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PROGRAMMING
What are some of the most widely used object-oriented frameworks for
application development?
Object-oriented frameworks are a promising technology for reifying proven software
designs and implementations to reduce the cost and improve the quality of software.
One of the most widely used object-oriented frameworks in Java. Java is one of the
most used because it is one of the official languages that is being used in android
development, while android is being the most popular mobile operating system in the
world, Java won't be a failure and it is on the top spot for a long time. This was
designed to be a "write once, run anywhere" language, that also allows it to be used for
a wide range of applications. The collection is an example of a framework in Java
because it provides useful data structures and algorithms, it reduces programming
efforts. It is referred to as a library that does not support control inverse. The Java
Framework is a set of predefined classes and functions used to process input, manage
hardware devices, and interact with system software. Java is a collection of mostly
reusable pre-written codes that the developers use in creating applications, it is
intended to be reused so that the developers can program the applications without any
manual overhead of starting from scratch.
What is object-oriented programming? What are some of the commonly
used languages supporting object-oriented development?
The object-oriented programming is also known as OOP, a computer programming
that organizes the software design in data or objects, this contains both data and
code. Their principles are encapsulation, abstraction, polymorphism and inheritance,
Most of the widely used languages in coding that make up the computing world today
are object-oriented they are very useful and important in almost every career. Some of
the commonly used languages that support object-oriented programming are the
following :
Java It is the most used language and very in-demand and popular of all time.
Python In a variety of situations, it is general-purpose. Python, on the other hand, is
well-known in the fields of machine learning and data science. It's one of the most
popular languages in that new and rapidly expanding field.
C++ illustrated, dependable, and powerful programming language. It's even used to
create other language compilers and interpreters. Ruby This is another general-
purpose programming language. It was designed to be simple. Having said that, Ruby
is a tremendously powerful programming language.
C# is a Microsoft-created programming language. It was established to improve on
existing C concepts. C# is the programming language that powers the Microsoft.NET
framework, as well as many web apps, games, desktop apps, and mobile apps.
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Describe the features of an application programming interface (API).
Explain how it is used for implementing third-party supplied codes or
web services.
API is another programming code that specializes in enabling data transmission
between one software product to another and also contains the terms of this data
exchange. It consists of two components : Technical specification that describes the
data exchange options between solutions with the specification being done as a
request for processing and data delivery protocols. Software interface written to the
specification that represents it. API specifications are aimed to standardize data
exchange between web services. Throughout this context, standardization refers to the
ability of data from multiple sources written in different programming languages
and/or running on different operating systems or employing disparate technologies to
communicate with one another seamlessly. Third-party APIs are APIs provided by
third parties, usually companies including such Facebook, Twitter, or Google, which
also allow you to access and use their functionality via JavaScript on your site. Using
mapping APIs to display custom maps on your pages is one of the most obvious
examples.
What do ASP.NET and C# refer to, in the context of Microsoft.Net based
web applications? What advantages do they provide in the development,
interaction and utilization of GUI based applications?
ASP.NET is an open-source framework that is created by Microsoft, it is across the
platform and runs on Windows, Linux, macOS, and Docker. This allows you are
building many different types of web applications such as web pages, REST APIs,
microservices, and hubs that push real-time content to be connected to clients. It
extends the.NET developer platform using tools and libraries especially for building
web applications, and also in extending the .NET platform with tools and libraries
specifically for building web apps. Most advantages in ASP.NET are; All the web
application developers can enjoy the flexibility and power of that entire platform, also
each task can be performed easily lastly, it has a strong emphasis on security.
Through built-in Windows authentication and per-application configuration features,
you can create secure applications. The C# was made by Microsoft tech, it is an
object-oriented programming language, and we can use it to create desktop
applications, web applications, and mobile applications. Dot net framework (.Net) and
WPF are the most popular technologies. Using C# you can use it to make web
applications and also there are frameworks for C# that you can use. A lot of
companies like Adobe, Stackoverflow, Microsoft are using C# in web development.
What is a database management system (DBMS) and how can it be used in client-
server or web-based applications?
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It is a software tool that is used in enabling users to manage the database in a
more convenient way. It also allows the users to access and interact with the
underlying data in the database, These can range from simply querying data to
defining database schemes that fundamentally affect the database structure. It also
allows users to interact with a database securely and concurrently without interfering
with one another and while maintaining data integrity. One of the most important
components of DBMS is the web-based database management system, which is used
to store web application data. A web-based database management system is used to
manage databases containing data from other online applications.
Explain the purpose of database identifiers using suitable example. Consider the
impact of identifiers on database usability.
The Identifier can be assigned to anything in the Microsoft SQL Server, it can be
assigned to servers, databases, and database objects such as tables, columns, views,
indexes, triggers, procedures, constraints, and rules. Identifiers are required for the
majority of objects but also optional for some, such as constraints. There are two
classes of identifiers: The Regular Identifiers and Delimited Identifiers. Identifiers of
instance-level objects, such as logins and database names, are assigned the instance's
default collation. Identifiers of objects in a database, such as tables, views, and
column names, are assigned the database's default collation, and also an identifier's
collation is determined by the level at which it is defined.
What are the key normalisation rules and validation processes in the context of
database development and modelling?
Normalisation is a part of the database design process, it is difficult to separate the
normalization process from the ER modelling process so the two techniques must be
used concurrently. The normalization procedure focuses on specific entity
characteristics and represents the micro view of entities within the ERD. The branch
of the relational theory that provides design insights is known as normalization. It is
the method of determining the amount of redundancy in a table. Normalization's goals
are to be able to characterize the level of redundancy in a relational schema and to
provide mechanisms for transforming schemas to remove redundancy.
Describe data types and their application in the context of database design.
Provide detailed explanation of type hierarchies, including sub-types, super-
types and root-types using suitable examples.
Data Types are actual units of data that enter into the database, the database is used
in organizing data in a clear and consistent way.
Data Types:
Integers - whole numbers : 5, 26, 76536
Floats - with decimal points and mostly called real numbers or floating-point
numbers : 5.2, 17.9, 10.5
Character - single letter : a, F, $
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Character Strings - ordered sequences of characters : def678, abc
Boolean - options like true/false or yes or no
Type hierarchy consists of subtypes and supertypes. It classifies objects based on their
behavior, objects of the same type can belong to different classes if they exhibit the
same behavior. The implementation of these objects differs, but the functionality is the
same. The SubType & SuperType primary keys are always identical.
Subtypes - subtyping has a fundamental role in the world of programming languages,
it is an entity type that is like a relationship of parent to a child with one or more
subtypes it also contains attributes that are common to its subtypes.
Supertypes - is a subgroup of the subtypes. It has a unique attribute but they are
different from each subtype. One sample is the Employee - supertype/parent entities
and the Full-Time Employee & Hourly Employee -as subtypes/two-child entities.
What are user defined types, structured types, reference types and
user defined functions. Explain using suitable examples. (100 words)
A user-defined data type (UDT) is a data type that was created by deriving from an
existing data type. UDTs can be used to extend the built-in data types that are already
available and to create your own customized data types. A structured type can be used
to represent a table, view, or column. When a table or view is used as a type, the table
or view is referred to as a typed table or typed view. It consists of a series of named
attributes, each with its own data type, it is also comes with a set of method
specifications. A supertype is a structured type that defines other structured types,
known as subtypes. A subtype inherits all of its supertype's attributes and methods,
as well as the ability to define new attributes and methods. A reference type is a scalar
type that shares a common representation with one of the built-in data types. It is a
companion type to a structured type. When a reference type is used, a scope can be
specified. The scope identifies a table (called the target table) or view (called the target
view) that contains a reference value's target row. User-defined functions are functions
that you can use to organize your code in the policy's body. When you define a
function, you can use it in the same way that you would call the built-in action and
parser functions. User-defined functions allow you to encapsulate and reuse policy
functionality.
What are primary keys and foreign keys in the context of data storage?
Outline the purpose of unique keys, composite keys, and primary index.
The Primary & Foreign Keys are being used in a relational database in defining the
"many-to-one" relationship between the tables. Primary Keys in a table are a column
or a set of columns that uniquely identify a row in the table and a relational database
that is designed in enforcing the primary keys' uniqueness by allowing only one row
per table with a given primary key value. While Foreign Key is the one whose value
corresponds to the primary key values in another table. The Unique Key ensures that
the information in the column for each table record is unique. A composite key is a
combination of two or more columns in a table that can be used to uniquely identify
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each row in the table. A Primary Index is a physical mechanism, it is also used to
access rows without having to search the entire table.
You will be using Microsoft Visual Studio IDE and C# with ASP.NET
along with SQL Server Express database. Explain how this will meet the
needs of the web application to be created.
Microsoft Visual Studio IDE, C#, and ASP.NET have different uses that can help in
web applications. The Microsoft Visual Studio IDE has many useful features in
facilitating the software development process and it can also help in computer
programs, websites, and mobile apps. The C# has many advantages in creating web
applications in a more convenient way, eliminating the issues of memory leakage C#
gas a secure memory back up and it is also a familiar and easy syntax that is so
simple to pick up and use in programming the web application. While ASP.NET is a
technology that is available on any .NET platform that helps in developing dynamic
and data-driven web applications and also provides a programming model that
simplifies the process of development.
Describe the functions and features of debugging and testing tools,
including those supplied as part of Visual Studio IDE.
Debugging is the process of identifying and eliminating existing and potential errors; it
is also known as "bugs", in software code that can cause it to behave unexpectedly or
crash, it is also used to find and resolve bugs or defects in software or systems to
prevent incorrect operation. Testing is a procedure that verifies if the system is
functioning as expected and ensures that the software is defect-free, this is done by
the tester to identify errors/bugs in the system. Testing can be done both manually
and automatically. Debugging and Testing are significant activities that are made
during the development of software and maintenance.
Explain in the context of scalability, maintainability and
reusability, how the Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern can be
utilised when developing applications using C# and other object-
oriented languages.
In order to have a successful web application SCALABILITY needs to be seamlessly
and efficiently accommodate the growth and be designed. A scalable web application
will be able to handle an increase in users and load without disrupting the end-users.
Maintaining any web application is hard, MAINTAINABILITY is the measure that can
ease and speed with which a system can be restored to operational status after the
failure occurs. The purpose of REUSABILITY is to decrease the total cost of ownership
that should consider to what extent you can reuse the web application that you
created. The pattern that brings modularity to application developers is called MVC
PATTERN it allows some simultaneous work between the developers that is
responsible for different components like UI layer and core logic it is also easier to
maintain and it enables being reusable and extendable. Several web frameworks have
been developed to enforce the pattern however, their interpretations differ, primarily in
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how the MVC responsibilities are divided between the client and server. This design
pattern has become popular for developing web applications. In MVC for web
applications, the client sends the hyperlink request and they'll receive a complete and
updated web page, and then the model exists entirely on the server.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

PROGRAMMING What are some of the most widely used object-oriented frameworks for application development? Object-oriented frameworks are a promising technology for reifying proven software designs and implementations to reduce the cost and improve the quality of software. One of the most widely used object-oriented frameworks in Java. Java is one of the most used because it is one of the official languages that is being used in android development, while android is being the most popular mobile operating system in the world, Java won't be a failure and it is on the top spot for a long time. This was designed to be a "write once, run anywhere" language, that also allows it to be used for a wide range of applications. The collection is an example of a framework in Java because it provides useful data structures and algorithms, it reduces programming efforts. It is referred to as a library that does not support control inverse. The Java Framework is a set of predefined classes and functions used to process input, manage hardware devices, and interact with system software. Java is a collection of mostly reusable pre-written codes that the developers use in creating applications, it is intended to be reused so that the developers can program the applications without any manual overhead of starting from scratch. What is object-oriented programming? What are some of the commonly used languages supporting object-oriented development? The object-oriented programming is also known as OOP, a computer programming that organizes the software design in data or objects, this contains both data and code. Their principles are encapsulation, abstraction, polymorphism and inheritance, Most of the widely used languages in coding that make up the computing world today are object-oriented they are very useful and important in almost every career. Some of the commonly used languages that support object-oriented programming are the following : Java It is the most used language and very in-demand and popular of all time. Python In a variety of situations, it is general-purpose. Python, on the other hand, is well-known in the fields of machine learning and data science. It's one of the most popular languages in that new and rapidly expanding field. C++ illustrated, dependable, and powerful programming language. It's even used to create other language compilers and interpreters. Ruby This is another generalpurpose programming language. It was designed to be simple. Having said that, Ruby is a tremendously powerful programming language. C# is a Microsoft-created programming language. It was established to improve on existing C concepts. C# is the programming language that powers the Microsoft.NET framework, as well as many web apps, games, desktop apps, and mobile apps. Describe the features of an application programming interface (API). Explain how it is used for implementing third-party supplied codes or web services. API is another programming code that specializes in enabling data transmission between one software product to another and also contains the terms of this data exchange. It consists of two components : Technical specification that describes the data exchange options between solutions with the specification being done as a request for processing and data delivery protocols. Software interface written to the specification that represents it. API specifications are aimed to standardize data exchange between web services. Throughout this context, standardization refers to the ability of data from multiple sources written in different programming languages and/or running on different operating systems or employing disparate technologies to communicate with one another seamlessly. Third-party APIs are APIs provided by third parties, usually companies including such Facebook, Twitter, or Google, which also allow you to access and use their functionality via JavaScript on your site. Using mapping APIs to display custom maps on your pages is one of the most obvious examples. What do ASP.NET and C# refer to, in the context of Microsoft.Net based web applications? What advantages do they provide in the development, interaction and utilization of GUI based applications? ASP.NET is an open-source framework that is created by Microsoft, it is across the platform and runs on Windows, Linux, macOS, and Docker. This allows you are building many different types of web applications such as web pages, REST APIs, microservices, and hubs that push real-time content to be connected to clients. It extends the.NET developer platform using tools and libraries especially for building web applications, and also in extending the .NET platform with tools and libraries specifically for building web apps. Most advantages in ASP.NET are; All the web application developers can enjoy the flexibility and power of that entire platform, also each task can be performed easily lastly, it has a strong emphasis on security. Through built-in Windows authentication and per-application configuration features, you can create secure applications. The C# was made by Microsoft tech, it is an object-oriented programming language, and we can use it to create desktop applications, web applications, and mobile applications. Dot net framework (.Net) and WPF are the most popular technologies. Using C# you can use it to make web applications and also there are frameworks for C# that you can use. A lot of companies like Adobe, Stackoverflow, Microsoft are using C# in web development. What is a database management system (DBMS) and how can it be used in clientserver or web-based applications? It is a software tool that is used in enabling users to manage the database in a more convenient way. It also allows the users to access and interact with the underlying data in the database, These can range from simply querying data to defining database schemes that fundamentally affect the database structure. It also allows users to interact with a database securely and concurrently without interfering with one another and while maintaining data integrity. One of the most important components of DBMS is the web-based database management system, which is used to store web application data. A web-based database management system is used to manage databases containing data from other online applications. Explain the purpose of database identifiers using suitable example. Consider the impact of identifiers on database usability. The Identifier can be assigned to anything in the Microsoft SQL Server, it can be assigned to servers, databases, and database objects such as tables, columns, views, indexes, triggers, procedures, constraints, and rules. Identifiers are required for the majority of objects but also optional for some, such as constraints. There are two classes of identifiers: The Regular Identifiers and Delimited Identifiers. Identifiers of instance-level objects, such as logins and database names, are assigned the instance's default collation. Identifiers of objects in a database, such as tables, views, and column names, are assigned the database's default collation, and also an identifier's collation is determined by the level at which it is defined. What are the key normalisation rules and validation processes in the context of database development and modelling? Normalisation is a part of the database design process, it is difficult to separate the normalization process from the ER modelling process so the two techniques must be used concurrently. The normalization procedure focuses on specific entity characteristics and represents the micro view of entities within the ERD. The branch of the relational theory that provides design insights is known as normalization. It is the method of determining the amount of redundancy in a table. Normalization's goals are to be able to characterize the level of redundancy in a relational schema and to provide mechanisms for transforming schemas to remove redundancy. Describe data types and their application in the context of database design. Provide detailed explanation of type hierarchies, including sub-types, supertypes and root-types using suitable examples. Data Types are actual units of data that enter into the database, the database is used in organizing data in a clear and consistent way. Data Types: Integers - whole numbers : 5, 26, 76536 Floats - with decimal points and mostly called real numbers or floating-point numbers : 5.2, 17.9, 10.5 Character - single letter : a, F, $ Character Strings - ordered sequences of characters : def678, abc Boolean - options like true/false or yes or no Type hierarchy consists of subtypes and supertypes. It classifies objects based on their behavior, objects of the same type can belong to different classes if they exhibit the same behavior. The implementation of these objects differs, but the functionality is the same. The SubType & SuperType primary keys are always identical. Subtypes - subtyping has a fundamental role in the world of programming languages, it is an entity type that is like a relationship of parent to a child with one or more subtypes it also contains attributes that are common to its subtypes. Supertypes - is a subgroup of the subtypes. It has a unique attribute but they are different from each subtype. One sample is the Employee - supertype/parent entities and the Full-Time Employee & Hourly Employee -as subtypes/two-child entities. What are user defined types, structured types, reference types and user defined functions. Explain using suitable examples. (100 words) A user-defined data type (UDT) is a data type that was created by deriving from an existing data type. UDTs can be used to extend the built-in data types that are already available and to create your own customized data types. A structured type can be used to represent a table, view, or column. When a table or view is used as a type, the table or view is referred to as a typed table or typed view. It consists of a series of named attributes, each with its own data type, it is also comes with a set of method specifications. A supertype is a structured type that defines other structured types, known as subtypes. A subtype inherits all of its supertype's attributes and methods, as well as the ability to define new attributes and methods. A reference type is a scalar type that shares a common representation with one of the built-in data types. It is a companion type to a structured type. When a reference type is used, a scope can be specified. The scope identifies a table (called the target table) or view (called the target view) that contains a reference value's target row. User-defined functions are functions that you can use to organize your code in the policy's body. When you define a function, you can use it in the same way that you would call the built-in action and parser functions. User-defined functions allow you to encapsulate and reuse policy functionality. What are primary keys and foreign keys in the context of data storage? Outline the purpose of unique keys, composite keys, and primary index. The Primary & Foreign Keys are being used in a relational database in defining the "many-to-one" relationship between the tables. Primary Keys in a table are a column or a set of columns that uniquely identify a row in the table and a relational database that is designed in enforcing the primary keys' uniqueness by allowing only one row per table with a given primary key value. While Foreign Key is the one whose value corresponds to the primary key values in another table. The Unique Key ensures that the information in the column for each table record is unique. A composite key is a combination of two or more columns in a table that can be used to uniquely identify each row in the table. A Primary Index is a physical mechanism, it is also used to access rows without having to search the entire table. You will be using Microsoft Visual Studio IDE and C# with ASP.NET along with SQL Server Express database. Explain how this will meet the needs of the web application to be created. Microsoft Visual Studio IDE, C#, and ASP.NET have different uses that can help in web applications. The Microsoft Visual Studio IDE has many useful features in facilitating the software development process and it can also help in computer programs, websites, and mobile apps. The C# has many advantages in creating web applications in a more convenient way, eliminating the issues of memory leakage C# gas a secure memory back up and it is also a familiar and easy syntax that is so simple to pick up and use in programming the web application. While ASP.NET is a technology that is available on any .NET platform that helps in developing dynamic and data-driven web applications and also provides a programming model that simplifies the process of development. Describe the functions and features of debugging and testing tools, including those supplied as part of Visual Studio IDE. Debugging is the process of identifying and eliminating existing and potential errors; it is also known as "bugs", in software code that can cause it to behave unexpectedly or crash, it is also used to find and resolve bugs or defects in software or systems to prevent incorrect operation. Testing is a procedure that verifies if the system is functioning as expected and ensures that the software is defect-free, this is done by the tester to identify errors/bugs in the system. Testing can be done both manually and automatically. Debugging and Testing are significant activities that are made during the development of software and maintenance. Explain in the context of scalability, maintainability and reusability, how the Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern can be utilised when developing applications using C# and other objectoriented languages. In order to have a successful web application SCALABILITY needs to be seamlessly and efficiently accommodate the growth and be designed. A scalable web application will be able to handle an increase in users and load without disrupting the end-users. Maintaining any web application is hard, MAINTAINABILITY is the measure that can ease and speed with which a system can be restored to operational status after the failure occurs. The purpose of REUSABILITY is to decrease the total cost of ownership that should consider to what extent you can reuse the web application that you created. The pattern that brings modularity to application developers is called MVC PATTERN it allows some simultaneous work between the developers that is responsible for different components like UI layer and core logic it is also easier to maintain and it enables being reusable and extendable. Several web frameworks have been developed to enforce the pattern however, their interpretations differ, primarily in how the MVC responsibilities are divided between the client and server. This design pattern has become popular for developing web applications. In MVC for web applications, the client sends the hyperlink request and they'll receive a complete and updated web page, and then the model exists entirely on the server. Name: Description: ...
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