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chapter notes for the Psychology,
by David G. Myers, 7th Edition Textbook
Chapter 04 - Adolescence and Adulthood
Adolescence
Adolescence: transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending
from puberty to independence
Due to improved nutrition, sexual maturation occurs earlier nowadays
Psychologists note that adolescence is often marked by mood swings
Begins with puberty: period of sexual maturation, during which one first
becomes capable of reproducing; 2-year period of rapid development
usually beginning in girls at age 11 and in boys at age 13
Primary sex characteristics: body structures (ovaries, testes, and
external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual characteristics
female breasts and hips, male voice quality and body hair
Landmarks of puberty for boys are first ejaculation at about 14 and first
menstrual period for girls at about 13
Menarche: first menstrual period
Although variation in the timing of growth spurt has little effect in height,
there are psychological consequences
Early maturation is good for boys stronger, more athletic, and tend to
be more popular, self-assured, and independent
Early maturation for girls is stressful; but later when peers catch up,
helps enjoy greater prestige and self-confidence
Reasoning is often self-focused may believe private experiences are
unique and no one understands the feelings
Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder
1. Preconventional morality (before age 9)
Obey to either avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards; If you
don’t feed the dog, he will die; If you do the dishes, you can have
desert
2. Conventional morality (by early adolescence)
Morality evolves to a more conventional level that upholds laws simply
because they are laws and rules; since able to see others’ perspectives,
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follow actions that gain social approval or maintain social order; if you
steal, everyone would think you are a thief
3. Postconventional morality
Those who develop abstract reasoning of formal operational thought;
follow what affirms people’s rights or what one personally perceives as
basic ethical principles; if you steal the drugs, you would not have lived
up to your own ideal; Robin Hood is a hero because he stole from the
rich for the poor
As our thinking matures, our behavior becomes less selfish and more
caring
To refine sense of identity, adolescents in western cultures try out
different “selves”
Different selves gradually reshape to form identity: one’s sense of self;
according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self
by testing and integrating various roles
Identity searching continues past teen years; as it becomes clearer,
self-esteem increases
Erikson contended that after identity stage is developing capacity for
intimacy: ability to form close, loving relationships; primary
developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
As identity is formed, separation from parents occur
Adulthood
Physical abilities peak in early adulthood; world-class sprinters and
swimmers peak in their teens or early twenties; but decline of abilities
not noticed till later in life
Women, because of early maturation, peak earlier than men
Foremost biological sign of aging in women is menopause: time of
natural cessation of menstruation; refers to biological changes a women
experiences as ability to reproduce declines
Menopause does not usually create psychological problems for women
Women’s expectations and attitudes regarding menopause influence its
emotional impact
Men experience decline in sperm count, testosterone level, and speed
of erection and ejaculation
With age, eye’s pupil shrinks and lens becomes less transparent –
reducing light reaching retina
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Disease-fighting immune system weakens more susceptible to life-
threatening disease; but due to lifetime collection of antibodies, less
suffering of short-term ailments
Since early adulthood, small, gradual loss of brain cells, but can be
compensated by active growth of neural connections in people who
remain active
Some do suffer brain ailment such as Alzheimer’s disease: progressive
and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of
memory, reasoning, language, and physical functions; deterioration of
neurons that produce neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Hard for older people to recall meaningless info, but if it is meaningful,
their rich web of existing knowledge helps them catch it
Cross-sectional study: study in which people of different ages are
compared with one another; cross the age groups
Show that younger people do better than older ones
Longitudinal study: research in which same people are restudied and
retested over long period; a group of people for a long time
Show that until late in life, intelligence remains stable
Found that because cross-sectional use people of different eras, other
variables may skew the results; but longitudinal may be at fault as those
who survive the end of test may be the healthiest, smartest
Conclude that whether intelligence increases/decreases depends on
type of intellectual preformance measured
Crystallized intelligence: one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal
skills; tends to increase with age; As time passes, “hardens” = stronger
(increases with time)
Fluid Intelligence: one’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends
to decrease with age
Types of intelligence explain why mathematicians and scientists
produce creative work in early adulthood while those in literature
produce best work in late adulthood
Social clock: culturally preferred timing of social events such as
marriage, parenthood, and retirement
2 basic aspects of lives dominate adulthood: intimacy (forming close
relationships) and generativity (being productive and supporting future
generations)
Children are the most enduring of life changes
When children leave home, the empty nest is for most people a happy
place and they report greater happiness and enjoyment of marriage
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People of all ages report similar levels of happiness and satisfaction
with life; teenagers have quick changing range of moods while adults
have less extreme, but more enduring moods
Death and Dying
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross proposed that terminally ill pass through 5 stages
(Dabda):
Denial; unacceptance of ill
Anger or resentment; Why me?
Bargaining; with God
Depression; loss of everything and everyone
Acceptance; peaceful, accepting one’s fate

Unformatted Attachment Preview

chapter notes for the Psychology, by David G. Myers, 7th Edition Textbook Chapter 04 - Adolescence and Adulthood Adolescence • • • • • • • • • • • • Adolescence: transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence Due to improved nutrition, sexual maturation occurs earlier nowadays Psychologists note that adolescence is often marked by mood swings Begins with puberty: period of sexual maturation, during which one first becomes capable of reproducing; 2-year period of rapid development usually beginning in girls at age 11 and in boys at age 13 Primary sex characteristics: body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual characteristics – female breasts and hips, male voice quality and body hair Landmarks of puberty for boys are first ejaculation at about 14 and first menstrual period for girls at about 13 Menarche: first menstrual period Although variation in the timing of growth spurt has little effect in height, there are psychological consequences Early maturation is good for boys –stronger, more athletic, and tend to be more popular, self-assured, and independent Early maturation for girls is stressful; but later when peers catch up, helps enjoy greater prestige and self-confidence Reasoning is often self-focused –may believe private experiences are unique and no one understands the feelings Kohlberg’s Moral Ladder 1. Preconventional morality (before age 9) • 2. Obey to either avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards; If you don’t feed the dog, he will die; If you do the dishes, you can have desert Conventional morality (by early adolescence) • Morality evolves to a more conventional level that upholds laws simply because they are laws and rules; since able to see others’ perspectives, 1 follow actions that gain social approval or maintain social order; if you steal, everyone would think you are a thief 3. Postconventional morality • • • • • • • Those who develop abstract reasoning of formal operational thought; follow what affirms people’s rights or what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles; if you steal the drugs, you would not have lived up to your own ideal; Robin Hood is a hero because he stole from the rich for the poor As our thinking matures, our behavior becomes less selfish and more caring To refine sense of identity, adolescents in western cultures try out different “selves” Different selves gradually reshape to form identity: one’s sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Identity searching continues past teen years; as it becomes clearer, self-esteem increases Erikson contended that after identity stage is developing capacity for intimacy: ability to form close, loving relationships; primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood As identity is formed, separation from parents occur Adulthood • • • • • • • Physical abilities peak in early adulthood; world-class sprinters and swimmers peak in their teens or early twenties; but decline of abilities not noticed till later in life Women, because of early maturation, peak earlier than men Foremost biological sign of aging in women is menopause: time of natural cessation of menstruation; refers to biological changes a women experiences as ability to reproduce declines Menopause does not usually create psychological problems for women Women’s expectations and attitudes regarding menopause influence its emotional impact Men experience decline in sperm count, testosterone level, and speed of erection and ejaculation With age, eye’s pupil shrinks and lens becomes less transparent – reducing light reaching retina 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Disease-fighting immune system weakens –more susceptible to lifethreatening disease; but due to lifetime collection of antibodies, less suffering of short-term ailments Since early adulthood, small, gradual loss of brain cells, but can be compensated by active growth of neural connections in people who remain active Some do suffer brain ailment such as Alzheimer’s disease: progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical functions; deterioration of neurons that produce neurotransmitter acetylcholine Hard for older people to recall meaningless info, but if it is meaningful, their rich web of existing knowledge helps them catch it Cross-sectional study: study in which people of different ages are compared with one another; cross the age groups Show that younger people do better than older ones Longitudinal study: research in which same people are restudied and retested over long period; a group of people for a long time Show that until late in life, intelligence remains stable Found that because cross-sectional use people of different eras, other variables may skew the results; but longitudinal may be at fault as those who survive the end of test may be the healthiest, smartest Conclude that whether intelligence increases/decreases depends on type of intellectual preformance measured Crystallized intelligence: one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age; As time passes, “hardens” = stronger (increases with time) Fluid Intelligence: one’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease with age Types of intelligence explain why mathematicians and scientists produce creative work in early adulthood while those in literature produce best work in late adulthood Social clock: culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement 2 basic aspects of lives dominate adulthood: intimacy (forming close relationships) and generativity (being productive and supporting future generations) Children are the most enduring of life changes When children leave home, the empty nest is for most people a happy place and they report greater happiness and enjoyment of marriage 3 • People of all ages report similar levels of happiness and satisfaction with life; teenagers have quick changing range of moods while adults have less extreme, but more enduring moods Death and Dying • • • • • • Elisabeth Kubler-Ross proposed that terminally ill pass through 5 stages (Dabda): Denial; unacceptance of ill Anger or resentment; Why me? Bargaining; with God Depression; loss of everything and everyone Acceptance; peaceful, accepting one’s fate 4 Name: Description: ...
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