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Chapter Outline and Key Terms for Chapter 4
I. Science, Research, and Theory
a. Distinguished by its method of acquiring knowledge.
b. Theory and tentativeness in science
i. A theory integrates and interprets diverse observations to explain some
phenomenon.
ii. Dopamine theory Drugs that decrease dopamine activity would improve
functioning in schizophrenics.
c. Experimental versus correlational studies
i. A naturalistic observation is when groups are observed with no modification.
ii. A case study is based on results from a single individual.
iii. Experiments are studies where researcher manipulates an independent variable to
produce a change in one or more dependent variables.
iv. In a correlational study, the researcher does not control an independent variable,
but observes whether two variables are related to each other. However, we cannot
infer cause and effect with these studies.
II. Research Techniques
a. Staining and imaging neural tissue makes it possible to visualize neurons, glia and
connections in the brain.
i. Golgi stain Randomly stains a small number of neurons.
ii. Myelin stains identify connections by staining the fatty insulation on axons and
dendrites.
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iii. Nissl stains identify neuron cell bodies.
iv. Anterograde and retrograde stains are taken up at the synapse and transported to
the cell body (fluorogold).
v. Labeling techniques
1. Autoradiography reveals both neuronal anatomy and function.
a. Radioactive sugar is injected, which is taken up by active neurons and
therefore are seen on x-ray devices.
b. Radioactive molecules such as neurotransmitters are injected and bind
to receptors, and are seen on scans.
2. Immunocytochemistry Antibodies are labeled with markers and attach to
receptors on neurons.
3. In situ hybridization labels messenger RNA with radioactive strands of
complementary DNA.
b. Light and electron microscopy
i. Light microscope
1. Good for enlarging material up to 1000x; requires strong light and optics.
2. Includes compound microscope and stereomicroscopes.
ii. Electron microscope
1. Uses electrons for much higher magnification, but requires a computer to
visualize specimens.
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a. Transmission electron microscope passes electrons through a thin layer
of tissue, and different parts allow to pass through or block to produce
image.
b. Scanning electron microscope probes a specimen with an electron
beam, causing it to emit electrons, to form a detailed picture of the
object.
c. Confocal laser scanning and two-photon microscopes image specific
kinds of tissues depending on the fluorescent dye used, and can be used
with thicker tissues.
c. Measuring and manipulating brain activity
1. Electroencephalography (EEG) detects electrical activity of the brain
through electrodes placed on the scalp. Temporal resolution is high, but spatial
resolution is low; EEG is most useful for detecting changes in arousal and
perception.
2. Event-related potential relies on thousands of stimulus presentations to cancel
out background and reveal meaningful changes in brain activity.
d. Stereotaxic instruments, stimulation, and recording techniques
i. A stereotaxic instrument and atlas enable precise location of brain areas for
stimulation or measurement.
ii. Electrodes or cannula are placed in specific areas to record brain activity or to
inject or extract substances.
iii. Microelectrodes record or stimulate the brain electrically.
iv. Cannula Small tube for inserting or removing fluids from the brain in a process
called microdialysis.
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v. Optogenetic techniques use light to stimulate neurons. Beneficial because more
precise and can still record neural activity.
e. Lesions and ablation
i. Targeted modification of nervous tissue, either for scientific purposes or to treat
neurological dysfunction such as epilepsy or cancer.
ii. Ablation is the removal of nervous tissue.
iii. Lesions are the inactivation of nervous tissue through chemicals or electrical
stimulation. Cooling and some chemicals produce reversible lesions.
iv. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a new noninvasive stimulation technique to
induce a voltage in brain tissue.
f. Brain imaging techniques provide a 3-dimensional picture of the brain and body.
i. Computed tomography (CT) uses x-rays to visualize the brain. Fast but low
resolution.
ii. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures radio-frequency waves emitted by
hydrogen atoms subjected to a strong magnetic field.
1. High-resolution image of the brain
2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machines measure brain
activity as well as anatomy, but are expensive and not as fast.
iii. Diffusion tensor imaging maps molecules (such as water) in biological tissues.
iv. Positron emission tomography (PET) requires injection of a radioactive
substance, which is used to image active areas that take up the substance. Needs to
be paired with CT or MRI studies.
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g. Genetic and heredity studies
i. Family studies determine how strongly a trait is shared among relatives.
ii. Adoption studies compare similarity of traits between individuals and their
adoptive and biological parents.
iii. Twin studies compare similarity of traits between identical and fraternal twins or
identical twins and non-twin siblings.
iv. Analysis of studies
1. Correlation is degree of relationship between two variables.
2. Concordance rate is the frequency with which relatives are alike.
v. Genetic engineering manipulates an individual’s genes directly.
1. Knockout techniques inactivate a gene by placing a mutation in the gene that
prevents it from functioning.
2. The antisense RNA procedure blocks a specific messenger RNA in protein
construction by inserting strands of complimentary RNA into an animal, which
causes the cell to release enzyme to destroy the RNA it binds to.
3. Gene transfer inserts the genes of one individual into another, sometimes
called a mosaic.
III. Research Ethics
a. Plagiarism and fabrication
i. Plagiarism is taking another person’s ideas, usually by not properly referencing
someone else’s work.
ii. Fabrication is the use of manipulated, falsified, or created information.
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b. Protecting the welfare of research participants
i. Research with humans
1. Informed consent is voluntary agreement to participate in a research study
following full disclosure of the adverse effects, risks or consequences of the
study.
2. Deception, which is allowed only if required by the study goals, involves
misinforming or simply not notifying participants of some aspect of the study.
ii. Research with animals
1. Animals are used because most aspects of their life and experiences can be
controlled, they are cognitively simpler, and most researchers consider it more
ethical to subject animals to physiological treatments than humans.
2. Activity at the institutional, local, state, and federal levels are highly regulated
by animal care and use committees.
iii. Gene therapy is the treatment of disorders through manipulating genes.
1. Functional genes are injected into the body; they are inserted in viruses, which
can be dangerous.
2. Very expensive and risky.
iv. Stem cell therapy is the injection of undifferentiated cells into a damaged brain (or
other area) in the hopes that the cells will develop into appropriate tissue (such as
neurons) and restore function.
1. Controversial since one source of stem cells is fetal tissue.
2. Has been successful in treating leukemia, spinal cord damage, brain damage,
and other defects.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Chapter Outline and Key Terms for Chapter 4 I. Science, Research, and Theory a. Distinguished by its method of acquiring knowledge. b. Theory and tentativeness in science i. A theory integrates and interprets diverse observations to explain some phenomenon. ii. Dopamine theory – Drugs that decrease dopamine activity would improve functioning in schizophrenics. c. Experimental versus correlational studies i. A naturalistic observation is when groups are observed with no modification. ii. A case study is based on results from a single individual. iii. Experiments are studies where researcher manipulates an independent variable to produce a change in one or more dependent variables. iv. In a correlational study, the researcher does not control an independent variable, but observes whether two variables are related to each other. However, we cannot infer cause and effect with these studies. II. Research Techniques a. Staining and imaging neural tissue makes it possible to visualize neurons, glia and connections in the brain. i. Golgi stain – Randomly stains a small number of neurons. ii. Myelin stains identify connections by staining the fatty insulation on axons and dendrites. 1 iii. Nissl stains identify neuron cell bodies. iv. Anterograde and retrograde stains are taken up at the synapse and transported to the cell body (fluorogold). v. Labeling techniques 1. Autoradiography reveals both neuronal anatomy and function. a. Radioactive sugar is injected, which is taken up by active neurons and therefore are seen on x-ray devices. b. Radioactive molecules such as neurotransmitters are injected and bind to receptors, and are seen on scans. 2. Immunocytochemistry – Antibodies are labeled with markers and attach to receptors on neurons. 3. In situ hybridization labels messenger RNA with radioactive strands of complementary DNA. b. Light and electron microscopy i. Light microscope 1. Good for enlarging material up to 1000x; requires strong light and optics. 2. Includes compound microscope and stereomicroscopes. ii. Electron microscope 1. Uses electrons for much higher magnification, but requires a computer to visualize specimens. 2 a. Transmission electron microscope passes electrons through a thin layer of tissue, and different parts allow to pass through or block to produce image. b. Scanning electron microscope probes a specimen with an electron beam, causing it to emit electrons, to form a detailed picture of the object. c. Confocal laser scanning and two-photon microscopes image specific kinds of tissues depending on the fluorescent dye used, and can be used with thicker tissues. c. Measuring and manipulating brain activity 1. Electroencephalography (EEG) detects electrical activity of the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp. Temporal resolution is high, but spatial resolution is low; EEG is most useful for detecting changes in arousal and perception. 2. Event-related potential relies on thousands of stimulus presentations to cancel out background and reveal meaningful changes in brain activity. d. Stereotaxic instruments, stimulation, and recording techniques i. A stereotaxic instrument and atlas enable precise location of brain areas for stimulation or measurement. ii. Electrodes or cannula are placed in specific areas to record brain activity or to inject or extract substances. iii. Microelectrodes record or stimulate the brain electrically. iv. Cannula – Small tube for inserting or removing fluids from the brain in a process called microdialysis. 3 v. Optogenetic techniques use light to stimulate neurons. Beneficial because more precise and can still record neural activity. e. Lesions and ablation i. Targeted modification of nervous tissue, either for scientific purposes or to treat neurological dysfunction such as epilepsy or cancer. ii. Ablation is the removal of nervous tissue. iii. Lesions are the inactivation of nervous tissue through chemicals or electrical stimulation. Cooling and some chemicals produce reversible lesions. iv. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a new noninvasive stimulation technique to induce a voltage in brain tissue. f. Brain imaging techniques provide a 3-dimensional picture of the brain and body. i. Computed tomography (CT) uses x-rays to visualize the brain. Fast but low resolution. ii. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures radio-frequency waves emitted by hydrogen atoms subjected to a strong magnetic field. 1. High-resolution image of the brain 2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machines measure brain activity as well as anatomy, but are expensive and not as fast. iii. Diffusion tensor imaging maps molecules (such as water) in biological tissues. iv. Positron emission tomography (PET) requires injection of a radioactive substance, which is used to image active areas that take up the substance. Needs to be paired with CT or MRI studies. 4 g. Genetic and heredity studies i. Family studies determine how strongly a trait is shared among relatives. ii. Adoption studies compare similarity of traits between individuals and their adoptive and biological parents. iii. Twin studies compare similarity of traits between identical and fraternal twins or identical twins and non-twin siblings. iv. Analysis of studies 1. Correlation is degree of relationship between two variables. 2. Concordance rate is the frequency with which relatives are alike. v. Genetic engineering manipulates an individual’s genes directly. 1. Knockout techniques inactivate a gene by placing a mutation in the gene that prevents it from functioning. 2. The antisense RNA procedure blocks a specific messenger RNA in protein construction by inserting strands of complimentary RNA into an animal, which causes the cell to release enzyme to destroy the RNA it binds to. 3. Gene transfer inserts the genes of one individual into another, sometimes called a mosaic. III. Research Ethics a. Plagiarism and fabrication i. Plagiarism is taking another person’s ideas, usually by not properly referencing someone else’s work. ii. Fabrication is the use of manipulated, falsified, or created information. 5 b. Protecting the welfare of research participants i. Research with humans 1. Informed consent is voluntary agreement to participate in a research study following full disclosure of the adverse effects, risks or consequences of the study. 2. Deception, which is allowed only if required by the study goals, involves misinforming or simply not notifying participants of some aspect of the study. ii. Research with animals 1. Animals are used because most aspects of their life and experiences can be controlled, they are cognitively simpler, and most researchers consider it more ethical to subject animals to physiological treatments than humans. 2. Activity at the institutional, local, state, and federal levels are highly regulated by animal care and use committees. iii. Gene therapy is the treatment of disorders through manipulating genes. 1. Functional genes are injected into the body; they are inserted in viruses, which can be dangerous. 2. Very expensive and risky. iv. Stem cell therapy is the injection of undifferentiated cells into a damaged brain (or other area) in the hopes that the cells will develop into appropriate tissue (such as neurons) and restore function. 1. Controversial since one source of stem cells is fetal tissue. 2. Has been successful in treating leukemia, spinal cord damage, brain damage, and other defects. 6 Name: Description: ...
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