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FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
1. GENETICS
From the moment of conception when a sperm and ovum fuse, the basic genetic
makeup of an individual is cast.
2. GENDER
Girls are born lighter (by an ounce or two) and shorter (by an inch or two) than boys
tend to keep this height and weight advantage until prepuberty, at which time girls
surge ahead as they begin their puberty growth spurt 6 months to 1 year earlier than
boys by the end of puberty (age 14 to 16 years), boys again tend to be taller and heavier
than girls
3. HEALTH
A child who inherits a genetically transmitted disease may not grow as rapidly or
develop as fully as a healthy child depending on the type of illness and the therapy or
care available
4. REACTION PATTERNS
Each child’s pattern is made up of a combination of nine separate characteristics that
define temperament. These are:
- Activity Level
- Rhythmicity
- Approach
- Adaptability
- Intensity of Reaction
- Distractibility
- Attention Span and Persistence
- Threshold of Response
- Mood Quality
1. ACTIVITY LEVEL
o The level of activity among children differs wifely right from birth
2. RHYTHMICITY
o A child who manifests a regular rhythm in physiologic functions
o Even as infants, they are predictable and easy to care for because their parents
learn early on what to expect from them.
o On the other end of the scale, some children are typically more difficult to care
for because it is difficult to anticipate a schedule for them.
o Parents must constantly adapt their own routine to the child's routine
3. APPROACH
o A child's response on initial contact you a new stimulus
o When introduced to a new situation, some children approach the challenge in an
unruffled manner
o Other children demonstrate withdrawal rather than approach
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4. ADAPTABILITY
o The ability to change one's reaction to stimuli over time. Infants who are
adaptable can change their first reaction to a situation without exhibiting
extreme distress.
5. INTENSITY OF REACTION
o A child who has an intensity of reaction meets new situations with their whole
being.
o Some cry loudly, thrash their arms, and begin temper tantrums when their
diapers are wet, when they are hungry, or when their parents leave them.
o Other children, probably equally frustrated or angry, rarely demonstrate such
over symptoms or have a mild or low intensity reaction to stress
6. DISTRACTIBILITY
o Shift of attention to a new situation
o easily distracted=easy to care for
7. ATTENTION SPAN
o Ability to remain interested in a project or activity for an average length of time
o Vary a great deal among children
8. PERSISTENCE
o The quality that allows someone to continue doing something or trying to do
something even though it is difficult or opposed by other people -degree of
persistence also varies
9. THRESHOLD OF RESPONSE
o The threshold of response is the intensity level of stimulation necessary to evoke
a reaction.
o Children with low threshold need to meet little frustration before they react
o Children with high threshold need intense frustration before they became upset
over situation or with a person
10. MOOD QUALITY
o A child who is always happy and laughing is said to have a positive mood quality.
o Mood quality can make a major difference in the parents' enjoyment of a child.
o Parents' tend to spend more time with a child with a positive mood quality than
with a child who seems always unhappy and whining or has a negative mood
quality.
Nursing Implications and Temperament
Highly active infants are much more difficult for parents to care for, especially if they
demonstrate irregular physiologic rhythms, withdrawal rather than approach, and little
ability to adapt.
Noticing children's temperament as they are admitted to a hospital can help you
anticipate their probable reactions to procedure or pain
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Categories of Temperament
1. EASY CHILD
Most children are in this category.
Rated as easy to care for
Predictable rhythmicity
Mild-to-Moderate intensity of reaction
Overall positive mood quality
2. THE INTERMEDIATE CHILD
Some characteristics of both easy and difficult groups are present
3. THE DIFFICULT CHILD
10% of children fall into this category
Irregular habits
Negative mood quality Withdraw in new situations rather than approach
4. THE SLOW-TO-WARM-UP CHILD
15% of children display this pattern
Inactive
respond slowly to new situations
general negative mood

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FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1. GENETICS ➢ From the moment of conception when a sperm and ovum fuse, the basic genetic makeup of an individual is cast. 2. GENDER ➢ Girls are born lighter (by an ounce or two) and shorter (by an inch or two) than boys tend to keep this height and weight advantage until prepuberty, at which time girls surge ahead as they begin their puberty growth spurt 6 months to 1 year earlier than boys by the end of puberty (age 14 to 16 years), boys again tend to be taller and heavier than girls 3. HEALTH ➢ A child who inherits a genetically transmitted disease may not grow as rapidly or develop as fully as a healthy child depending on the type of illness and the therapy or care available 4. REACTION PATTERNS ➢ Each child’s pattern is made up of a combination of nine separate characteristics that define temperament. These are: - Activity Level - Rhythmicity - Approach - Adaptability - Intensity of Reaction - Distractibility - Attention Span and Persistence - Threshold of Response - Mood Quality 1. ACTIVITY LEVEL o The level of activity among children differs wifely right from birth 2. RHYTHMICITY o A child who manifests a regular rhythm in physiologic functions o Even as infants, they are predictable and easy to care for because their parents learn early on what to expect from them. o On the other end of the scale, some children are typically more difficult to care for because it is difficult to anticipate a schedule for them. o Parents must constantly adapt their own routine to the child's routine 3. APPROACH o A child's response on initial contact you a new stimulus o When introduced to a new situation, some children approach the challenge in an unruffled manner o Other children demonstrate withdrawal rather than approach 4. ADAPTABILITY o The ability to change one's reaction to stimuli over time. Infants who are adaptable can change their first reaction to a situation without exhibiting extreme distress. 5. INTENSITY OF REACTION o A child who has an intensity of reaction meets new situations with their whole being. o Some cry loudly, thrash their arms, and begin temper tantrums when their diapers are wet, when they are hungry, or when their parents leave them. o Other children, probably equally frustrated or angry, rarely demonstrate such over symptoms or have a mild or low intensity reaction to stress 6. DISTRACTIBILITY o Shift of attention to a new situation o easily distracted=easy to care for 7. ATTENTION SPAN o Ability to remain interested in a project or activity for an average length of time o Vary a great deal among children 8. PERSISTENCE o The quality that allows someone to continue doing something or trying to do something even though it is difficult or opposed by other people -degree of persistence also varies 9. THRESHOLD OF RESPONSE o The threshold of response is the intensity level of stimulation necessary to evoke a reaction. o Children with low threshold need to meet little frustration before they react o Children with high threshold need intense frustration before they became upset over situation or with a person 10. MOOD QUALITY o A child who is always happy and laughing is said to have a positive mood quality. o Mood quality can make a major difference in the parents' enjoyment of a child. o Parents' tend to spend more time with a child with a positive mood quality than with a child who seems always unhappy and whining or has a negative mood quality. Nursing Implications and Temperament ✓ Highly active infants are much more difficult for parents to care for, especially if they demonstrate irregular physiologic rhythms, withdrawal rather than approach, and little ability to adapt. ✓ Noticing children's temperament as they are admitted to a hospital can help you anticipate their probable reactions to procedure or pain Categories of Temperament 1. EASY CHILD • Most children are in this category. • Rated as easy to care for • Predictable rhythmicity • Mild-to-Moderate intensity of reaction • Overall positive mood quality 2. THE INTERMEDIATE CHILD • Some characteristics of both easy and difficult groups are present 3. THE DIFFICULT CHILD • 10% of children fall into this category • Irregular habits • Negative mood quality Withdraw in new situations rather than approach 4. THE SLOW-TO-WARM-UP CHILD • 15% of children display this pattern • Inactive • respond slowly to new situations • general negative mood Name: Description: ...
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