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PLANNING OF EDUCATION
What is a plan?
It is a future course of action.
What is planning?
Is the basic function of management as it is a process of setting goals, developing strategies and
attaining tasks as scheduled to accomplish goals.
Is a process of deciding what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it and who to do.
What - problem
How - approach or method
When - time aspect
Where - the place
Whom - staff to implement
EDUCATIONAL PLANNING
It is application of a rational and systematic analysis to the process of educational development
with the aim of meeting the needs of the student and the society.
Principles of planning
a) Comprehensive - Means all significant option and impact should be considered.
b) Efficient- Means the process should not waste time and money.
c) Inclusive- people affected by the plan should have the opportunity to be involved.
d) Informative- the result should be understood by the stake holders
e) Integrated- individual’s short term decision should support strategic and long-term
goals.
f) Logical- end step within the plan should be systematic and leads to the next level.
g) Transparent- everybody involved should understand how the process operates i.e.
should not be manipulated
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Issues to be considered during planning
Planning increasingly incorporates the concept of sustainability which refers to comprehensive
strategic planning that explicitly considers long-term and indirect impact. Sustainability
planning strives for development (increased quality) rather than growth (increased quantity)
and also recognizes resource and ecological issues.
Process of planning (educational planning process)
a) Need identification
b) Feasibility study (situational analysis)
c) Drafting or formulation of the plan
d) Piloting planning stage (trial stage)
e) Implementation stage
f) Evaluation stage
APPROACH TO EDUCATION PLANNING (METHODOLOGIES)
a) Social demand approach
b) Manpower approach
c) Cost-benefit analysis (rate of return)
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1) Social Demand Approach
Namaswa (1992) defined social demand approach as the “popular” demand for
education.
It is the sum total of individual demand for education at a given place and time under
the prevailing social- economic conditions.
The social demand approach is the aggregate.
It is mainly concerned with consumption function of education rather investment part
of it.
It considers the following questions: How many children are born each year. How many
children are in school age cohort? How many children of school age cohort desire
education?
The positive response to the above listed question revealed that social demand
approach tend to emphasize on the individual approach to education which is
aggregated to reflect the social demand.
Advantages
i. It is the starting in planning for the future
ii. Planning is for the society not individual
Disadvantages
i. Ignores resource allocation i.e. it assumes that cost factor is not important
ii. It ignores the characteristic and pattern of manpower needed by the economy
iii. It over stimulates the popular demand for education
iv. It overlooks the problem of future employment. This leads to future unemployment.
v. It reduces the quality of education system.
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2) The manpower approach
Psacharopaulos (1985) states that manpower for casting approach involves an analysis of the
skilled manpower requirement from the quantities, kinds and levels of education required to
meet the requirements.
Namaswa (1992) describes manpower approach as analysis of the market need of a country in
terms of human resource through the education system as an important prerequisite for
economic growth.
METHODS OF PROJECTION
a) Employer data- based method
It is the simplest method used in both developing and developed country. Employers of both
private and public sectors are asked to specify the type of manpower they require at different
occupational levels annually.
Advantage
Useful in making a one year plan
Disadvantage
i. It ignores the complex problem of complex planning
ii. The data from employer may not be really realistic e.g. inflation, wage levels,
competition in job market
b) Tradition high and middle level manpower survey
Inventories are opened and occupational classification of manpower is recorded and the data is
sent to the ministry of education. This statistic gives a general data for manpower requirement.
It assists in making projection for the new financial year.
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Advantages
i. Examines the extreme gap and imbalances in the education output pattern. Imbalances
are educated unemployed.
ii. It examines the output pattern of education against the number of jobs available in the
modern sector.
iii. It gives useful guidance on how education qualification of labour ought to evolve. This
focuses on primary and secondary education and also post secondary education.
iv. It ends a self sufficient in manpower training
Disadvantages
i. Tends to confine its attention to high level manpower.
ii. It is difficult to make reliable forecasting for manpower requirement because of
political, Economical and technological changes.
iii. As we make projection this approach does not take into account the cost involved in the
production of the labour force.
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3) Cost benefit analysis (rate of return)-CBA
CBA is defined as the systematic comparison of the cost and benefit of some form of
investment in order to access the suitability of the investment. It has two dimensions
Private rate of return
Social rate of return
Advantages
i. Provides education planners with information about the link between education and the
labour market
ii. May suggest way of increasing profit of education e.g. increasing benefit of education or
lowering the cost.
iii. Focuses attention on the problem of choosing between alternatives
Disadvantages
i. Earning differential. CBA cannot be used as a measure of pure benefit of education due
to variance or differences of learning. These differences are: luck, gender, type of
occupation will dictate the salary scale, marital status.
ii. Education generates indirect benefit which spill over benefits not reflected in the
earning differential.
iii. CBA does not take into account the social demand and manpower approach.
iv. CBA concentrates on economic benefit of education but not about social benefits of
education
v. CBA assumes that there is full employment of educated labour force, this is not the case
in practice.
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WAY OF EVALUATING INTERNAL EFFICIENCY
Accessing the internal efficiency of an education system is done by establishing the rate at
which students are flowing in the system. Such an analysis is crucial since it enable planners to
identify problem area and measures to take so as to identify the situation. Indices used to
access internal efficiency include the following:
• Grade Survival Rate (GSR)
• Grade Repeater Rate (GRR)
• Graduation Rate (GR)
• Grade Dropout Rate (GDR)
• Grade Wastage Rate
• Cohort Wastage Rate
• Grade Retention Rate
• Average year per graduate
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HOW TO CURB SCHOOL DROP OUTS
A large proportion of those who enter class one in developing countries do not complete the
primary level of education. In Kenya a number of measures have been suggested to address the
issue and thus enhance survival (retention rate) btw primary level of education. Some of those
suggestions include:
1) Initiating at the grass root level campaign aimed at positively changing people’s attitude
towards education
2) Provision of tuition for primary education ( free primary education)
3) Reforming the curriculum so as to be learner friendly in terms of the content
(examinable subject to be reduced)
4) Initiate programs aimed at retaining learners in school e.g. school feeding program in
arid and semi-arid areas
5) Starting out of school program in areas occupied by nomadic community (such program
are designed in a way that children can attend classroom in the afternoon after
accomplishing their domestic activities like grazing livestock.
6) Encourage double shift learning program in areas where there is mismatch btw the
number of learners and available physical and human resource.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

PLANNING OF EDUCATION What is a plan? It is a future course of action. What is planning? Is the basic function of management as it is a process of setting goals, developing strategies and attaining tasks as scheduled to accomplish goals. Is a process of deciding what to do, how to do it, when to do it, where to do it and who to do. ❖ What - problem ❖ How - approach or method ❖ When - time aspect ❖ Where - the place ❖ Whom - staff to implement EDUCATIONAL PLANNING It is application of a rational and systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of meeting the needs of the student and the society. Principles of planning a) Comprehensive - Means all significant option and impact should be considered. b) Efficient- Means the process should not waste time and money. c) Inclusive- people affected by the plan should have the opportunity to be involved. d) Informative- the result should be understood by the stake holders e) Integrated- individual’s short term decision should support strategic and long-term goals. f) Logical- end step within the plan should be systematic and leads to the next level. g) Transparent- everybody involved should understand how the process operates i.e. should not be manipulated Issues to be considered during planning Planning increasingly incorporates the concept of sustainability which refers to comprehensive strategic planning that explicitly considers long-term and indirect impact. Sustainability planning strives for development (increased quality) rather than growth (increased quantity) and also recognizes resource and ecological issues. Process of planning (educational planning process) a) Need identification b) Feasibility study (situational analysis) c) Drafting or formulation of the plan d) Piloting planning stage (trial stage) e) Implementation stage f) Evaluation stage APPROACH TO EDUCATION PLANNING (METHODOLOGIES) a) Social demand approach b) Manpower approach c) Cost-benefit analysis (rate of return) 1) Social Demand Approach ➢ Namaswa (1992) defined social demand approach as the “popular” demand for education. ➢ It is the sum total of individual demand for education at a given place and time under the prevailing social- economic conditions. ➢ The social demand approach is the aggregate. ➢ It is mainly concerned with consumption function of education rather investment part of it. ➢ It considers the following questions: How many children are born each year. How many children are in school age cohort? How many children of school age cohort desire education? The positive response to the above listed question revealed that social demand approach tend to emphasize on the individual approach to education which is aggregated to reflect the social demand. Advantages i. It is the starting in planning for the future ii. Planning is for the society not individual Disadvantages i. Ignores resource allocation i.e. it assumes that cost factor is not important ii. It ignores the characteristic and pattern of manpower needed by the economy iii. It over stimulates the popular demand for education iv. It overlooks the problem of future employment. This leads to future unemployment. v. It reduces the quality of education system. 2) The manpower approach Psacharopaulos (1985) states that manpower for casting approach involves an analysis of the skilled manpower requirement from the quantities, kinds and levels of education required to meet the requirements. Namaswa (1992) describes manpower approach as analysis of the market need of a country in terms of human resource through the education system as an important prerequisite for economic growth. METHODS OF PROJECTION a) Employer data- based method It is the simplest method used in both developing and developed country. Employers of both private and public sectors are asked to specify the type of manpower they require at different occupational levels annually. Advantage Useful in making a one year plan Disadvantage i. It ignores the complex problem of complex planning ii. The data from employer may not be really realistic e.g. inflation, wage levels, competition in job market b) Tradition high and middle level manpower survey Inventories are opened and occupational classification of manpower is recorded and the data is sent to the ministry of education. This statistic gives a general data for manpower requirement. It assists in making projection for the new financial year. Advantages i. Examines the extreme gap and imbalances in the education output pattern. Imbalances are educated unemployed. ii. It examines the output pattern of education against the number of jobs available in the modern sector. iii. It gives useful guidance on how education qualification of labour ought to evolve. This focuses on primary and secondary education and also post secondary education. iv. It ends a self sufficient in manpower training Disadvantages i. Tends to confine its attention to high level manpower. ii. It is difficult to make reliable forecasting for manpower requirement because of political, Economical and technological changes. iii. As we make projection this approach does not take into account the cost involved in the production of the labour force. 3) Cost benefit analysis (rate of return)-CBA CBA is defined as the systematic comparison of the cost and benefit of some form of investment in order to access the suitability of the investment. It has two dimensions ❖ Private rate of return ❖ Social rate of return Advantages i. Provides education planners with information about the link between education and the labour market ii. May suggest way of increasing profit of education e.g. increasing benefit of education or lowering the cost. iii. Focuses attention on the problem of choosing between alternatives Disadvantages i. Earning differential. CBA cannot be used as a measure of pure benefit of education due to variance or differences of learning. These differences are: luck, gender, type of occupation will dictate the salary scale, marital status. ii. Education generates indirect benefit which spill over benefits not reflected in the earning differential. iii. CBA does not take into account the social demand and manpower approach. iv. CBA concentrates on economic benefit of education but not about social benefits of education v. CBA assumes that there is full employment of educated labour force, this is not the case in practice. WAY OF EVALUATING INTERNAL EFFICIENCY Accessing the internal efficiency of an education system is done by establishing the rate at which students are flowing in the system. Such an analysis is crucial since it enable planners to identify problem area and measures to take so as to identify the situation. Indices used to access internal efficiency include the following: • Grade Survival Rate (GSR) • Grade Repeater Rate (GRR) • Graduation Rate (GR) • Grade Dropout Rate (GDR) • Grade Wastage Rate • Cohort Wastage Rate • Grade Retention Rate • Average year per graduate HOW TO CURB SCHOOL DROP OUTS A large proportion of those who enter class one in developing countries do not complete the primary level of education. In Kenya a number of measures have been suggested to address the issue and thus enhance survival (retention rate) btw primary level of education. Some of those suggestions include: 1) Initiating at the grass root level campaign aimed at positively changing people’s attitude towards education 2) Provision of tuition for primary education ( free primary education) 3) Reforming the curriculum so as to be learner friendly in terms of the content (examinable subject to be reduced) 4) Initiate programs aimed at retaining learners in school e.g. school feeding program in arid and semi-arid areas 5) Starting out of school program in areas occupied by nomadic community (such program are designed in a way that children can attend classroom in the afternoon after accomplishing their domestic activities like grazing livestock. 6) Encourage double shift learning program in areas where there is mismatch btw the number of learners and available physical and human resource. Name: Description: ...
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