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Copyright © 2018 Wiley Kieso, IFRS, 3/e, Solutions Manual (For Instructor Use Only) 1-1
CHAPTER 1
Financial Reporting and Accounting Standards
ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE
Topics
Questions
Concepts for
Analysis
1.
Global markets and financial reporting.
1, 2, 3, 4
4
2.
Objective of financial reporting.
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
2, 3
3.
Standard-setting organizations.
11, 12, 13, 14,
15, 16, 17, 18
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9,
11
4.
Financial reporting challenges.
19, 20, 21, 22,
23, 24, 25
3, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12
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1-2 Copyright © 2018 Wiley Kieso, IFRS, 3/e, Solutions Manual (For Instructor Use Only)
ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE
Item
Level of
Difficulty
Time
(minutes)
CA1.1
Simple
510
CA1.2
Simple
510
CA1.3
Simple
1520
CA1.4
Simple
1520
CA1.5
Simple
1520
CA1.6
Simple
1520
CA1.7
Simple
1015
CA1.8
Complex
1520
CA1.9
Simple
1015
CA1.10
Moderate
1015
CA1.11
Complex
2025
CA1.12
Moderate
2535
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Copyright © 2018 Wiley Kieso, IFRS, 3/e, Solutions Manual (For Instructor Use Only) 1-3
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
1. World markets are becoming increasingly intertwined. The tremendous variety and volume of both
exported and imported goods indicates the extensive involvement in international trade. As a
result, the move towards adoption of international financial reporting standards has and will continue
in the future.
LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
2. Financial accounting measures, classifies, and summarizes in report form those activities and that
information which relate to the enterprise as a whole for use by parties both internal and external
to a business enterprise. Managerial accounting also measures, classifies, and summarizes in report
form enterprise activities, but the communication is for the use of internal, managerial parties, and
relates more to subsystems of the entity. Managerial accounting is management decision oriented
and directed more toward product line, division, and profit center reporting.
LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
3. Financial statements generally refer to the four basic financial statements: statement of financial
position, statement of comprehensive income, statement of cash flows, and statement of changes in
equity. Financial reporting is a broader concept; it includes the basic financial statements and any
other means of communicating financial and economic data to interested external parties.
LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
4. If a company’s financial performance is measured accurately, fairly, and on a timely basis, the right
managers and companies are able to attract investment capital. To provide unreliable and irrelevant
information leads to poor capital allocation which adversely affects the securities market.
LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
5. A single set of high quality accounting standards ensures adequate comparability. Investors are
able to make better investment decisions if they receive financial information from a U.S. company
that is comparable to an international competitor.
LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
6. The objective of general-purpose financial reporting is to provide financial information about the
reporting entity that is useful to present and potential equity investors, lenders, and other creditors
in making decisions in about providing resources to the entity.
LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
7. General-purpose financial statements provide financial reporting information to a wide variety of
users. To be cost effective in providing this information, general-purpose financial statements
provide at the least cost the most useful information possible.
LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
8. Shareholders, creditors, suppliers, employees, and regulators all use general-purpose financial
statements. The primary user group is capital providers (shareholders and creditors).
LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
9. The proprietary perspective is not considered appropriate because this perspective generally does
not reflect a realistic view of the financial reporting environment. Instead the entity perspective
is adopted which is consistent with the present business environment where most companies
engaged in financial reporting have substance separate and distinct from their owners.
LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
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Questions Chapter 1 (Continued)
10. This statement is not correct. The objective of financial reporting is primarily to provide information
to investors interested in assessing the company’s ability to generate net cash inflows and
management’s ability to protect and enhance the capital providers’ investments. Financial
reporting should help investors assess the amounts, timing and uncertainty of prospective cash
inflows.
LO: 2, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
11. The two organizations involved in international standard-setting are IOSCO (International Organi-
zation of Securities Commissions) and the IASB (International Accounting Standards Board.) The
IOSCO does not set accounting standards, but ensures that the global markets can operate in an
efficient and effective manner. Conversely, the IASB’s mission is to develop a single set of high
quality, enforceable and global financial reporting standards (IFRSs) for general-purpose financial
statements.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
12. IOSCO is an association of organizations that regulate the worlds securities markets. Members
are generally the main financial regulators for a given country. IOSCO does not set accounting
standards.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
13. The mission of the IASB is to develop, in the public interest, a single set of high quality,
enforceable global international financial reporting standards (IFRSs) for general-purpose financial
statements.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
14. The purpose of the Monitoring Board is to establish a link between accounting standard-setters
and those public authorities (such as IOSCO) that generally oversee accounting standard-setters.
This board also provides political legitimacy to the overall organization.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
15. The IASB preliminary views are based on research and analysis conducted by the IASB staff.
IASB exposure drafts are issued after the Board evaluates research and public response to
preliminary views. IASB standards are issued after the Board evaluates responses to the exposure
draft.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
16. IASB International Financial Reporting Standards are financial accounting standards issued by the
IASB and are referred to as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The IFRS
Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting sets forth fundamental objectives and concepts
that the Board uses in developing future standards of financial reporting. The intent of the
Conceptual Framework is to form a cohesive set of interrelated concepts that will serve as tools for
solving existing and emerging problems in a consistent manner.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
17. International Financial Reporting Standards are the most authoritative, followed by International
Financial Reporting Standard Interpretations then the Conceptual Framework.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
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Questions Chapter 1 (Continued)
18. The International Financial Reporting Standards Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) applies a
principles-based approach in providing interpretative guidance. The IFRIC issues interpretations
that cover newly identified financial reporting issues not specifically dealt with in IFRS, and issues
where conflicting interpretations have developed, or seem likely to develop in the absence of
authoritative guidance.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
19. Some major challenges facing the accounting profession relate to the following items:
Nonfinancial measurementhow to report significant key performance measurements such as
customer satisfaction indexes, backlog information and reject rates on goods purchased.
Forward-looking informationhow to report more future oriented information.
Soft assetshow to report on intangible assets, such as market know-how, market dominance,
and well-trained employees.
Timelinesshow to report more real-time information.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
20. The sources of pressure are innumerable, but the most intense and continuous pressure to change
or influence the development of IFRS come from individual companies, industry associations,
governmental agencies, practicing accountants, academicians, professional accounting organizations,
and investing public.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
21. Economic consequences means the impact of accounting reports on the wealth positions of issuers
and users of financial information and the decision-making behavior resulting from that impact. In
other words, accounting information impacts various users in many different ways which leads to
wealth transfers among these various groups.
If politics plays an important role in the development of accounting rules, the rules will be subject
to manipulation for the purpose of furthering whatever policy prevails at the moment. No matter
how well intentioned the rule maker may be, if information is designed to indicate that investing in
a particular enterprise involves less risk than it actually does, or is designed to encourage invest-
ment in a particular segment of the economy, financial reporting will suffer an irreplaceable loss of
credibility.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
22. No one particular proposal is expected in answer to this question. The students proposals, however,
should be defensible relative to the following criteria:
(1) The method must be efficient, responsive, and expeditious.
(2) The method must be free of bias and be above or insulated from pressure groups.
(3) The method must command widespread support if it does not have legislative authority.
(4) The method must produce sound yet practical accounting principles or standards.
The students’ proposals might take the form of alterations of the existing methodology, an accoun-
ting court (as proposed by Leonard Spacek), or governmental device.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
23. Concern exists about fraudulent financial reporting because it can undermine the entire financial
reporting process. Failure to provide information to users that is accurate can lead to inappropriate
allocations of resources in our economy. In addition, failure to detect massive fraud can lead to
additional governmental oversight of the accounting profession.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
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Questions Chapter 1 (Continued)
24. The expectations gap is the difference between what people think accountants should be doing and
what accountants think they can do. It is a difficult gap to close. The accounting profession recognizes
it must play an important role in narrowing this gap. To meet the needs of society, the profession is
continuing its efforts in developing accounting standards, such as numerous pronouncements issued
by the IASB, to serve as guidelines for recording and processing business transactions in the
changing economic environment.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
25. Accountants must perceive the moral dimensions of some situations because IFRS does not
define or cover all specific features that are to be reported in financial statements. In these
instances, accountants must choose among alternatives. These accounting choices influence
whether particular stakeholders may be harmed or benefited. Moral decision-making involves
awareness of potential harm or benefit and taking responsibility for the choices.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 3-5, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
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Copyright © 2018 Wiley Kieso, IFRS, 3/e, Solutions Manual (For Instructor Use Only) 1-7
TIME AND PURPOSE OF CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS
CA 1.1 (Time 510 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to answer questions about IFRS and standard-
setting.
CA 1.2 (Time 510 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to answer questions about IFRS and standard-
setting.
CA 1.3 (Time 1520 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to answer questions about financial reporting and
standard-setting.
CA 1.4 (Time 1520 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to distinguish between financial accounting and
managerial accounting, identify major financial statements, and differentiate financial statements and
financial reporting.
CA 1.5 (Time 1520 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to evaluate the viewpoint of removing mandatory
accounting rules and allowing each company to voluntarily disclose the information it desired.
CA 1.6 (Time 1520 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to identify the sponsoring organization of the IASB,
the method by which the IASB arrives at a decision, and the types and the purposes of documents
issued by the IASB.
CA 1.7 (Time 1015 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to describe how reported accounting numbers
might affect an individual’s perceptions and actions.
CA 1.8 (Time 1520 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to focus on the types of organizations involved in
the rule making process, what impact accounting has on the environment, and the environment’s
influence on accounting.
CA 1.9 (Time 1015 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to focus on what type of rule-making environment
exists. In addition, this CA explores why user groups are interested in the nature of IFRS and why some
groups wish to issue their own rules.
CA 1.10 (Time 1015 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with the opportunity to discuss the role of government officials in
accounting rule-making.
CA 1.11 (Time 2025 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with an opportunity to consider the ethical dimensions of implementation
of a new accounting pronouncement.
CA 1.12 (Time 2535 minutes)
Purposeto provide the student with a writing assignment concerning the ethical issues related to
meeting earnings targets.
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1-8 Copyright © 2018 Wiley Kieso, IFRS, 3/e, Solutions Manual (For Instructor Use Only)
SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS FOR ANALYSIS
CA 1.1
1. True.
2. False. Any company claiming compliance with IFRS must comply with all standards and inter-
pretations, including disclosure requirements.
3. False. The IFRS advisory council provides advice and council to the IASB on major policies and
technical issues. It is not a governmental body
4. True.
5. False. The IASB has no government mandate and does follow a due process in issuing IFRS.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 5-10, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.2
1. False. The objective emphasizes an entity perspective.
2. False. The objective of financial reporting is to provide financial information about the reporting
entity that is useful to present and potential equity investors, lenders, and other creditors in making
decisions in their capacity as capital providers.
3. False. International Accounting Standards were issued by the International Accounting Standards
Committee while International Financial Reporting Standards are issued by the IASB. Both have
authoritative support.
4. True.
LO: 2,3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 5-10, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.3
1. (c); 2. (d); 3. (c); 4. (d); 5. (b); 6. (a); 7. (a); 8. (b); 9. (d); 10. (b).
LO: 2,3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 15-20, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.4
(a) Financial accounting is the process that culminates in the preparation of financial reports relative to
the enterprise as a whole for use by parties both internal and external to the enterprise. In contrast,
managerial accounting is the process of identification, measurement, accumulation, analysis, prepa-
ration, interpretation, and communication of financial information used by the management to plan,
evaluate, and control within an organization and to assure appropriate use of, and accountability for,
its resources.
(b) The financial statements most frequently provided are the statement of financial position, the
statement of comprehensive income, the statement of cash flows, and the statement of changes in
equity.
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CA 1.4 (Continued)
(c) Financial statements are the principal means through which financial information is communicated to
those outside an enterprise. As indicated in (b), there are four major financial statements. However,
some financial information is better provided, or can be provided only, by means of financial
reporting other than formal financial statements. Financial reporting (other than financial statements
and related notes) may take various forms. Examples include the company president’s letter or
supplementary schedules in the corporate annual reports, prospectuses, reports filed with govern-
ment agencies, news releases, management’s forecasts, and descriptions of an enterprise’s social
or environmental impact.
LO: 1, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 15-20, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.5
It is not appropriate to abandon mandatory accounting rules and allow each company to voluntarily
disclose the type of information it considered important. Without a coherent body of accounting theory
and standards, each accountant or enterprise would have to develop its own theory structure and set of
practices, and readers of financial statements would have to familiarize themselves with every company’s
peculiar accounting and reporting practices. As a result, it would be almost impossible to prepare state-
ments that could be compared.
In addition, voluntary disclosure may not be an efficient way of disseminating information. A company is
likely to disclose less information if it has the discretion to do so. Thus, the company can reduce its cost
of assembling and disseminating information. However, an investor wishing additional information has
to pay to receive additional information desired. Different investors may be interested in different types
of information. Since the company may not be equipped to provide the requested information, it would
have to spend additional resources to fulfill such needs; or the company may refuse to furnish such
information if it’s too costly to do so. As a result, investors may not get the desired information or they
may have to pay a significant amount of money for it. Furthermore, redundancy in gathering and
distributing information occurs when different investors ask for the same information at different points
in time. To the society as a whole, this would not be an efficient way of utilizing resources.
LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 15-20, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.6
(a) The International Financial Reporting Standards Committee Foundation (The Foundation) is the
sponsoring organization of the IASB. The Foundation selects the members of the IASB and the
Advisory Council, funds their activities, and generally oversees the IASB’s activities.
The IASB follows a due process in establishing a typical International Financial Reporting Standard.
The following steps are usually taken: (1) A topic or project is identified and placed on the Board’s
agenda. (2) Research and analysis are conducted by the IASB and a preliminary views document is
drafted and released. (3) A public hearing is often held. (4) The Board analyzes and evaluates the
public response and issues an exposure draft. (5) The Board studies the exposure draft in relation to
the public responses, revises the draft if necessary, gives the revised draft final consideration and
votes on issuance of an IFRS. The passage of a new accounting standard in the form of an IASB
Standard requires the support of six of the eleven Board members.
(b) The IASB issues three major types of pronouncements: International financial reporting standards,
conceptual framework for financial reporting, and International financial reporting standards
interpretations. Financial reporting standards issued by the IASB are referred to as International
Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
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CA 1.6 (Continued)
The International Accounting Standards Committee (IASB predecessor) issued a document
entitled “Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements.” This framework
sets forth fundamental objectives and concepts that the Board uses in developing future standards
of financial reporting. The intent of the document is to form a cohesive set of interrelated concepts,
a conceptual framework, that will serve as tools for solving existing and emerging problems in a
consistent manner.
Interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Standards Interpretations Committee
(The Interpretations Committee) are also considered authoritative and cover (1) newly identified
financial reporting issues not specifically dealt with in IFRS, and (2) issues where unsatisfactory or
conflicting interpretations have developed, or seem likely to develop in the absence of authoritative
guidance.
The Interpretations Committee can address controversial accounting problems as they arise. It
determines whether it can quickly resolve them, or whether to involve the IASB in solving them. The
IASB will hopefully work on more pervasive long-term problems, while the Interpretations Committee
deals with short-term emerging issues.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 15-20, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.7
Accounting numbers affect investing decisions. Investors, for example, use the financial statements of
different companies to enhance their understanding of each company’s financial strength and operating
results. Because these statements follow international accounting standards, investors can make
meaningful comparisons of different financial statements to assist their investment decisions.
Accounting numbers also influence creditors decisions. A commercial bank usually looks into a company’s
financial statements and past credit history before deciding whether to grant a loan and in what amount.
The financial statements provide a fair picture of the company’s financial strength (for example, short-
term liquidity and long-term solvency) and operating performance for the current period and over a
period of time. The information is essential for the bank to ensure that the loan is safe and sound.
LO: 4, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 10-15, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.8
(a) Arguments for politicalization of the accounting standard-setting process:
1. Accounting depends in large part on public confidence for its success. Consequently, the
critical issues are not solely technical, so all those having a bona fide interest in the output of
accounting should have some influence on that output.
2. There are numerous conflicts between the various interest groups. In the face of this, compro-
mise is necessary, particularly since the critical issues in accounting are value judgments, not
the type which are solvable, as we have traditionally assumed, using deterministic models. Only
in this way (reasonable compromise) will the financial community have confidence in the fairness
and objectivity of accounting standard-setting.
3. Over the years, accountants have been unable to establish, on the basis of technical accoun-
ting elements, standards which would bring about the desired uniformity and acceptability. This
inability itself indicates standard-setting is primarily consensual in nature.
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CA 1.8 (Continued)
4. The public accounting profession made rules which business enterprises and individuals “had” to follow. For
many years, these businesses and individuals had little say as to what the standards would be, in spite of
the fact that their economic well-being was influenced to a substantial degree by those standards. It is only
natural that they would try to influence or control the factors that determine their economic well-being.
(b) Arguments against the politicalization of the accounting standard-setting process:
1. Many accountants feel that accounting is primarily technical in nature. Consequently, they feel
that substantive, basic research by objective, independent and fair-minded researchers ultimately
will result in the best solutions to critical issues, such as the concepts of income and capital,
even if it is accepted that there isn’t necessarily a single “right” solution.
2. Even if it is accepted that there are no “absolute truthsas far as critical issues are concerned,
many feel that professional accountants, taking into account the diverse interests of the various
groups using accounting information, are in the best position, because of their independence,
education, training, and objectivity, to decide what international financial reporting standards
ought to be.
3. The complex situations that arise in the business world require that trained accountants develop
the appropriate reporting standards.
4. The use of consensus to develop reporting standards would decrease the professional status
of the accountant.
5. This approach would lead to “lobbying” by various parties to influence the establishment of
reporting standards.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Complex, Time: 15-20, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.9
(a) Most believe the IASB process is a public private mixed approach. In many respects, the IASB is a
quasi-governmental agency in that its pronouncements are required to be followed in some
jurisdictions. For example, all public European companies are required to use IASB standards when
preparing financial statements. In fact, both the FASB and the IASB believe that IFRS has the best
potential to provide a common platform on which companies can report and investors can compare
financial information. The purely political approach is used in France and West Germany. The private,
professional approach is employed in Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
(b) Publicly reported accounting numbers influence the distribution of scarce resources. Resources are
channeled where needed at returns commensurate with perceived risk. Thus, reported accounting
numbers have economic effects in that resources are transferred among entities and individuals as a
consequence of these numbers. It is not surprising then that individuals affected by these numbers
will be extremely interested in any proposed changes in the financial reporting environment.
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 10-15, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.10
President Sarkozy put pressure on the IASB to craft fair value standards that favor banks. However,
by introducing politics into the standard-setting process will likely lead to the following
consequences:
1. Too many alternatives.
2. Lack of clarity that will lead to inconsistent application.
3. Lack of disclosure that reduces transparency.
4. Not comprehensive in scope.
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CA 1.10 (Continued)
When the resulting standards have these attributes, they will be of lower quality and the credibility
of the standard-setting process will be questioned. At the extreme, market participants will have
less confidence in accounting information and capital markets will be less liquidcost of capital
will be higher. Another indication of the problem of government intervention is shown in the
accounting standards used by some countries around the world. Completeness and transparency
of information needed by investors and creditors is not available in order to meet or achieve other
objectives. In the fair value case, the IASB did respond by accelerating its process to develop a
new standard, which provided some exceptions to the fair value accounting that benefited some
banks and insurance companies.
LO: 4, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Moderate, Time: 10-15, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
CA 1.11
(a) Inclusion or omission of information that materially affects net income harms particular stakeholders.
Accountants must recognize that their decision to implement (or delay) reporting requirements will
have immediate consequences for some stakeholders.
(b) Yes. Because the IASB rule results in a fairer representation, it should be implemented as soon as
possibleregardless of its impact on net income.
(c) The controller’s responsibility is to provide financial statements that present fairly the financial
condition of the company. By advocating early implementation, Weller fulfills this task.
(d) Potential lenders and investors, who read the financial statements and rely on their fair
representation of the financial condition of the company, have the most to gain by early
implementationthey would be most directly harmed by deferral of implementation. At the same
time, a shareholder who is considering the sale of shares may be harmed by early implementation
that lowers net income (and may lower the value of the shares). If employee bonuses are based
on the reported income number, the employees could receive lower bonuses with early
implementation.
LO: 3, Bloom: AP, Difficulty: Complex, Time: 20-25, AACSB: Ethics, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication, Legal
CA 1.12
(a) The ethical issue in this case relates to making questionable entries to meet expected earnings
forecasts. As indicated in this chapter, businesses’ concentration on “maximizing the bottom line,”
“facing the challenges of competition,” and “stressing short-term results” places accountants in an
environment of conflict and pressure.
(b) Given that Normand has pleaded guilty, he certainly acted improperly. Doing the right thing, making
the right decision, is not always easy. Right is not always obvious, and the pressures to “bend the
rules,” “to play the game,“to just ignore it” can be considerable.
(c) No doubt, Normand was in a difficult position. I am sure that he was concerned that if he failed to
go along, it would affect his job performance negatively or that he might be terminated. These job
pressures, time pressures, peer pressures often lead individuals astray. Can it happen to you?
One individual noted that at a seminar on ethics sponsored by the CMA Society of Southern
California, attendees were asked if they had ever been pressured to make questionable entries.
This individual noted that to the best of his recollection, everybody raised a hand, and more than
one had eventually chosen to resign.
(d) Major stakeholders are: (1) Troy Normand, (2) present and potential shareholders and creditors of
WorldCom, (3) employees, and (4) family. Recognize that WorldCom is one of the largest
bankruptcies in United States history, so many individuals are affected.
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FINANCIAL REPORTING PROBLEM
(a) The two organizations involved in international standard-setting are
International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) and the
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
(b) Different authoritative literature pertaining to methods of recording
accounting transactions exists today. Some authoritative literature has
received more support from the profession than other literature. The
literature that has substantial authoritative support is the one most
supported by the profession and should be followed when recording
accounting transactions. These standards and procedures are called
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
LO: 3, Bloom: K, Difficulty: Simple, Time: 10-15, AACSB: None, AICPA BB: None, AICPA FC: Reporting, AICPA PC: Communication
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FINANCIAL REPORTING CASE
(a) The International Accounting Standards Board is an independent, pri-
vately funded accounting standards-setter based in London, UK. The
Board is committed to developing, in the public interest, a single set of
high quality, enforceable and global accounting standards that require
transparent and comparable information in general-purpose financial
statements. In addition, the Board cooperates with national accounting
standards setters to achieve convergence in accounting standards
around the world.
(b) In summary, the following groups might benefit from the use of Inter-
national Accounting Standards:
Investors, investment analysts and stockbrokers: to facilitate inter-
national comparisons for investment decisions.
Credit grantors: for similar reasons to bullet point above.
Multinational companies: as preparers, investors, appraisers of pro-
ducts or staff, and as movers of staff around the globe; also, as raisers
of finance on international markets (this also applies to some comp-
anies that are not multinationals).
Governments: as tax collectors and hosts of multinationals; also inter-
ested are securities markets regulators and governmental and non-
governmental rule makers.
(c) The fundamental argument against convergence is that, to the extent
that international differences in accounting practices result from under-
lying economic, legal, social, and other environmental factors, convergence
may not be justified. Different accounting has grown up to serve the
different needs of different users; this might suggest that the existing ac-
counting practice is “correct for a given nation and should not be changed
merely to simplify the work of multinational companies or auditors.
There does seem to be strength in this point particularly for smaller com-
panies with no significant multinational activities or connections. To foist
upon a small private family company in Luxembourg lavish disclosure
requirements and the need to report a “true and fair” view may be an
expensive and unnecessary piece of convergence.