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Literature Review
According to my point of view, the most difficult part of doing the research and understanding
the basics of how our research should be undertaken is critically reviewing the literature. A
literature review is the one in which we make reasoned judgments and critically reviewing the
literature means doing the analysis and critically develops a strong argument about what our
literature tells us about our research questions.
Problems in critically reviewing the literature
Following are the problems:
Providing Strong Arguments
The difficulty we can face according to me in critically reviewing the literature is while we are
critically reviewing the literature we have to coordinate too many sources and idea into a strong
and concrete logical arguments which seems to be a difficult task to do because it is not easy to
covert our idea and logics into strong logical arguments that support our idea logically and give
them strong support.
Mission Creep
Mission creep means when our review deviates from the initial objectives. Carefully design and
publish an a priori protocol that outlines planned methods for searching, screening, data
extraction, critical appraisal and synthesis in detail. Make use of existing organizations to
support you. (E.g. the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence).
No Specific Guidelines
Another difficulty we can face while critically reviewing the literature is the not specific
guidelines of how to critically review the literature so we may have to do it on our own because
the process of doing the critical review of literature is different for every topic so if we have to
select some topic on which we will make strong logical arguments we then also have to choose
the process how we will conduct our critical review of that topic which is not an easy task for
someone who is not frequent in doing the research or who is doing it for the first time.
Ineffective Synthesis
The main reason of doing the literature review is to create new knowledge by summarizing the
old set of knowledge. We use meta-analysis in quantitative review. It means combining of effect
sizes to generate one or more summaries. Sometimes while synthesizing the knowledge of other
researches we adopt wrong methods of doing the synthesis which may result in wrong and
inappropriate synthesis which provides arguments with not logics and having biased and errors.
The main reason of doing the literature review is to create new knowledge by summarizing the
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old set of knowledge. We use meta-analysis in quantitative review. It means combining of effect
sizes to generate one or more summaries. Sometimes while synthesizing the knowledge of other
researches we adopt wrong methods of doing the synthesis which may result in wrong and
inappropriate synthesis which provides arguments with not logics and having biased and errors
which puts a bad effect on our research.
There are many steps involved in doing the critical review of our research topic and when we
adopt these different topics it sometime creates error and moreover we cannot copy the work of
others we have to do it on our own which is a difficult task to do because when we copy the
work of others it contains plagiarism which is a bad side of dong a research. Plagiarism means
we copy someone the work of someone else without his or her consent and it creates a big
problem for the researcher or the student who is doing some research. We have to analyze and
interpret our research topic on our own and create strong and logically supported arguments that
support our research topic clearly and give a strong background.
Lack of Consistency
If an individual is doing the analyses of research topics and producing a strong argument need to
be consistent in his or her work. He she should not avoid clearly identifying there topics and
need to use vast information in their work and need to remain as persistent as much as they can
in their work.
Lack of Error Checking
When a researcher is working alone there is many chances that his work contains errors so, He
should be careful to avoid errors. He needs to see why his works contains errors and after finding
the reasons he need to find the solution of how his error can be removed from his work to make
his work as best as possible.
Different Languages
Sometime while doing some literature review we have to go through different languages which
create a big problem for the researchers. Sometime researchers are not familiar with some
languages that they have to go through which creates a lot of fuss and difficulty for the
researcher to continue his research. Moreover, while doing the critical review of literature there
are some topics that we are not completely mastered and we have to analyze that topics too
which is also a difficult task to do because to analyze some topic we have to fully aware of that
topic so we can easily make logical arguments about that topic but if we are not clearly familiar
with some topic how we can analyze that topic and make concrete arguments about that topic.
Complex Topics
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Sometimes researches have to go through complex topics which are difficult to analyze and
make strong arguments about these complex topics. So, there are chances that researcher can
make some error in analyzing that complex topics because to provide strong and logical reasons
of some complex topics is not an easy task to do.
How can we avoid the errors while critically reviewing the literature?
There are some points we have to keep it in our mind when critically reviewing the literature
because if we failed to properly interpreting any topic there are chances that errors can easily
come which can ruin our work. Some of these points we have to adopt to avoid any errors are:
Read as much as you can to make strong arguments. Don't just go for some papers
produced by any particular research groups.
Do not go for too much background information. Just add that background information
that helps you to orient the reader.
Include the evidence in your research and be selective about what we include in our
Always plan before you write something and make a clear view about that topic in your
mind before writing something.
Refine our data as much as we can to avoid errors.
Use latest material because it provides us with the information that is the most refined
and latest and it can help us in doing our research efficiently.
The synthesis of research topic should be accurate and there must be no error.
There must be no biased information in our review. All the synthesis and information
should be unbiased.
We must check continuously that our review has no errors and if we identify some error
we have to make it correct and remove the error from our work.
We must make sure that high level of rigor that includes procedural objectivity and
transparency is achieved in our review.
Formulating the Research Design
Another topic according to me which I found to be difficult in doing the research is to formulate
the research design. Formulating the research design means how we will do our research and
what strategies we will adopt in doing our research. Some research strategies belongs to
inductive approach and some belongs to deductive approach so, we have to sharp minded in
selecting the research strategies. Our research design establishes our conceptual framework of
investigation and the methods we will adopt in analyzing the data. Taking some time to properly
design our research helps us to organize our work thoughts, set the proper structure of our
research and also sets the boundaries. It also helps to avoid any incomplete information or
misleading conclusions. Therefore, if any part of our research design is not properly developed
the quality of our research moreover the overall worth of our research will totally be diminished.
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Problems in Formulating the Research Design
Following are the problems we face while designing our research and we have to avoid these
problems to make our research as efficient as possible:
Not clearly defined Research Problem
The starting point of our research is to firstly formulate the statement of problem and then
develops the appropriate questions that address our problem. Our research should start with the
statements that tells what we intend to investigate and what research design we will use to solve
the problem and produce a strong and concrete arguments that will support our study.
Not Enough Theoretical Part
The theoretical part of our research represents the conceptual foundation of our study and it is
very important to have the strong and enough theoretical part of our research but it is difficult to
formulate a good and strong theoretical framework of our research and while doing this there are
many chances that it includes wrong information that makes it difficult for the researches to
remove the errors and make it correct.
Relationship between Past and Present Study
We must not just simply include the summary of past studies however we have to link our
present study with the past findings and past studies of the researchers to make our research topic
as efficient as possible. For example, by identifying basic weaknesses in previous studies and
how your study helps to fill this gap in knowledge.
Difficult and Complex Topics
There are some topics that are relatively complex and it is difficult to identify the right research
design to solve that complex topics and while doing this there are chances that we adopt the
wrong research design that will produce wrong results and the results that have errors in it so We
have to make sure that we adopt the right research design for our topic and that research design
should be appropriate for our topic.
Poor Methodological Approach
Our research design should include a well-developed and highly effective plan for how we will
collect our date necessary for our research and after collecting how we will generate and
analyses this data. We sometimes produce poor methodological approach that increases the
errors in our study and it will make our research less effective.
Wrong Sampling
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This includes that we choose the samples that is not based on our study instead it is based on the
proximity of some particular groups and when we do not provide the right samples in our study
there are many chances that our study will include errors. That is why we should choose that
units of study that is the most appropriate instead of being easy to access or collect.
Wrong Techniques and Instruments
We must be clear in describing the techniques we adopt in our research and we must make sure
that the instruments and techniques we are using in our research is appropriate and is according
to our research topic.
Every study have some limitations and these limitations can sometime acts as a burden on
researcher that the analyze of his research topic will be undertaken and we must make sure that
the limitations of our research topic should not come in our way of doing the analyses clearly
and making a clear and logical arguments of our analyses.
How we can avoid these problems?
We can avoid the problem that comes in our way while formulating the research design by
reviewing our topic clearly and choosing the right research approaches and structures to make a
sound and appropriate research study. We must adopt the right techniques and instruments in our
research and we have to check it again and again that we are not making any wrong decision at
any point of our research either it is choosing the techniques or choosing the instruments for our
study. Moreover, we must include the relation of past and present study in our research and we
must include the limits and problems of past researchers. After doing this, we must provide a
clear and sound solution to that problem in our study. At last, we must choose the right
methodological approach about how we will analyze our research topic and we must give the
strong arguments about our study that supports our research topic.

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