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INTRODUCTION TO
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION.
Course content.
1. Introduction:
Definition of environmental pollution.
Types of pollution.
2. Sources and classification of pollution.
Point and non-point sources.
Natural and man-made sources.
3. Air, land and water pollutants, noise pollution and mapping, Dispersion of pollutants.
4. Environmental pollution sampling and analysis.
5. Impacts of pollution on the environment: social and ecological.
6. Pollution control methods for different kinds of pollutants.
7. National and international legislative frame work.
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TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION.
For normal and healthy living, a conducive environment by all living things including human,
livestock, plants, microorganisms and wildlife. The favorable unpolluted environment has
specific composition and when these composition gets changed, by addition of harmful
substances, the environment is called polluted environment and the substances polluting
are referred to as pollutants.
Pollution.
Is undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of any component
of the environment which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life and property.
Environment.
It is the sum total of all conditions and influences which affect the development of life of
organisms on earth. Living organisms vary from the Lowest microorganisms loke bacteria
and fungi to the highest including man.
Elements of environment.
The environment consists broadly of two components. That is;
Living/ biotic. Include plants, microbes, animals.
Non-living/ physical/ abiotic. Include atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere
1) Atmosphere.
Is a mixture gases.
We are atmosphere surrounds they have and protects us by blocking out dangerous race
from the sun. it also absorbs the infrared radiation emitted by the sun and remitted the earth
And thus controls the temperature of the earth.
2) Hydrosphere.
Is a collective term given to all different forms of water. It includes all types of water
resources such as oceans, rivers, lakes,Streams, glaciers and ground water.
The hydro sphere provides an important place for the human beings and animals to
live. they are also nutrients like the nitrates, ammonia ions and other ions dissolved in
water.
3) Lithosphere.
The earth is divided into three main layers;
i. Crust.
ii. Mantle.
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iii. Core.
Lithosphere consists of upper mantle and the crust. The crust consists of rocks and
soil .
4) Biosphere.
Is the life supporting zone of the earth where atmosphere, hydrosphere and
lithosphere meet, interact and make life possible.
TYPES OF POLLUTION.
There are three types of pollution namely:
Land pollution.
Water pollution.
Air pollution.
AIR POLLUTION.
This is an atmospheric condition in which certain harmful substances including the Normal
constituents in excess are present in Concentration which can cause undesirable effects on
man and his environment.
These substances include gases, particulate matter and radioactive substances.
Gas pollutants include oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen, carbon monoxide, volatile organic
compounds mostly hydrocarbons.
Particulate pollutants include smoke, dust, soot, fumes, aerosols, liquid droplets, pollen
grains.
Radioactive pollutants include iodine 131, plutonium 329 among others.
WATER POLLUTION.
This is the alteration in physical, chemical or biological composition of water making it
unsuitable for designated use in its natural state. Most water come fom rivers, oceans, lakes
or ground water sources.
Water is a universal solvent and therefore can easily get polluted. Pollution can be caused
by point and non-point sources.
Point sources are specific sites near water bodies which directly discharge effluents into
them. Major point sources of water pollution are industries, power plants, offshore oil wells.
Non point sources of water pollution include surface runoff from agricultural fields,
overflowing small drains among others.
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The symptoms of water pollution include:
Bad taste of drinking water.
Offensive smells from lakes, rivers and ocean beaches.
Unchecked growth of aquatic weeds in water.
Dead fish floating on water surface.
Oil and grease floating on water surface.
LAND POLLUTION.
This is contamination of soil with sewage sludge, industrial sludge, dumpsite leachates,
agrochemicals and radioactive substances.
Soil pollution sources include:
Indiscriminate dumping of various types of materials especially domestic waste which
include garbage, rubbish materials like glass, plastic, metallic cans, paper.
Leachates from dumping site and sewage tanks.They include discharge of industrial
waste effluents on land, excessive use of pesticides.
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TOPIC 2: SOURCES AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS.
Pollutants are substances, chemicals or factors which cause a potential or actual adverse effect on
the natural quality of any constituent of environment. They can be classified according to:
1. Nature in which they exist when exposed to environment.
Primary pollutants e.g. dust. They are emitted directly from point sources and persist
into the environment in the form they are passed into for instance particulate matter
like ash, smoke, fumes.
Secondary pollutants. These are pollutants that are found by reaction amongst the
primary pollutants for instance ketones. Secondary pollutants are formed from
chemical and photo chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
2. Nature or manner they exist.
Qualitative pollutants. Are those that don’t occur naturally in the environment but are
passed in by human activities e.g. pesticides, fungicides.
Quantitative pollutants. Are those elements that become pollutants only when their
concentration reaches beyond a threshold value in the environment e.g. carbon
dioxide.
3. Nature of degradation.
Biodegradable or degradable pollutants. Are those which are slowly degraded by
microbial action. Pollution results when production exceeds the capacity of the
environment to degrade them.
Non-biodegradable or non-degradable pollutants.Are those that do not get easily
decomposed including waste such as plastic.
SOURCES AND CAUSES OF POLLUTION.
Pollutants are distributed by natural and man-made (anthropogenic sources).
Natural sources of pollution include;
i. Volcanic eruptions releasing harmful gases and volcanic ash.
ii. Forest fires producing some trace gases.
iii. Dust storms
iv. Bacteria, spores, pollen and cysts
v. Biological decay of organic matter in marshy places releasing marsh gas. (Methane).
vi. Radioactive minerals present in Earth’s crust.
Man- made/ anthropogenic sources include;
I. Industrialization.
II. Invention of automobiles.
III. Overpopulation.
IV. Nuclear exploitation.
V. Deforestation.
VI. Construction of buildings, roads and dams.
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VII. Explosives uses in wars.
VIII. Use of fertilizer and pesticides.
IX. Quarrying and mining.
Environmental pollution can be caused by point and non-point sources.
Point sources results from when the contaminants come from a single location for instance
factory producing chemicals.
Non-point source pollution include both water and air pollution from diffuse sources It results
when Pollutants are introduced into the environment over a large wide spread area for
instance acid rain from air can enter the water cycle.
DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS.
This is the process of spreading out pollution over a large area and thus reducing their
concentration.
There are three main physical processes that transport pollutants away from the source
mainly;
i. Advection. This is the horizontal motion and allows movement of pollutants along
with air in the atmosphere or water in a water body. In these cases, pollutants tag
along at a velocity of flowing water or air. Advective transport of Pollutants is
important in that it removes pollutants to a distance from the source and also acts to
dilute the pollutants.
ii. Convection. This is the vertical motion driven by bouyancy. It is a localized
phenomena driven primarily by surface heating. Convective transport of air pollutants
is important in that convection lifts pollutants away from the surface where they
otherwise could be in contact with people, plants and animals. In the rising
convective column, precipitation may form and wash out the soluble pollutants.
iii. Diffusion. This is the process which pollutants molecules move through air or water.
At a given temperature, the molecules have certain energy which keeps them
moving. Diffusion moves pollutants from high concentration to low concentration
hence spreading them out.
EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT.
1. AIR POLLUTION.
a) Human health.
Years of exposure to air pollutants adversely affect human natural defenses and can
result in lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis and damage to air sacs. Long exposure
to carbon dioxide causes suffocation.
Air pollutants such as benzene form unleaded petrol which can cause mutations,
reproductive problems and even cancer.
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b) Plants.
Air pollutants affect plants by entering through the stomata, destroying chrolophyll and affect
photosynthesis.
Pollutants also erode cuticles.
Damage of leaf structure causes necrosis and abscission.
c) Aquatic life.
Air pollutants mixing with rain can cause high acidity in fresh water sources. This affects
aquatic life particularly fish.
d) Materials
Because of corrosiveness, particulates can cause damage to exposed surfaces. Presence
of Sulphur II Oxide and moisture can accelerate corrosion of metallic surfaces due to
formation of sulphuric acid.
e) Environment.
Environmental pollution affects visibility. Pollutants in presence of sunlight produce
photochemical smoke which affect animals and plant health adversely. Green house gases
emitted by various sources cause global warming. Pollutants such as CFCs cause oxygen
depletion.
2. WATER POLLUTION.
Oxygen demanding waste leads to depletion of oxygen in water and thus affect aquatic life
particularly fish population.
Also oxygen depletion helps in release of phosphates from bottom sediments causing
eutrophication. Addition of compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus helps in growth
of algae and other plans which on death and decay consume oxygen of water. Excessive
growth excessive growth Or decomposition of plant material usually changes the
concentration of carbon dioxide which further changes the pH of water.
Water pollution by pathogenic microorganisms spread waterborne diseases such as
cholera, typhoid among others.
Pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides and many other organic and inorganic
compounds are harmful to aquatic organisms.
Non biodegradable toxic compounds, bio magnify in the food chain and cause toxic At
various levels of food chains.
substances like DDT are not soluble in water and have affinity for body lipids. These
substances tend to accumulate in the organisms body and this process is called
bioaccumulation. The concentration of these toxic substances build up to successive
levels of chain and the process is called biomagnification.
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Toxic substances polluting water ultimately affect human health. Some heavy metals such
as Mercury and lead cause various types of diseases.
When present in drinking water, excess nitrates cause blue baby syndrome. This disease
develops when part of haemoglobin is converted into non-functional oxidized form.
Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes defects in teeth and bones.
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9
LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING POLLUTION.
I. United Nations Framework Convection on Climate Change. (UNFCC).
Was created as a cooperative international effort to limit average global temperature
increases and resulting climate change and to cope with the impacts.
The aim of the convection is to stabilize green house gases concentration at a level that
would represent dangerous anthropogenic interferance with the climate system.
The basis of the convection is the global concern over gradual warming of the earth. The
convection on climate change recognizes the climate system is a shared resource
whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon and other
green house gases thus it sets an overall frame work for intergovernmental efforts to
tackle the challenges forced by climate change.
II. Stockholm Convection on Persistent organic pollutants.
This is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that
remain intact in the environment for a long period of time.
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that remain intactly in the
environment for long periods and become widely distributed throughout the environment.
III. Vienna Convection for the protection of Ozone layer.
Concerns was growing that the Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer which protects the
earth against the violent UV radiation was being destroyed and which would cause
damage to human, plants and animals.
IV. Montreal protocol on substances that deplete ozone layer.
This is an international legal framework towards efforts to limit the production and
consumption of the main chemicals that cause the destruction of the earths protective
ozone layer.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. Course content. 1. Introduction: • Definition of environmental pollution. • Types of pollution. 2. Sources and classification of pollution. • Point and non-point sources. • Natural and man-made sources. 3. Air, land and water pollutants, noise pollution and mapping, Dispersion of pollutants. 4. Environmental pollution sampling and analysis. 5. Impacts of pollution on the environment: social and ecological. 6. Pollution control methods for different kinds of pollutants. 7. National and international legislative frame work. TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION. ➢ For normal and healthy living, a conducive environment by all living things including human, livestock, plants, microorganisms and wildlife. The favorable unpolluted environment has specific composition and when these composition gets changed, by addition of harmful substances, the environment is called polluted environment and the substances polluting are referred to as pollutants. Pollution. ➢ Is undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of any component of the environment which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life and property. Environment. ➢ It is the sum total of all conditions and influences which affect the development of life of organisms on earth. Living organisms vary from the Lowest microorganisms loke bacteria and fungi to the highest including man. Elements of environment. ➢ The environment consists broadly of two components. That is; • Living/ biotic. Include plants, microbes, animals. • Non-living/ physical/ abiotic. Include atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere 1) Atmosphere. ➢ Is a mixture gases. ➢ We are atmosphere surrounds they have and protects us by blocking out dangerous race from the sun. it also absorbs the infrared radiation emitted by the sun and remitted the earth And thus controls the temperature of the earth. 2) Hydrosphere. ➢ Is a collective term given to all different forms of water. It includes all types of water resources such as oceans, rivers, lakes,Streams, glaciers and ground water. ➢ The hydro sphere provides an important place for the human beings and animals to live. they are also nutrients like the nitrates, ammonia ions and other ions dissolved in water. 3) Lithosphere. ➢ The earth is divided into three main layers; i. Crust. ii. Mantle. 2 iii. Core. ➢ Lithosphere consists of upper mantle and the crust. The crust consists of rocks and soil . 4) Biosphere. ➢ Is the life supporting zone of the earth where atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere meet, interact and make life possible. TYPES OF POLLUTION. There are three types of pollution namely: ➢ Land pollution. ➢ Water pollution. ➢ Air pollution. AIR POLLUTION. ➢ This is an atmospheric condition in which certain harmful substances including the Normal constituents in excess are present in Concentration which can cause undesirable effects on man and his environment. ➢ These substances include gases, particulate matter and radioactive substances. ➢ Gas pollutants include oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds mostly hydrocarbons. ➢ Particulate pollutants include smoke, dust, soot, fumes, aerosols, liquid droplets, pollen grains. ➢ Radioactive pollutants include iodine 131, plutonium 329 among others. WATER POLLUTION. ➢ This is the alteration in physical, chemical or biological composition of water making it unsuitable for designated use in its natural state. Most water come fom rivers, oceans, lakes or ground water sources. ➢ Water is a universal solvent and therefore can easily get polluted. Pollution can be caused by point and non-point sources. ➢ Point sources are specific sites near water bodies which directly discharge effluents into them. Major point sources of water pollution are industries, power plants, offshore oil wells. ➢ Non point sources of water pollution include surface runoff from agricultural fields, overflowing small drains among others. 3 ➢ The symptoms of water pollution include: • Bad taste of drinking water. • Offensive smells from lakes, rivers and ocean beaches. • Unchecked growth of aquatic weeds in water. • Dead fish floating on water surface. • Oil and grease floating on water surface. LAND POLLUTION. ➢ This is contamination of soil with sewage sludge, industrial sludge, dumpsite leachates, agrochemicals and radioactive substances. ➢ Soil pollution sources include: • Indiscriminate dumping of various types of materials especially domestic waste which include garbage, rubbish materials like glass, plastic, metallic cans, paper. • Leachates from dumping site and sewage tanks.They include discharge of industrial waste effluents on land, excessive use of pesticides. 4 TOPIC 2: SOURCES AND CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTANTS. Pollutants are substances, chemicals or factors which cause a potential or actual adverse effect on the natural quality of any constituent of environment. They can be classified according to: 1. Nature in which they exist when exposed to environment. • Primary pollutants e.g. dust. They are emitted directly from point sources and persist into the environment in the form they are passed into for instance particulate matter like ash, smoke, fumes. • Secondary pollutants. These are pollutants that are found by reaction amongst the primary pollutants for instance ketones. Secondary pollutants are formed from chemical and photo chemical reactions in the atmosphere. 2. Nature or manner they exist. • Qualitative pollutants. Are those that don’t occur naturally in the environment but are passed in by human activities e.g. pesticides, fungicides. • Quantitative pollutants. Are those elements that become pollutants only when their concentration reaches beyond a threshold value in the environment e.g. carbon dioxide. 3. Nature of degradation. • Biodegradable or degradable pollutants. Are those which are slowly degraded by microbial action. Pollution results when production exceeds the capacity of the environment to degrade them. • Non-biodegradable or non-degradable pollutants.Are those that do not get easily decomposed including waste such as plastic. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF POLLUTION. ➢ Pollutants are distributed by natural and man-made (anthropogenic sources). ➢ Natural sources of pollution include; i. Volcanic eruptions releasing harmful gases and volcanic ash. ii. Forest fires producing some trace gases. iii. Dust storms iv. Bacteria, spores, pollen and cysts v. Biological decay of organic matter in marshy places releasing marsh gas. (Methane). vi. Radioactive minerals present in Earth’s crust. ➢ Man- made/ anthropogenic sources include; I. Industrialization. II. Invention of automobiles. III. Overpopulation. IV. Nuclear exploitation. V. Deforestation. VI. Construction of buildings, roads and dams. 5 VII. VIII. IX. Explosives uses in wars. Use of fertilizer and pesticides. Quarrying and mining. ➢ Environmental pollution can be caused by point and non-point sources. ➢ Point sources results from when the contaminants come from a single location for instance factory producing chemicals. ➢ Non-point source pollution include both water and air pollution from diffuse sources It results when Pollutants are introduced into the environment over a large wide spread area for instance acid rain from air can enter the water cycle. DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS. ➢ This is the process of spreading out pollution over a large area and thus reducing their concentration. ➢ There are three main physical processes that transport pollutants away from the source mainly; i. Advection. This is the horizontal motion and allows movement of pollutants along with air in the atmosphere or water in a water body. In these cases, pollutants tag along at a velocity of flowing water or air. Advective transport of Pollutants is important in that it removes pollutants to a distance from the source and also acts to dilute the pollutants. ii. Convection. This is the vertical motion driven by bouyancy. It is a localized phenomena driven primarily by surface heating. Convective transport of air pollutants is important in that convection lifts pollutants away from the surface where they otherwise could be in contact with people, plants and animals. In the rising convective column, precipitation may form and wash out the soluble pollutants. iii. Diffusion. This is the process which pollutants molecules move through air or water. At a given temperature, the molecules have certain energy which keeps them moving. Diffusion moves pollutants from high concentration to low concentration hence spreading them out. EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT. 1. AIR POLLUTION. a) Human health. ➢ Years of exposure to air pollutants adversely affect human natural defenses and can result in lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis and damage to air sacs. Long exposure to carbon dioxide causes suffocation. ➢ Air pollutants such as benzene form unleaded petrol which can cause mutations, reproductive problems and even cancer. 6 b) Plants. ➢ Air pollutants affect plants by entering through the stomata, destroying chrolophyll and affect photosynthesis. ➢ Pollutants also erode cuticles. ➢ Damage of leaf structure causes necrosis and abscission. c) Aquatic life. ➢ Air pollutants mixing with rain can cause high acidity in fresh water sources. This affects aquatic life particularly fish. d) Materials ➢ Because of corrosiveness, particulates can cause damage to exposed surfaces. Presence of Sulphur II Oxide and moisture can accelerate corrosion of metallic surfaces due to formation of sulphuric acid. e) Environment. ➢ Environmental pollution affects visibility. Pollutants in presence of sunlight produce photochemical smoke which affect animals and plant health adversely. Green house gases emitted by various sources cause global warming. Pollutants such as CFCs cause oxygen depletion. 2. WATER POLLUTION. ➢ Oxygen demanding waste leads to depletion of oxygen in water and thus affect aquatic life particularly fish population. ➢ Also oxygen depletion helps in release of phosphates from bottom sediments causing eutrophication. Addition of compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus helps in growth of algae and other plans which on death and decay consume oxygen of water. Excessive growth excessive growth Or decomposition of plant material usually changes the concentration of carbon dioxide which further changes the pH of water. ➢ Water pollution by pathogenic microorganisms spread waterborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid among others. ➢ Pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides and many other organic and inorganic compounds are harmful to aquatic organisms. ➢ Non biodegradable toxic compounds, bio magnify in the food chain and cause toxic At various levels of food chains. ➢ substances like DDT are not soluble in water and have affinity for body lipids. These substances tend to accumulate in the organisms body and this process is called bioaccumulation. The concentration of these toxic substances build up to successive levels of chain and the process is called biomagnification. 7 ➢ Toxic substances polluting water ultimately affect human health. Some heavy metals such as Mercury and lead cause various types of diseases. ➢ When present in drinking water, excess nitrates cause blue baby syndrome. This disease develops when part of haemoglobin is converted into non-functional oxidized form. ➢ Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes defects in teeth and bones. 8 LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING POLLUTION. I. United Nations Framework Convection on Climate Change. (UNFCC). Was created as a cooperative international effort to limit average global temperature increases and resulting climate change and to cope with the impacts. The aim of the convection is to stabilize green house gases concentration at a level that would represent dangerous anthropogenic interferance with the climate system. The basis of the convection is the global concern over gradual warming of the earth. The convection on climate change recognizes the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon and other green house gases thus it sets an overall frame work for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenges forced by climate change. II. Stockholm Convection on Persistent organic pollutants. This is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that remain intact in the environment for a long period of time. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that remain intactly in the environment for long periods and become widely distributed throughout the environment. III. Vienna Convection for the protection of Ozone layer. Concerns was growing that the Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer which protects the earth against the violent UV radiation was being destroyed and which would cause damage to human, plants and animals. IV. Montreal protocol on substances that deplete ozone layer. This is an international legal framework towards efforts to limit the production and consumption of the main chemicals that cause the destruction of the earths protective ozone layer. 9 Name: Description: ...
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