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Human Reproductive System
Date
January 25, 2022
Topic
Human Reproductive System
Class
Science
Questions
Notes
What is human reproduction?
These are the 2 types of
reproduction:
- any form of sexual reproduction
resulting in human fertilization. It typically
involves sexual intercourse between a sexually
mature male and female.
1. Sexual reproduction
- involves two parents
- Sperm fertilizes egg
- Used by animals, flowering plants, some
fungi
- Offspring are identical to parent
- Parents produce reproductive cells
called gametesthat unite to form an offspring.
Gametes are haploid cells. This means they
contain only half the number of chromosomes
found in other cells of the organism. Gametes
are produced by a type of cell division called
meiosis.
2. Asexual reproduction
- involves a single parent
- Single organism makes an
exact copy of itself
- Bacteria, some plants and fungi,
few animals (sponges)
- Offspring are different from parents
All prokaryotes and some eukaryotes
reproduce this way. There are several different
methods of asexual reproduction. They include
binary fission, fragmentation, and budding.
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PARTS OF THE FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
1. Vulva
- the outer part of the female genitals.
- includes the opening of the vagina
(sometimes called the vestibule), the labia
majora (outer lips), the labia minora (inner
lips), and the clitoris. Around the opening
of the vagina, there are 2 sets of skin folds.
The vulva actually includes many different
structures, such as the:
Mons pubis: The mons pubis is a mound of
tissue located on top of the pubic bones.
It’s typically covered in pubic hair.
Labia majora: The labia majora are folds of
skin that are found below the mons
pubis. They cover many other parts of
the vulva.
Labia minora: These are smaller folds of
skin covering the vestibule of the vulva.
Vestibule: This is the area that’s located
between the labia minora. It contains
the opening to the vagina and the
urethra.
Clitoris: Located at the top of the labia
minora, the clitoris is very sensitive to
stimulation.
Bartholin’s glands: These are two small
glands that are located on either side of
the opening of the vagina.
Skene’s glands: These glands are located in
the vagina near the urethra. They may
be part of the G-spot, and play a role in
sexual arousal.
The main functions of the vulva are to:
1. protect the internal parts of the female
reproductive system (labia majora and
minora)
2. play a role in sexual arousal and stimulation
(clitoris)
3. facilitate sex, such as through
providing lubrication (Bartholin’s glands) and
cushioning (mons pubis)
Additionally, the female urethra is also located
in the vulva. This is the opening through
which urine is released.
2. Vagina
- the opening of the vagina is found in the
vestibule of the vulva. The vagina itself is a
muscular tube that extends from this opening
to the lower part of the uterus (cervix).
- The opening of the vagina may be
partially covered by a thin piece of tissue
called the hymen. The hymen can be broken
through things like sex, inserting a tampon, or
physical activities like riding a bike.
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The vagina has several functions, which can
include:
1. serving as the birth canal during childbirth
2. allowing menstrual blood to pass out of your
body during your period
3. Uterus
- The uterus is a muscular, pear-shaped
organ that’s found in the pelvis.
- receives the fertilized egg and
supports its development
during pregnancy.
It’s made up of two major parts:
Cervix: The cervix is the lower portion of
the uterus. It connects the main body of the
uterus with the vagina.
Corpus (body): This is the larger, main
portion of the uterus.
4. Fallopian tubes
- The fallopian tubes connect the uterus
to the ovaries. One fallopian tube is
associated with each ovary.
The fallopian tubes work to transport an
egg from the ovaries to the uterus. Smooth
muscle contractions and the rhythmic
beating of small hair-like structures called
cilia help to keep the egg moving toward the
uterus. Fertilization often occurs in the
fallopian tube.
5. Ovaries
- These are two oval-shaped organs that
are located in your pelvis, on either side of
your uterus.
- The ovaries are connected to the
fallopian tubes, which in turn connect them to
the uterus.
The main function of the ovaries is to:
A. Store and release the ovum/ova or
egg cell. Some of the ova disappear and
others are dormant until each is ripened
and released after puberty.
B. Prod
When you’re born, your ovaries
contain all the eggs you’ll release
throughout your lifetime. Once a month, a
mature egg is released from the ovaries in
a process called ovulation.
The ovaries also produce a variety of
female sex hormones, which are important
for regulating a
woman’s cycle and pregnancy. These
include progesterone and estrogen.
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Menopause
Andropause
Ovulation
Woman’s Cycle
Timeline
8. Ova
- the female reproductive cell
- largest cells on the female body (about
the size of a grain of sand)
- female body is born with all the ova she will
ever have about 200,000 in each ovary
- about 4-00-500 ova mature and are
released over a lifetime.
- is a point in time 12 months after a
woman's last period. The years leading
up to that point, when women may have
changes in their monthly cycles, hot
flashes, or other symptoms, are called
the menopausal transition or
perimenopause. The menopausal
transition most often begins between
ages 45 and 55.
- is a condition that is associated with the
decrease in the male hormone
testosterone. It is unlike menopause in
that the decrease in testosterone and the
development of symptoms is more
gradual than what occurs in women.
Approximately 30% of men in their 50s
will experience symptoms of andropause
caused by low testosterone levels. A
person experiencing andropause may
have a number of symptoms related to
the condition and could be at risk of other
serious health conditions such as
osteoporosis without proper treatment.
- is the process in which a mature egg is
released from the ovary. After it's
released, the egg moves down the
fallopian tube and stays there for 12 to 24
hours, where it can be fertilized.
Day 1 - menstruation begins
Day 5 - menstruation is usually ended
Day 14 - ovum has matured and bursts out
the ovary
Day 15 - after24 hours the egg is done
Day 26 - in the absence of fertilization,
estrogenal progesterone levels drop and
the endometrium lining breaks down
Day 28 - menstruation begins again
Ages 9-12 secondary sex characteristics
appear
Ages 11-14 menstrual cycle begins
Late 20s-30s peak sexual urges
Ages 45-55 menopause (menstrual
cycle stops but sexual urge continues)
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TERMS
Term
Meaning
Sexual reproduction
Process of creating new individual using two parent organisms
Asexual reproduction
Process of creating new individual using one parent organism
Offspring
New organism that results from reproduction
Gamete
Sex cell (in males: sperm; in females: eggs)
Fertilization
The joining of gametes to form a new organism
Zygote
Cell formed during the fusion of two gametes

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Human Reproductive System Date Topic Class January 25, 2022 Human Reproductive System Science Questions What is human reproduction? Notes - any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization. It typically involves sexual intercourse between a sexually mature male and female. 1. These are the 2 types of reproduction: Sexual reproduction - involves two parents - Sperm fertilizes egg - Used by animals, flowering plants, some fungi - Offspring are identical to parent - Parents produce reproductive cells— called gametes—that unite to form an offspring. Gametes are haploid cells. This means they contain only half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism. Gametes are produced by a type of cell division called meiosis. 2. Asexual reproduction - involves a single parent - Single organism makes an exact copy of itself - Bacteria, some plants and fungi, few animals (sponges) - Offspring are different from parents All prokaryotes and some eukaryotes reproduce this way. There are several different methods of asexual reproduction. They include binary fission, fragmentation, and budding. PARTS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1. Vulva - the outer part of the female genitals. - includes the opening of the vagina (sometimes called the vestibule), the labia majora (outer lips), the labia minora (inner lips), and the clitoris. Around the opening of the vagina, there are 2 sets of skin folds. The vulva actually includes many different structures, such as the: Mons pubis: The mons pubis is a mound of tissue located on top of the pubic bones. It’s typically covered in pubic hair. Labia majora: The labia majora are folds of skin that are found below the mons pubis. They cover many other parts of the vulva. Labia minora: These are smaller folds of skin covering the vestibule of the vulva. Vestibule: This is the area that’s located between the labia minora. It contains the opening to the vagina and the urethra. Clitoris: Located at the top of the labia minora, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation. Bartholin’s glands: These are two small glands that are located on either side of the opening of the vagina. Skene’s glands: These glands are located in the vagina near the urethra. They may be part of the G-spot, and play a role in sexual arousal. The main functions of the vulva are to: 1. protect the internal parts of the female reproductive system (labia majora and minora) 2. play a role in sexual arousal and stimulation (clitoris) 3. facilitate sex, such as through providing lubrication (Bartholin’s glands) and cushioning (mons pubis) Additionally, the female urethra is also located in the vulva. This is the opening through which urine is released. 2. Vagina - the opening of the vagina is found in the vestibule of the vulva. The vagina itself is a muscular tube that extends from this opening to the lower part of the uterus (cervix). - The opening of the vagina may be partially covered by a thin piece of tissue called the hymen. The hymen can be broken through things like sex, inserting a tampon, or physical activities like riding a bike. The vagina has several functions, which can include: 1. serving as the birth canal during childbirth 2. allowing menstrual blood to pass out of your body during your period 3. Uterus - The uterus is a muscular, pear-shaped organ that’s found in the pelvis. - receives the fertilized egg and supports its development during pregnancy. It’s made up of two major parts: Cervix: The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus. It connects the main body of the uterus with the vagina. Corpus (body): This is the larger, main portion of the uterus. 4. Fallopian tubes - The fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries. One fallopian tube is associated with each ovary. The fallopian tubes work to transport an egg from the ovaries to the uterus. Smooth muscle contractions and the rhythmic beating of small hair-like structures called cilia help to keep the egg moving toward the uterus. Fertilization often occurs in the fallopian tube. 5. Ovaries - These are two oval-shaped organs that are located in your pelvis, on either side of your uterus. - The ovaries are connected to the fallopian tubes, which in turn connect them to the uterus. The main function of the ovaries is to: A. Store and release the ovum/ova or egg cell. Some of the ova disappear and others are dormant until each is ripened and released after puberty. B. Prod When you’re born, your ovaries contain all the eggs you’ll release throughout your lifetime. Once a month, a mature egg is released from the ovaries in a process called ovulation. The ovaries also produce a variety of female sex hormones, which are important for regulating a woman’s cycle and pregnancy. These include progesterone and estrogen. 8. Ova - the female reproductive cell - largest cells on the female body (about the size of a grain of sand) - female body is born with all the ova she will ever have about 200,000 in each ovary - about 4-00-500 ova mature and are released over a lifetime. Menopause - is a point in time 12 months after a woman's last period. The years leading up to that point, when women may have changes in their monthly cycles, hot flashes, or other symptoms, are called the menopausal transition or perimenopause. The menopausal transition most often begins between ages 45 and 55. Andropause - is a condition that is associated with the decrease in the male hormone testosterone. It is unlike menopause in that the decrease in testosterone and the development of symptoms is more gradual than what occurs in women. Approximately 30% of men in their 50s will experience symptoms of andropause caused by low testosterone levels. A person experiencing andropause may have a number of symptoms related to the condition and could be at risk of other serious health conditions such as osteoporosis without proper treatment. - is the process in which a mature egg is released from the ovary. After it's released, the egg moves down the fallopian tube and stays there for 12 to 24 hours, where it can be fertilized. Ovulation Woman’s Cycle ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ◼ Timeline ◼ ◼ ◼ Day 1 - menstruation begins Day 5 - menstruation is usually ended Day 14 - ovum has matured and bursts out the ovary Day 15 - after24 hours the egg is done Day 26 - in the absence of fertilization, estrogenal progesterone levels drop and the endometrium lining breaks down Day 28 - menstruation begins again Ages 9-12 → secondary sex characteristics appear Ages 11-14 →menstrual cycle begins Late 20s-30s → peak sexual urges Ages 45-55 → menopause (menstrual cycle stops but sexual urge continues) TERMS Term Meaning Sexual reproduction Process of creating new individual using two parent organisms Asexual reproduction Process of creating new individual using one parent organism Offspring New organism that results from reproduction Gamete Sex cell (in males: sperm; in females: eggs) Fertilization The joining of gametes to form a new organism Zygote Cell formed during the fusion of two gametes Name: Description: ...
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