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Waste management is viewed as part of a generation, collection, and
disposal system. A system approach that reveals its relationship to other
parts of the system is examined in the light of producing more
sustainable practice (HIA21, 2013). Solid waste and water quality have
become major environmental problems in recent years, especially in
developing countries (Cointreau 1982; Pokhrel and Viraraghavan 2005;
Markandya 2006). Trash can travel throughout the world's rivers and
oceans, accumulating on beaches and within gyres. This debris harms
physical habitats, transports chemical pollutants, threatens aquatic life,
and interferes with human uses of the river, marine, and coastal
environments. Of all trash, plastic trash has the greatest potential to harm
the environment, wildlife, and humans. It can be found floating at the
surface, suspended in the water column, or on the bottom of almost all
water bodies. It is transported by rivers to the ocean, where it moves
with the currents, and is often eaten by birds and fish, concentrating
toxic chemicals in their tissues, and filling their stomachs, causing them
to starve. Plastic aquatic debris is much more than a mere aesthetic
problem (EPA 2021).
Concerns regarding river waste in Lawis, Toledo City are growing
especially in heavily populated areas, not only because of the growth of
waste caused by fast urbanization, a growing population, improved
living standards, and changing consumptive patterns, but chiefly because
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of the lack of an efficient waste management system (Alam et al 2008).
If solid waste is not effectively and properly managed, it can result in
adverse impacts on both environmental and human health causing air,
soil, and water pollution and disease. Sustainable management of solid
waste in river areas such as in Lawis, Toledo City is particularly
important because of the vulnerability of natural resources such as
surface waters and underground aquifers (Hinsby et al 2008), landscape,
and biodiversity.
With growing water scarcity and increasing competition across water‐
using sectors, the need for water savings and more efficient water use
has increased in importance in water resources management.
Improvement in the physical efficiency of water use is related to water
conservation through increasing the fraction of water beneficially used
over water applied while enhancing economic efficiency is a broader
concept, seeking the highest economic value of water use through both
physical and managerial measures (Ximing Cai, Mark W Rosegrant,
Research Design
This study was carried out in order to design an efficient waste
management system for river water in the context of water pollution
control. The Lawis River, which passes to Toledo, is the subject of this
research. A descriptive-quantitative approach was used by the
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The study participants numbered no more than 500 people in a
population. Households, community-based groups, micro- and small
businesses, rubbish picker, itinerant waste purchasers, and non-
governmental organization (NGOs) are among them. The researchers
conducted a survey of a selected group of people, including barangay
Alternative instruments for solid waste reduction, reuse, and recycling
are proposed by the researcher. However, un order to use the suggested
economic tools, the waste volumes and composition must be determined.
This paper claims that the present Lawis river waste management
instrument (regulatory measure, environmental education, and economic
instrument like as property taxes, service charge, and sanitation fees) do
not go far enough in Improving environmental protection. Alternative
mechanisms are offered, including solid waste collection and disposal
levies, deposit refund system, and product levies. Environmental
education and regulatory procedures should also be improved, according
to the report.
In a general sense, comprehensive reduction, reuse, and recycling of
river garbage will have significant benefits in three ways. First, due to
changes in current techniques for disposing of river garbage, there will
be a significant reduction in environmental contamination. Second,
waste will be used to recycle or replace natural materials, resulting in
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energy, natural resource, and environmental conservation. Finally, the
physical and chemical properties of the basic material can be altered or
modified to create customized engineered materials that can be used for
specific applications.
Operational Definitions of Relevant Variables
In this study, there are ten variables:
1. The number of people in the population
2. The number of households
3. The size of the family
4. Average per capita income
5. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
6. Consumer Price Index (CPI)
7. The number of visitors
8. Waste Production Per Capita
9. Waste Disposal Per Capita
10. Waste Recycling Per Capita
Treatment of Data
By conducting a survey of randomly selected persons in the study area,
the researcher will able to collect all of the information about the ten
relevant variables.
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