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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1
Literature Review
Student Name
Institutional Affiliations
Due Date
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LITERATURE REVIEW 2
Literature Review
In many institutions, like the Kentucky School District, learning to read is one of the
most crucial skills for pupils in the third grade. This ability gives prospects for academic and
occupational success, and it is a fundamental basis for school-based learning. Children's
primary concentration before the third grade is usually learning to read. After the third grade,
the emphasis shifts to learning via reading. As a result, children who are unable to read at
grade level by third grade have trouble understanding written content, which is an essential
aspect of the educational process in subsequent years. As a result, pupils who struggle to read
will find it more challenging to meet the higher educational obligations. The purpose of this
study is to see if third-grade reading levels may be used to predict future educational
outcomes, such as high school graduation. According to studies, one out of every six students
who cannot read proficiently in third grade do not complete high school (Hernandez, 2011).
This rate is four times higher than that of competent readers (Hernandez, 2011). Children can
use close reading skills to help them analyze a book in-depth and grasp why certain features
in the text are essential via a number of reads. The impact of close reading practices in a
third-grade classroom on reading comprehension levels in the Kentucky School District will
be investigated in this study.
Close reading practices are unquestionably required for the Kentucky School
District's increasingly literate culture. It is also a necessary ability for success in the Kentucky
School District for students. The traditional age-grade progression of kids from elementary to
middle to high school and beyond implies that all students will read at ever greater
competency levels after a particular age, often third grade (Hernandez, 2011). As a result,
kids who do not have the requisite reading abilities for their grade level frequently lag behind
their classmates, making it impossible to catch up without intense coaching. As a result,
graduating from high school is difficult for them. When kids struggle with reading concepts
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LITERATURE REVIEW 3
in third grade, they are at a considerably higher risk of having reading problems later in their
schooling. This reduces their chances of graduating from high school.
Close Reading
Many studies have connected close reading to considerable increases in reading
competency, whether the learner is a struggling or advanced reader, and find close reading to
be a vital component of college and job preparedness (Fisher & Frey, 2012). Close reading
can be taught through shared reading, literature circles or discussion groups, interactive
teacher read-aloud, and guided reading (Snow & O'connor, 2016). Close reading necessitates
deciphering the hidden links that exist inside and between phrases (Mesmer & Rose-
McCully, 2018). This reading style is appropriate for children of all ages because it allows
them to practice methods like relying on past information, establishing connections, detecting
what isn't addressed in a book, and understanding the author's words (Saccomano, 2014).
Building a good foundation in reading begins with developing learners' capacity to read more
intently at a young age (Baker & McEnery, 2017). Close reading may be introduced by
rereading a brief amount of material through many readings and instructional activities. This
will inspire students to read and reread texts with the intention of examining and analyzing
them for a variety of reasons.
Teachers must use scaffolding and conversation to guide students' development of the
abilities required to fulfill the demands of complicated literature. Strong questioning tactics
will improve rigor and assist students in linking their past knowledge about a topic. Less
frontloading before reading; more text-dependent questions during a reading that target a
whole range of standards; and oral response, not just written evaluation, following reading
are all things teachers require (Boyles, 2014). As a result, a lack of vocabulary contributes to
the understanding challenges that many schools face today. Reading comprehension is often a
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LITERATURE REVIEW 4
challenge for students with little vocabulary (Cowden, 2019). Students can read literature
through close reading, and teachers can demonstrate ways to assist students in grasping
unfamiliar terms and more challenging terminology. Students must concentrate on the
author's precise facts and language and read with purpose and comprehension. Teachers must
also provide the groundwork for close reading by establishing instructional techniques and a
procedure that allows students to strengthen their critical reading abilities (Baker & McEnery,
2017).
Close Reading Strategies
Close reading models now available provide a variety of strategies to engage students
in their interaction with texts, with some focused on reading and rereading for comprehension
and others giving more intensive linguistic help (Fang, 2016). Teachers instruct to assist
students in building close reading abilities by revealing one layer of meaning after another,
looking at it from numerous topics and perspectives, rich language, and distinctive structures.
To start preparing pupils for careful reading, the instructor must encourage them to consider
what they are reading. Teachers lead by example and provide guidance. Students can practice
close reading by annotating texts, reducing the amount of previous information they activate
before reading, and engaging students in the discourse around the text by asking probing
questions.
Teachers then assist pupils in expanding their thinking to include related themes and
thought evolutions (Baker & McEnery, 2017). This might be accomplished by having
students jot down or draw their early thoughts and ideas on notecards. Another close reading
method would be for pupils to think more critically about the text, concentrating on words
with numerous meanings or literal or nonliteral meanings. Students review a brief text that
they are acquainted with or are unfamiliar with and concentrate on how the author utilized
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LITERATURE REVIEW 5
vital terms. The emphasis is on comprehension reading and rereading rather than giving more
thorough language coaching. Teachers must provide readers with the ability to respond to
text-dependent inquiries about content, structure, and viewpoint. Students should aim to
broaden their thinking and utilize parallel structures to analyze and find links.
When teaching close reading to third-grade pupils, another typical method is to use
different text sets of picture books. The text sets offer the possibility of reteaching topics
from text to text. The ability to return to a text and reread it in order to gain a better
understanding. The idea is to create enough possibilities for text-to-text linkages without
making the process too difficult to manage (Boyles, 2014). Students become better critical
readers as a result of the insights gained through various close reading practices in associating
language forms and structures to functions and meanings in contexts. The objective is to
cultivate engaged readers who are able to grasp, compose, speak about, and critically analyze
complex materials (Fang, 2016).
Manipulatives are a great approach to help pupils improve their literacy. Most people
link manipulatives with math or tactile development (Bouck et al., 2014). According to a
recent study, using manipulatives to teach pupils reading is a very successful method (Bouck
et al., 2014). Reading manipulatives boost a student's self-esteem, adapt to a variety of
learning styles, connect the abstract and physical, and engage and encourage students. Digital
technologies and digital texts can be used to supplement instruction for close reading of
difficult texts. Struggling readers benefit from the ability to replay the text's audio and follow
along with their eyes to obtain a better grasp. Many internet tools are available to assist
students in using the standard highlighting manipulatives. Furthermore, interactive graphic
organizers allow students to capture important ideas and details, chart story aspects, make
summaries, and build timelines to aid understanding through attentive reading (Wertz &
Saine, 2014). Manipulatives are most typically used in small or entire group settings. Instead
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of using paper and pencil, students can utilize technology to manipulate objects and submit
homework online. When students study in small groups, they benefit the most from
manipulatives.
How Close Reading Improves Student Achievement
Close reading, as previously said, is an effective method of assisting children in
developing critical reading, thinking, and written communication abilities. Educators can
push pupils to attain academic achievement by incorporating literary critique through careful
reading (Valentine, 2016). Close reading boosts student accomplishment not only in language
arts but also in social studies, science, and mathematics. When children read informational
content, they learn about a topic or concept. Close reading is an excellent method for
ensuring that they engage with the content and develop better comprehension.
When employing close reading practices, teachers must encourage, inspire, and
engage children. The academic achievement of students will improve. Along with their
literacy block of teaching, teachers recommend a combination of fiction and factual material
in other academic areas. They employ text to assist pupils in comprehending difficult
concepts and historical events that are important to the subject area. While close reading has
traditionally been employed with conventional text, the tactics are now required not only for
the written word but also for the close inspection of images, videos, charts, and graphs. As a
result, close reading is deep reading for text analysis (Kozdras & Day, 2013). Because it may
cover exciting themes and valuable solutions that attract students' attention, close reading
increases student progress in literacy and other academic areas. Acting like a detective to
study their material is popular among third-grade students in the Kentucky School District.
The guided inquiry technique will provide children the flexibility to explore their own ideas
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LITERATURE REVIEW 7
and points of view while being directed by the teacher. If done correctly, the ultimate effect
might be a generation of sharp thinkers and clear writers.
Reading at a Proficient Level and High School Graduation
Reading is a critical basic ability for school-based learning, and it is closely linked to
future academic and vocational success. According to research, when pupils have problems
learning to read, their love of learning and drive quickly dwindles due to its visibility and
relevance (Hernandez, 2011). Correspondingly, long term studies that investigated both good
and bad readers from early grades to adulthood discovered that by the end of first grade,
children who have not mastered reading skills at the same rate as their classmates have
significantly lower self-esteem, self-concept, and motivation to learn to read (Lavalley,
2018). Even otherwise, brilliant kids who are among those who are not reading at a proficient
level by the third grade may miss out on opportunities to study science, math, history, and
literature as they go through their schooling. By the later grades, a child's chances of
graduating from high school are slim, and his or her motivation, self-esteem, and self-concept
are all suffering as a result.
Researchers discovered that a large percentage of kids classified as having reading
difficulties in third grade continue to struggle in the ninth grade and that pupils with poor
word recognition abilities in third grade are unlikely to progress considerably by the end of
eighth grade (Lesnick et al., 2010). Failure to graduate from high school has far-reaching
effects on one's life. Individuals with lower levels of reading and education are more likely to
be jobless or earn less than the poverty line than adults with greater levels of literacy and
education. People without a high school diploma or postgraduate education are also more
likely to be jailed than adults with higher educational degrees (Oakford et al., 2019). Literacy,
in summary, is a critical factor in academic, social, and economic success.
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Importance of Early Intervention
For struggling readers, early assistance can make a tremendous impact. Preventive
and intervention programs applied before a third grade can improve reading abilities to
average grade levels in 85 to 90 percent of poor readers (Lesnick et al., 2010). However, if
help is delayed, a significant percentage of youngsters will struggle to learn to read
throughout high school and into adulthood. Because the essential period for helping early
reading comes in the early grades, the majority of commercial preventative initiatives target
the third grade, when learning to read is the primary aim of schooling. Remedial intervention
programs for struggling readers in third and higher grades are less effective. Still, they are
nevertheless essential supports for enhancing current reading abilities and future reading
performance trajectories when done consistently (Lesnick et al., 2010).
Conclusion
To this end, it is clear that one out of every six pupils who cannot read fluently in
third grade will drop out of high school. Many studies have linked close reading to significant
gains in reading ability. Shared reading, literary circles, and discussion groups can all be used
to teach close reading. By constructing instructional approaches, teachers must lay the
framework for careful reading. For pupils with little vocabulary, reading comprehension
might be difficult. Students can use a range of methods in close reading models in their
interactions with texts. Some emphasize understanding through reading and rereading, while
others provide more thorough language assistance. The goal is to develop engaged readers
who can comprehend, produce, discuss, and critically analyze complicated content. Reading
manipulatives improve a student's self-esteem and adapt to different learning methods. To
augment training for careful reading of difficult texts, digital technologies, and digital texts
can be employed. Teachers can encourage students to achieve academic success by adding
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LITERATURE REVIEW 9
literary criticism into their lessons via close reading. As a consequence, kids' academic
performance will increase. Reading is an important foundational skill for school-based
learning and is directly connected to future academic and professional success.
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References
Baker, S. F., & McEnery, L. (2017). Building the Foundation for Close Reading with
Developing Readers. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 5(1), 71-80.
Bouck, E. C., Satsangi, R., Doughty, T. T., & Courtney, W. T. (2014). Virtual and concrete
manipulatives: A comparison of approaches for solving mathematics problems for
students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and developmental
disorders, 44(1), 180-193.
Boyles, N. (2014). Close reading without tears. Educational Leadership, 72(1), 32-37.
Cowden, K. (2019). The Impact of Close Reading on 3rd Grade Students' Reading
Comprehension.
Fang, Z. (2016). Teaching close reading with complex texts across content areas. Research in
the Teaching of English, 51(1), 106.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012). Close reading in elementary schools. The Reading
Teacher, 66(3), 179-188.
Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012). Text-dependent questions. Principal Leadership, 13(1), 70-73.
Hernandez, D. J. (2011). Double jeopardy: How third-grade reading skills and poverty
influence high school graduation. Annie E. Casey Foundation.
Kozdras, D., & Day, S. (2013). Common core state standards and economics: Reading like a
detective, writing like a reporter, and thinking like an economist. Social Studies
Review, 52, 23-32.
Lavalley, M. (2018). Out of the Loop: Rural Schools Are Largely Left out of Research and
Policy Discussions, Exacerbating Poverty, Inequity, and Isolation. Center for Public
Education.
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Lesnick, J., Goerge, R., Smithgall, C., & Gwynne, J. (2010). Reading on grade level in third
grade: How is it related to high school performance and college enrollment. Chicago,
IL: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, 1, 12.
Mesmer, H. A., & Rose‐McCully, M. M. (2018). A closer look at close reading: Three under‐
the‐radar skills needed to comprehend sentences. The Reading Teacher, 71(4), 451-
461.
Oakford, P., Brumfield, C., Goldvale, C., diZerega, M., & Patrick, F. (2019). Investing in
futures: Economic and fiscal benefits of postsecondary education in prison.
Saccomano, D. (2014). How Close Is Close Reading?. Texas Journal of Literacy
Education, 2(2), 140-147.
Snow, C., & O'connor, C. (2016). Close reading and far-reaching classroom discussion:
Fostering a vital connection. Journal of Education, 196(1), 1-8.
Valentine, C. J. (2016). The effects of implementing close reading in a third, fourth, and fifth
grade public school setting to improve student achievement. Liberty University.
Wertz, J., & Saine, P. (2014). Using digital technology to complement close reading of
complex texts. New England Reading Association Journal, 50(1), 78.

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