and messages from one point to another to elicit action
actions that will accomplish a specific goal. Communication is done to influsence an
audience.
As a process, communication is not discrete, static, or solitary. It exists in time and changes
Constantly.
Organizational Communication
The process by which information is passed between individuals, groups, and externally to
customers, clients, suppliers, and other stakeholders using previously agreed symbols for
purposes of eliciting appropriate action to enhance organization image, efficiency, and
effectiveness.
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Effective Communication:-
If someone achieves the desired level of objective through communication, we can say that it is
effective communication e.g. If your communication gets the proper response from the receiver
it means that you effectively conveyed the message.
How to achieve effective communication:
Encourage creative and Critical Thinking
Consider audience’s information need
Consider Audience's Technical Background
Consider Audience's Cultural Background and
Gender
Consider Audience's Knowledge of the
Subject
The Components of Communication
Context
o Internal Means
o External Means
Sender (Encoder)
Message
Medium
Receiver (Decoder)
Feed Back
Context
Context tells us the reason for communication and reasons maybe
1. Internal
2. External
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Internal
Internal means a company wants to Discuss an idea/Issue to its employees the
The message should be either in writing or verbal
External:
In the eternal context some queries from stakeholders or from outside the organization.
You may respond to a query
Email
Fax
Telephone
Letter
Verbal etc.
The Source/ Sender
The source (sender) is the component that initiates a message. When you send the message,
you are the encoder. Here the word you mean writer/Speaker decides whether the message
should be written or oral. She/he may choose Words, Symbols, Pictures, or Graphics that
express the objective in the real sense. Encoding can be conscious or unconscious
(Unconscious way of denoting means) e.g. yawning could denote hunger, fatigue. Conscious:
Waving could denote friendliness.
2. Receiver /Decoder (Audience)
The receiver is the intended target of the message.
NOTE:
Individuals do not perform these two roles independently. Instead, they are the source and
receiver of messages simultaneously or continually. People do not respond uniformly to all
messages, nor do they provide the same messages in the same way. Individual characteristics of
people, including their race, gender, age, culture, values, and attitudes affect both their sending
and receiving qualities.
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3. The message (idea)
The message is the verbal and non-verbal form of the idea, thought, or feeling that one person
(source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of persons (the receiver/s). It is the
content of the interaction. The message includes the symbols (words and phrases) we use to
communicate our ideas as well as our facial expressions, bodily movements, gestures, touch,
tone of voice, and other nonverbal codes. The message may be relatively brief and easy to
understand or long and complex. Messages can be intentional or accidental
4. The Channel
The channel provides the mode by which a message moves from the source to the receiver of the
message. Examples include the spoken mode, written mode, diagrams, charts, etc.
5. Feedback
Feedback is the receiver's verbal and nonverbal response to the source's message. Feedback is
part of any communication situation. High-quality communication occurs when the source is
sensitive to feedback and responds appropriately to verbal and non-verbal messages sent by the
receiver or audience.
6. Code
We use codes to share our ideas with others. A code is a systematic arrangement or
comprehensive collection of symbols, letters, or words that have arbitrary meanings and are used
for communication. Two major types of codes are used in communication: Verbal codes and
nonverbal codes. Nonverbal codes consist of all symbols that are not spoken words, including
our bodily movements, our use of space and time, our clothing and other adornments, and sounds
other than words. Nonverbal codes should not be confused with non-oral codes. All non-oral
codes such as bodily movement - are nonverbal. Nonverbal codes also include oral codes, such
as pitch, duration, and rate of speech as well as sounds like eh and ah.
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The Communication Process
The process of communication can be viewed as one of encoding and decoding. Encoding is
defined as the act of putting an idea or a thought into a code. Decoding is assigning meaning to
that idea or thought. The figure below shows a summary of the communication process.
Barriers in Communication
A barrier in the communication process is any interference in the encoding and the decoding
processes that reduce the clarity of a message. It can be physical, psychological, cultural, or
language retained.
a. Physical barriers: Examples include loud sounds, distracting sights, unusual
behavior, physical appearance, etc.
b. Psychological barriers: Examples include worries, uncertainties, or any other
attitudinal or emotional factors.
c. Cultural barriers: Examples are cultural differences relating to beliefs and values.
d. Language barriers: e.g. mother tongue interference, inadequate vocabulary,
inappropriate register, diction, etc.
Definition of a Communication Channel
A communication channel is a particular type of media through which a message is sent and
received. In other words, it's the method of communication used. The communication channels
can flow down from superiors to subordinates, up from subordinates to superiors, or across from
and to co-workers of the same hierarchical level of authority.
Types of Channels
Organizations have several types of communication channels available for people to
communicate with each other.
Verbal communication is spoken communication. This is one of the oldest forms of
communication and one of the most used channels in day-to-day activities. It can be a rather
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informal form of communication, and no records of the communication are typically kept unless
the communication is recorded. Examples include talking around the water cooler, team
meetings, and live presentations.
Written communication - Written communication is another widely used channel of
communication in an organization. It includes any communication done with the written word,
including letters, memos, and even a simple note scratched out on a napkin. Written
communication is a much more formal channel of communication, which permits you time to
think and process your message, revise your message before sending it, and archive the message
for use later. It can be an impersonal means of communicating.
Nonverbal communication - You can communicate without saying or writing anything.
Nonverbal communication involves using body language to send cues, such as happiness,
satisfaction, anger, worry, and fear. It's probably the oldest form of communication because
language isn't required. It is often used as a supplement to verbal communication and sometimes
is more effective. It also allows you to send an indirect message where a more direct message
isn't advisable

Unformatted Attachment Preview

COMMUNICATION SKILLS 2hrs WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? Communication is derived from the Latin word communicate, which means "to make common". This can be taken to mean 'to share'. Communication is therefore generally defined as the process of understanding and sharing meaning. .Communication Defined • Theodorson (1969): Defines communication as the transmission of information, ideas, attitudes, or emotions from one person or group to another or others primarily through symbols. • Osgood et al. (1957) There is communication wherever one system or source influences Another is by manipulation of alternative symbols transmitted over the channel. • Gerber (1957) defines communication as social interaction through messages. Comprehensive Communication Process of transmitting information and messages from one point to another to elicit action actions that will accomplish a specific goal. Communication is done to influsence an audience. As a process, communication is not discrete, static, or solitary. It exists in time and changes Constantly. Organizational Communication The process by which information is passed between individuals, groups, and externally to customers, clients, suppliers, and other stakeholders using previously agreed symbols for purposes of eliciting appropriate action to enhance organization image, efficiency, and effectiveness. Effective Communication:If someone achieves the desired level of objective through communication, we can say that it is effective communication e.g. If your communication gets the proper response from the receiver it means that you effectively conveyed the message. How to achieve effective communication: Encourage creative and Critical Thinking ➢ Consider audience’s information need ➢ Consider Audience's Technical Background ➢ Consider Audience's Cultural Background and Gender ➢ Consider Audience's Knowledge of the Subject The Components of Communication • Context o Internal Means o External Means • Sender (Encoder) • Message • Medium • Receiver (Decoder) • Feed Back Context Context tells us the reason for communication and reasons maybe 1. Internal 2. External Internal Internal means a company wants to Discuss an idea/Issue to its employees – the The message should be either in writing or verbal External: In the eternal context some queries from stakeholders or from outside the organization. You may respond to a query • Email • Fax • Telephone • Letter • Verbal etc. The Source/ Sender The source (sender) is the component that initiates a message. When you send the message, you are the encoder. Here the word you mean writer/Speaker decides whether the message should be written or oral. She/he may choose Words, Symbols, Pictures, or Graphics that express the objective in the real sense. Encoding can be conscious or unconscious (Unconscious way of denoting means) e.g. yawning could denote hunger, fatigue. Conscious: Waving could denote friendliness. 2. Receiver /Decoder (Audience) The receiver is the intended target of the message. NOTE: Individuals do not perform these two roles independently. Instead, they are the source and receiver of messages simultaneously or continually. People do not respond uniformly to all messages, nor do they provide the same messages in the same way. Individual characteristics of people, including their race, gender, age, culture, values, and attitudes affect both their sending and receiving qualities. 3. The message (idea) The message is the verbal and non-verbal form of the idea, thought, or feeling that one person (source) wishes to communicate to another person or group of persons (the receiver/s). It is the content of the interaction. The message includes the symbols (words and phrases) we use to communicate our ideas as well as our facial expressions, bodily movements, gestures, touch, tone of voice, and other nonverbal codes. The message may be relatively brief and easy to understand or long and complex. Messages can be intentional or accidental 4. The Channel The channel provides the mode by which a message moves from the source to the receiver of the message. Examples include the spoken mode, written mode, diagrams, charts, etc. 5. Feedback Feedback is the receiver's verbal and nonverbal response to the source's message. Feedback is part of any communication situation. High-quality communication occurs when the source is sensitive to feedback and responds appropriately to verbal and non-verbal messages sent by the receiver or audience. 6. Code We use codes to share our ideas with others. A code is a systematic arrangement or comprehensive collection of symbols, letters, or words that have arbitrary meanings and are used for communication. Two major types of codes are used in communication: Verbal codes and nonverbal codes. Nonverbal codes consist of all symbols that are not spoken words, including our bodily movements, our use of space and time, our clothing and other adornments, and sounds other than words. Nonverbal codes should not be confused with non-oral codes. All non-oral codes such as bodily movement - are nonverbal. Nonverbal codes also include oral codes, such as pitch, duration, and rate of speech as well as sounds like eh and ah. The Communication Process The process of communication can be viewed as one of encoding and decoding. Encoding is defined as the act of putting an idea or a thought into a code. Decoding is assigning meaning to that idea or thought. The figure below shows a summary of the communication process. Barriers in Communication A barrier in the communication process is any interference in the encoding and the decoding processes that reduce the clarity of a message. It can be physical, psychological, cultural, or language retained. a. Physical barriers: Examples include loud sounds, distracting sights, unusual behavior, physical appearance, etc. b. Psychological barriers: Examples include worries, uncertainties, or any other attitudinal or emotional factors. c. Cultural barriers: Examples are cultural differences relating to beliefs and values. d. Language barriers: e.g. mother tongue interference, inadequate vocabulary, inappropriate register, diction, etc. Definition of a Communication Channel A communication channel is a particular type of media through which a message is sent and received. In other words, it's the method of communication used. The communication channels can flow down from superiors to subordinates, up from subordinates to superiors, or across from and to co-workers of the same hierarchical level of authority. Types of Channels Organizations have several types of communication channels available for people to communicate with each other. Verbal communication is spoken communication. This is one of the oldest forms of communication and one of the most used channels in day-to-day activities. It can be a rather informal form of communication, and no records of the communication are typically kept unless the communication is recorded. Examples include talking around the water cooler, team meetings, and live presentations. Written communication - Written communication is another widely used channel of communication in an organization. It includes any communication done with the written word, including letters, memos, and even a simple note scratched out on a napkin. Written communication is a much more formal channel of communication, which permits you time to think and process your message, revise your message before sending it, and archive the message for use later. It can be an impersonal means of communicating. Nonverbal communication - You can communicate without saying or writing anything. Nonverbal communication involves using body language to send cues, such as happiness, satisfaction, anger, worry, and fear. It's probably the oldest form of communication because language isn't required. It is often used as a supplement to verbal communication and sometimes is more effective. It also allows you to send an indirect message where a more direct message isn't advisable Name: Description: ...
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