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Class Quiz
Student: Tyson Otieno Apindi
Tutor: Professor Elijah Siringi
Institution: Africa Nazarene University
Program: Masters of Science in Governance, Peace and Security
Unit: Public Policy and Constitutionalism
Understanding Principles of Social Justice & States’ Legitimacy as Ultimate Arbiters
Within the social contract theory by Locke and Hobbes, certain common themes appear in terms
of how they view human beings and rights. They both recognize the existence of freedoms but
Locke goes further to mention the idea of natural rights like liberty, property and life. All these
mean that while human beings were free in the state of nature, they had certain inherent rights
derived from the very fact that they are born free.
What are the principles of justice that bind citizens in their relations with one another?
As such, the principles of justice that bind people together are; liberty and equality.
The principle of liberty defines the freedoms that all humans have like freedom of expression,
freedom of conscience and speech etc. The equality principle is anchored on the concept of human
rights which defines rights like; the right to life, right to basic necessities like food and shelter and
right to fair trial in a court of law among others.
Under what conditions may the state legitimately act as the ultimate arbiter in relations among
citizens
According to Hobbes, the state has unlimited power to ensure that peace and stability are
maintained in a civil society. Although Locke disagrees with this concept and instead argues that
the public have the mandate to overthrow the government if it oversteps these powers, certain
conditions warrant an unlimited power of the state to prevail. For instance, I take the recent Covid-
19 pandemic as an example. Despite the states’ being bound by the social contract to allow
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different rights and freedoms, the freedom of movement was widely curtailed in many nations with
China leading the course. Their government locked people in their houses with limited to no access
to social amenities like schools and markets. This was especially in Wuhan where the virus
emerged and hence the state decided that residents of the region would not mix with the rest of the
society lest they spread the deadly disease. A second example of how the state can become the
ultimate arbiter is when it declares a state of emergency. In situations where there are violent armed
conflicts, the state can legitimately decide to lock down the country or even part of the nation to
protect the lives of other citizens.

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Class Quiz Student: Tyson Otieno Apindi Tutor: Professor Elijah Siringi Institution: Africa Nazarene University Program: Masters of Science in Governance, Peace and Security Unit: Public Policy and Constitutionalism Understanding Principles of Social Justice & States’ Legitimacy as Ultimate Arbiters Within the social contract theory by Locke and Hobbes, certain common themes appear in terms of how they view human beings and rights. They both recognize the existence of freedoms but Locke goes further to mention the idea of natural rights like liberty, property and life. All these mean that while human beings were free in the state of nature, they had certain inherent rights derived from the very fact that they are born free. What are the principles of justice that bind citizens in their relations with one another? As such, the principles of justice that bind people together are; liberty and equality. The principle of liberty defines the freedoms that all humans have like freedom of expression, freedom of conscience and speech etc. The equality principle is anchored on the concept of human rights which defines rights like; the right to life, right to basic necessities like food and shelter and right to fair trial in a court of law among others. Under what conditions may the state legitimately act as the ultimate arbiter in relations among citizens According to Hobbes, the state has unlimited power to ensure that peace and stability are maintained in a civil society. Although Locke disagrees with this concept and instead argues that the public have the mandate to overthrow the government if it oversteps these powers, certain conditions warrant an unlimited power of the state to prevail. For instance, I take the recent Covid19 pandemic as an example. Despite the states’ being bound by the social contract to allow different rights and freedoms, the freedom of movement was widely curtailed in many nations with China leading the course. Their government locked people in their houses with limited to no access to social amenities like schools and markets. This was especially in Wuhan where the virus emerged and hence the state decided that residents of the region would not mix with the rest of the society lest they spread the deadly disease. A second example of how the state can become the ultimate arbiter is when it declares a state of emergency. In situations where there are violent armed conflicts, the state can legitimately decide to lock down the country or even part of the nation to protect the lives of other citizens. Name: Description: ...
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