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Title page
Approval page
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
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1.8 Organization of the study
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
4.1 Introductions
4.2 Data analysis
5.1 Introduction
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5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendation
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This study investigates the utilization of digital technologies among Mass
Communication students in Kogi state university. At the dawn of a new era,
vast expansion of human communication is profoundly influencing culture
everywhere. Revolutionary technological changes are only part of what is
happening. Which is unifying humanity and turning it into what is known as
a global village. But it is changed in the concept of global room. Because
recent decades also have witnessed remarkable developments in the
technology of communicating. These includes both the rapid evolution of
previously existing technologies and the emergence of new
telecommunications and technologies, satellites, cable television, fiber
optics, video cassettes, compacts disks, computerized image making and
other computer and digital technology and much more else. Obliviously this
is the age of information technology that information technology brought a
revolution in the field of media industry also.
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1.1 Background of the study
The Information Society or Information Age is a new phenomenon since
1950 which brings with it new challenges as we seek to integrate an
expanding universe of print and multimedia sources into our daily lives. The
two terms often are used to describe a cybernetic society in which there is a
great dependence on the use of computers and data transmission linkages
to generate and transmit information. By contrast, our familiar reference
frame of an industrial society relied on machines to augment human physical
labor to produce goods and services. Now, through a process of continual
change, geographic barriers are being dissolved, businesses are more
interconnected, and relationships between workers and workplace are
changing more rapidly. In the twentieth century there has been a radical
transformation in the role of information in society as well as in the
technology used in its production and dissemination. The swift progress in
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has led to changes that
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are affecting all aspects of our societies and increasingly becoming important
in our daily lives. The impact is in the transformation it has brought in
support of the human day-to-day activities. This has had an impact on real
human cognition and has affected the way we think and in some respects
altered the way we think (Yushau, Mji & Wessels, 2005). Education is one
sector that has benefited most from these advancements. Now, time and
space are no longer barriers to education. In what is now popularly known
as distributed learning, people use a wide range of computing and
communications technology to provide learning opportunities beyond the
time and place constraints of the traditional classroom. As a matter of fact,
the concept of distance learning has been revolutionized to what is now
known as e-learning, blended learning or web-based learning programs.
These technologies have made available different training methods that have
hitherto been difficult for human instructors to use. However, as Papert
(1990) rightly notes “technology is not the cause of anything either positive
or negative, but rather should be thought of as a tool that society can use
to shape the environment” (in Edwards, 2001). However, the real challenge
is how to best utilize these technologies to achieve our educational
objectives. The rationale for internet utilization for academic and research
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purposes stems from the benefits derived, such as free access to online
journals, magazines and other information resources. It has been theorized
(i.e. Technology acceptance model) that the perceived usefulness or
perceived utility is the major rationale for the acceptance of technological
devices such as the internet. The perceived usefulness (PU) is described as
the extent to which a person perceived that utilizing a particular
technological device will improve a given job performance. Whilst perceived
ease of use (PEOU) is the extent a person feels that utilizing a particular
technological device would require less effort, or how well a technological
device can fasten a work without necessarily putting much effort (Tezer and
Soykan, 2017; Davis, 1989). In this regard, Sahin et al. (2010) pointed out
that the use of internet in the educational setting has enabled easy access
to many resources and information sharing. This conforms with Audu’s
(2006) claim that the internet is beneficial in several ways in the academic
settings in terms of providing access to global sources of information and
permitting researchers to discuss and share experiences. Bashir et al. (2008)
noted that educators who advocated for technology integration into the
learning process had the impression that it will improve learning and prepare
students to effectively participate in the twenty-first-century workplace.
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Therefore, information and communication technologies are critical needs of
every member of the society, organizations and governments that must
function effectively in accordance with the dictates of needs of their diverse
publics, customers and stakeholders in an information-driven age. Among
those in dire need of effective appreciation and application of these
technological innovations are, undoubtedly, students of mass
communication. This notwithstanding the level of literacy among mass
communication students in Kogi state, the extent to which these student
utilized these digital technology for academic purposes is questionable. This
is why this study is pertinent.
The study has one main objective, which is divided into general and specific
objective; the general objective is to examine the utilization of digital
technologies among mass communication student, the specific objective are;
i) To examine the impact of utilization of digital technologies on the
academic performance of mass communication students in Kogi
state university
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ii) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between
utilization of digital technologies and academic performance of mass
communication student
iii) To examine the role of ICT on the academic performance of mass
communication students in Kogi state university
iv) To proffer suggested solutions to the identified problem
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid
the completion of the study;
i) Is there any there is any significant relationship between utilization
of digital technologies and academic performance of mass
communication student?
ii) Does utilization of digital technologies have any impact on the
academic performance of mass communication students in Kogi
state university?
iii) Does ICT play any role on the academic performance of mass
communication students in Kogi state university?
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The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid
the completion of the study;
: utilization of digital technologies does not have any impact on the
academic performance of mass communication students in Kogi state
: utilization of digital technologies does have an impact on the academic
performance of mass communication students in Kogi state university
: There is no significant relationship between utilization of digital
technologies and academic performance of mass communication student
: There is a significant relationship between utilization of digital
technologies and academic performance of mass communication student
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of
importance to the student of mass communication as the study seek to
explore the merit of digital technologies utilization on the academic
performance of mass communication students in Kogi state university, the
study will also be useful to the management of Kogi state university as the
study seek to explore the importance of the availability of digital technologies
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in institution of higher learning, as this will directly influence students’
knowledge and utilization of these gadget. The study will also be of
importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic
as the findings will serve as a pathfinder to further research. Finally, the
study will be useful to students, teachers, academia’s and the general public
as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject
matter and also add to knowledge.
The scope of the study covers the utilization of digital technologies among
mass communication students in Kogi state university. Kogi State University,
located at Anyigba, is the state-owned university of Kogi, Nigeria. It was
established in 1999 by Prince Abubakar Audu, the former governor of the
state. At the time of its establishment, it was known as Kogi State University,
It was later named Prince Abubakar Audu University (PAAU) in 2002, after
the then sitting governor of Kogi State, who heralded its establishment, and
later renamed Kogi State University (KSU) in 2003. Professor S.K. Okwute
(Professor of Chemistry) was the pioneer Vice Chancellor (2000-2005) and
currently back to University of Abuja. Professor F.S. Idachaba (OFR),
Professor of Agric-Economics, took over between 2005 and 2008 and then
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retired to work in his foundation (F.S. Idachaba Foundation for Research and
Scholarship) before his death. Professor I. Isah (Professor of Chemical
Pathology), from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, took over in October 2008.
The incumbent Vice Chancellor is Professor M. Abdulkadir. In 2017 the
Academic Staff Union of University (ASUU) KSU chapter was locked in an
industrial crisis with the state government over nonpayment of salaries for
several months. The state government accused the lecturers of politicizing
the industrial dispute and ordered their immediate return to class room or
would their positions declared vacant for fresh applications. After several
days of refusal to return to the class, Governor Bello who is Visitor to the
school announced the proscription of ASUU and its withdrawal from the
national ASUU. But in the course of the study, there are some factors that
limit the scope of the study;
available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider
coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and
examinations with the study.
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FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for
wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other
academic bills to cover.
Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term
for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified
communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers,
as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and
audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and
manipulate information
Digital technologies
The branch of scientific or engineering knowledge that deals with the
creation and practical use of digital or computerized devices, methods,
systems, etc.
Mass communication
Mass communication is the process of imparting and exchanging information
through mass media to large segments of the population
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A student is a person who goes to school and is learning
something. Students can be children, teenagers, or adults who are going to
school, but it may also be other people who are learning, such as in college
or university.
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview,
of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research
question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of
terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the
theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of
related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and
methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data
collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives
summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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2.1 Introduction
In the present existence, the use of digital technologies is comprehensive
and they are being extensively used by individuals in all settings. Digital
technologies create an impact upon what, why, where and how the
individuals learn and who they learn from. The widespread use of digital
technologies is in the form of computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones,
mobile phones and so forth. The main purpose of digital technologies is to
form a connection between the individuals rapidly, effortlessly and cost-
effectively. The individuals get connected to each other with a huge range
of digital services and resources. There are number of benefits of learning
with digital technologies, on the other hand, they are accompanied by some
challenges as well as risks for the learners. The digital challenges are real
and prove to be impediments within the course of attainment of knowledge
and information (Digital Technology, 2015). Measures are required to be
implemented to overcome the problems and challenges associated with
digital technologies.
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The three main digital challenges are, cyber-safety, it involves conduct or
behavioural concerns. Second is, cyber-crime, it involves illegal activity and
the third is cyber-security, it involves unauthorized use of the computer
system. The preventive approaches that individuals need to take into
consideration, when they are make use of digital technologies include,
development of knowledge, skills and abilities for safe and responsible use,
individuals should learn how to manage digital technologies in an appropriate
manner, development of a pro-social culture and co-operation of the whole
community in preventing and responding to the incidents. Online safety of
the students in education and other individuals is the main area that needs
to be taken into consideration. Digital information is different from its
physical counterpart in many ways, it can be rapidly duplicated, distributed
in a manageable way and can be stored in various locations (Digital
Technology, 2015).
The use of digital technology in education is an imperative aspect that has
gained prominence. Digital technology is been utilized not only in higher
education, but at all levels of education, from nursery to the university level.
There have been number of individuals, who feel apprehensive when making
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use of technology, therefore, it is vital that one should possess adequate
skills and abilities when utilising technology. In nursery schools, young
students feel interested and develop curiosity when they observe
technology. At this level, students are shown various pictures or movies on
the internet, they are taught how to draw objects and colour them. As the
individuals get enrolled into formal schooling, they learn how to make use of
the internet to improve their knowledge and understanding. Gradually a
person learns enhanced skills and abilities of how to make use of digital
technology and as they grow, they make use of it in order to implement all
their tasks and operations in an adequate manner. Technology can be made
use of by the individuals in groups and pairs and this is considered as more
effective then single usage (Higgins, Xiao, & Katsipataki, 2012). When
individuals are young, they need guidance and assistance, but as a person
grows older, he is able to make use of it independently.
Digital technology can be competent and valuable with the main
purpose of making improvements within the learning areas (Higgins, Xiao, &
Katsipataki, 2012). For instance, teachers make use of blackboards and write
on them with chalks to provide training and instruction to the students. The
students, who sit at the back of the classroom face problems in observing
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and understanding the concepts. In the present existence, there are usage
of projectors and computers in classrooms, so that students are able to
observe and understand the content in an effectual way. The usage of
technology within classrooms has led to an increase in the enrolment of
students. They have begun to take pleasure in learning and there has also
been a decline in the rate of absenteeism. Remedial and tutorial use of
technology can be particularly practical for the lower attainment of pupils.
The individuals, who have special needs, for who are experiencing visual or
hearing impairments, or those who belong to deprived, marginalized and
socio-economically backward sections of the society, for them, technology
has contributed to a major extent in the enhancement of learning.
In higher educational institutions, individuals are dependent upon
technology to a major extent. It is considered as the lifeline of learning.
When individuals are working on articles, reports, research papers or
research projects, then technology plays an imperative part. Books, journals,
magazines and papers are useful, but individuals possess the viewpoint that
they can gain access to a large amount of information on the internet.
Universities in the present existence have made use of digital technology, so
that individuals can have access to large number of e-journals and e-books
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online. In university education, supervisors normally have busy schedules,
therefore, papers and projects can be emailed to them in order to gain
immediate feedback. The individuals mostly communicate with their
professors and supervisors through email or send them text messages.
Digital technology is considered as the sole catalyst to bring about changes
and transformations within the teaching-learning processes. It has rendered
an efficient contribution in enabling students to improve their grades. The
instructors at all levels of education prepare themselves for class lectures,
lesson plans, assignments, tests and so forth through the use of digital
The benefits of digital technology have been stated as follows:
Innovative pedagogical models, for example based on gaming, online
laboratories and real time assessment, which have been presented to
progress higher order thinking skills and conceptual understanding and in
many cases have led to improvement in the students’ creativity, imagination
and problem solving skills. Through the use of digital technology, students
are able to improve upon their logical reasoning, generate information
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regarding various concepts, improve communication skills and render an
efficient performance in their work (Innovating Education and Educating for
Innovation, 2016).
Simulations such as, remote or virtual online laboratories, provide
moderately low-cost flexible access to experiential learning. Understanding
the education industries in a better way, including their market structures
and innovation processes, would assist to form a more established
relationship with the organizations, these may include, business, service or
educational institutions. Innovation within the industry, which develops the
products and services that could stimulate innovation in the organizations,
does not take place in isolation hence, it is vital to establish an
interconnection between the activities and functions (Innovating Education
and Educating for Innovation, 2016).
Digital technology has facilitated international collaborations. Individuals are
able to communicate with each other even face to face on computers and
mobile devices. This has proved to be beneficial to a large extent for the
elderly individuals, who have the keenness to communicate with their
relatives, who are residing overseas. In this manner, they are able to
overcome all the barriers that arise within communication. In education,