READ THIS BEFORE YOU DO ANYTHING ELSE!
1. TUTORIAL INTRODUCTION
2. HOW DOES THIS MODULE WORK?
This module is grouped into different chapters. In Chapter 1 we will start with a foundational
understanding of supervision that will prepare you for the rest of the programme.
Chapters start with a title followed by the lessons for that chapter, or what you will learn in
that chapter. This is usually followed by the Assessment Criteria. This is a statement of what will
be assessed on in order to declare you competent against the Unit Standard. YOU ARE NOT REQUIRED TO
ANSWER THESE STATEMENTS. We are only
informing you on WHAT you will be assessed on in that specific chapter.
In this Module you will learn to:
•Plan, Organise and Allocate Work
•Manage interpersonal team processes to achieve required outputs.
•Evaluate Achievement of Work Unit Objectives.
3. ICONS USED IN THIS MANUAL
LESSON 1 Indicates the start of a new lesson
Indicates the start of a Chapter (also top left of STUDY chapters) Questions that need to be
completed as part of the Assignment Usually an explanation or definition of a specific word or
concept Examples of a specific topic or concept
Take a break from your studies!
Making notes while you study is very important. Spaces have been allocated throughout this manual
for this purpose
Indicates the beginning of an assignment (also top left of
Bibliography for this Module
Assessment Criteria (YOU ARE NOT REQUIRED TO ANSWER THESE STATEMENTS)
Steps to be followed in order to complete/execute/do a specific action or task.
or Question number
Expected time Suggested of completion Duration
(in minutes) (to be completed by the learner)
Formative Q Formative Q Lesson Formative Q Lesson Formative Q Formative Q Formative Q
Lesson Formative Q Lesson
Chapter 1 - Plan, Organise and Allocate Work
Importantance of the work plan to be
aligned with the business plan 30
Page 9 in this guide Page 10 in this guide Communication methods Page 11 in this guide
The planning process Page 16 in the guide Page 16 in the guide Page 17 in the guide
Facilitating the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of the team effectively
Page 27 in the guide
Aligning work in progress with allocated costs
Chapter 2 - Manage interpersonal team processes to achieve required outputs.
Lesson Formative Q Formative Q Lesson Formative Q
Track progress against the plan
Gathering information and reporting it to management
Analysing progress reports and taking corrective action.
Chapter 3 - Evaluate Achievement of Work Unit Objectives.
consolidating financial and work
outcomes for the teams and identify standard results.
Formative Q Summative
communicating results in order to set benchmarks and to improve productivity.
Pages 54 - 61
PLAN, ORGANISE AND
IN THIS CHAPTER:
• LESSON 1.1: IMPORTANTANCE OF THE WORK PLAN TO BE ALIGNED WITH THE BUSINESS PLAN
• LESSON 1.2: COMMUNICATION METHODS
• LESSON 1.3: THE PLANNING PROCESS
• LESSON 1.4: FACILITATING THE ROLES,
RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITIES OF THE
• LESSON 1.5: ALIGNING WORK IN PROGRESS WITH ALLOCATED COSTS
This unit standard is intended for people who are heading up a work unit or supervising a
department or division. Persons credited with this unit standard are able to plan,
organise and allocate work to an individual or members of a team according to the defined business
plan for a work unit within an organisation; and to monitor and evaluate achievement of the defined
objectives for the work unit.
In this unit standard, we are going to cover essential aspects with regards to planning, organising
and allocating work to subordinates, how to manage interpersonal team processes to achieve desired
results and how to evaluate if you have achieved the desired results.
There are four main functions that a supervisor has to perform that cover all of the detailed jobs
above in order to achieve results. The following is a synopsis of these functions.
To establish a course of action. A Supervisor must always be planning and looking ahead.
Organising: To arrange and delegate work to be done in order to make sure the objectives and goals
Leading:To guide or direct subordinates to take the correct action to make sure the objectives are
Controlling: To measure and regulate work to ensure that progress towards objectives is according
In this lesson we are going to take a closer look at why it is important for the work plan to be
aligned with the business plan of the organisation.
1.1.1 Why do you believe it is important to plan?
Planning is that aspect of management in which you determine in advance what you want to achieve
with your business and how you want to achieve it. When you plan, you draw up objectives for your
business, and work out a systematic plan for achieving these objectives.
Profit seeking organisations have a primary goal of attaining an above average return for investors
and their stakeholders. Stakeholders of an organisation include the employees, the customers, the
suppliers, the community and the government. In order for this to be achieved, the company needs to
do planning that will facilitate this goal. Planning is an essential part of any organisation and
it happens at all levels of management. However planning done by supervisors cannot be compared to
planning done by top level managers since their responsibility levels differ. Planning can be very
expensive and although it is an important aspect of an organisation, it should not be done at an
excessive high cost. Planning should be effective. Effective planning does not only
include input (resources) in terms of output, but should also include ethical values and the
satisfaction of employees.
2. TYPES OF PLANNING
• Strategic Planning: This type of planning is mainly done by top management. It includes
planning on how the organisation will align itself with changes in the external environment.
Planning at this level is about creating a vision and mission statement for the organisation, to
transform this mission into measurable long term goals and choosing tactics on how these long term
goals are going to be realised.
• Tactical Planning: This planning deals with action plans that will accomplish the long term
planning of top management. It focuses on the internal environment of
the organisation such as marketing, finance, administration, human resources, purchasing, etc.
Middle management will deal with this kind of planning and will focus on the section of the
organisation which they are responsible for. It is important for department managers to remember
that even though they make plans for their department, the organisation needs to run in synergy.
Their department goals need to be aligned with other departments and should aim towards
accomplishing the organisation’s main goals.
• Operational Planning: This is done by lower management and or supervisors.
This planning includes activities that will facilitate the achieving of the day to day operational
goals. Operational goals are relatively short term goals.
It is clear from the above the that ALL goals should be aligned (support)
to the organisation’s overall business plan.
1.1.2 Write down in your own words your understanding of strategic, tactical and operational
In this lesson you will learn about communication methods and how to use them to communicate the
action plans given to the team.
1.2.1 Write down all the communication methods you can think of.
Communication is a process where a message or information is transferred from one person to another
via a certain medium.
How do we communicate? Verbally:talking and listening.
Writing:letters, memos and reports
Gestures:pointing a finger. Facial expressions: frowning. Posture:sitting, lying down.
Content of communication:
Body language Tone of voice Words
If you are not aware of what your voice sounds like or what your body is doing, you cannot
Communicating a message:
• Prepare the message: what is it you want to say?
• Prepare yourself: make sure you know what you want to say.
• Get attention: call group together.
• Prepare the receiver: tell them what you are going to tell them.
Send the message: tell them.
• Receive feedback: listen to what is said in response.
• Close the message: tell them what you told them.
Check understanding and follow-up: ask them what you told them and you may
• later need to check if they still understand.
2. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Non-verbal communication is also referred to as body language. Being aware of your body language
can help you be more effective in meetings and communication in general.
To effectively utilise body language you have to:
• Learn to observe other people’s body language.
• Learn to be aware of your own body language.
• Learn to read the effect you have on others by reading their body language they give you in
• Learn to send the messages you intend.
• Learn what to do with body language information.
There are three types of body language:
1. Open and approachable.
2. Aggressive or defensive.
3. Passive or protective.
3. LISTENING SKILLS
You spend about 70% of your time communicating in some form or another. This communicating time is
made up as follows:
How much is listened to? Only about 25% of what you say is listened to! And of that 25% only a very
small part is actually understood. In order to be an effective listener you need the following
ATTENDING: increasing your span of attention: Incline your body towards the speaker; Sit forward in
Face the speaker;
Sit with arms and legs open; Keep eye contact.
FOLLOWING: the following can help to follow the person speaking: Encourage the speaker to carry on
Brief responses such as: “oh”, “I see”, and “right”, “yes”, and “go on” Ask open-ended questions.
REFLECTING: you now show the speaker that you are reflecting upon his/her ideas and words:
Tell the speaker what he/she said in your own words. Show that you understand what he/she said.
4. HOW TO GIVE INSTRUCTIONS.
Instructions should be direct and clear so that the receiver knows the “who, what, when, where and
how” a job should be done. People will not be able to do their work well and to the required
standard if instructions are unclear. Here are guidelines to follow when giving instructions:
• Decide what needs to be done; the outcome of the task.
• Supply reasons why the job needs to be done.
• Follow the steps of the jobs in the correct order.
• Use action words or verbs.
• Ask the other person to rephrase the instructions given to them.
• Make sure you use words that are understandable to the other person.
• Use simple and familiar words. Do not use a set of abbreviations that may not be familiar with
the other person.
• If there are any equipment involved in completing this task, make sure the other person knows
how to use the equipment.
• Make sure that your timing in giving the instructions is effective. instructions 5 minutes
before the person is supposed to go home.
• Follow up on progress of how the person is doing with the task.
• Insist on receiving feedback.
Do not give
e11 TEAM SUPERVISOR
12 1 ----
In this lesson we are going to focus on the planning process.
1. THE PLANNING PROCESS
It was discussed in the introduction of this unit standard that in order for supervisors to
accomplish the goals and objectives of the organisation, they first need to plan how they are going
to coordinate the team or individual they are heading up.
The planning process is a process that can be used by the supervisor of how they are going to
accomplish the goals and objectives set out for their particular department or team.
The process of planning:
2. Setting Objectives
6. Select the final
Now lets look at each of these steps in detail.
Forecasting is the process whereby you determine what will happen in the future.
By doing so you will be able to visualise conditions under which you will be operating.
It is, understandably, not easy to predict the future. You can never be 100% sure what will
actually happen in the future. Assumptions concerning the future are based on what happened in the
past and new information/facts you currently have available.
There are three methods of forecasting:
1.Mechanical projection: You presume that what has happened in the past will recur without any
changes, and you project it just as it is. It is obvious that this method of planning is not
adequate. Example: the price of petrol has escalated by
10% over the last year; therefore it will escalate at the same rate next year.
2.Analytical projection: Here we study events of the past as well as their consequences for the
future. You then analyse the effect of the changing circumstances on future events and take them
3.Prediction of Human Behaviour: This is the most unpredictable aspect of any
projection. You have to determine why people act the way they do. You therefore have to know your
people, and the people you deal with regularly, very well. You must understand why they behave the
way they do and what the consequences of their behaviour will be.
FORECASTING WILL NEVER BE TOTALLY CORRECT!
Remember this and be prepared to adjust your planning whenever necessary. Be flexible and consult
with other people.
Do the following forecasting exercise. The price of the BMT HRM Certificate was R5500.00 last year.
This years price is R6600.00. The escalation in price was 20%. This is calculated as follows:
R6600-R5500=R1100. R1100/R5500 x 100 = 20%
1.3.1 If you use the method of Mechanical projection, what will the price be in the following year?
1.3.2 If you heard on the news that the government is going to regulate educational prices and that
the HRM Certificate’s price cannot exceed
R7500. What do you think the price of the HRM Certificate will be the
following year? Motivate your answer.
3. SETTING OBJECTIVES
Now that you have completed your forecast of the future, you need to decide what the desired final
result or objective should be, that which you hope to achieve.
Objectives are statements of measurable improvement , in results, that must be accomplished within
a specific time period.
Objectives are normally relatively short term , one year or less and can change from year to year.
Objectives are made up of two components/elements:
•a statement of intention (what it is that you want to achieve).
•measurement criteria (how you will know that you were successful, i.e. quantity, quality, time and
Draft a new overtime roster.
Must include all employees per shift and completed and approved by Friday, 2 May 20..
The measurement criteria must only define an
(and only one objective per output.)
“To design invitations for a luncheon.”
The above example is not a well stated objective. It is not specific in terms of who, what, where,
etc. It does not state a set date of completion.
On the other hand, “The advertising department needs to design invitations before the 16th of
February 2009 for a clients lunch.” is a well stated and meaningful objective.
1.3.3 Rewrite the following objective and make sure you include what needs to be done, by whom it
needs to be done, by when it needs to be done, etc. The department needs to increase it’s sales by
Now that you have done your forecasting and you have set your objectives, you need to do your
Programming means establishing the sequence and priority of the action steps, to be followed, in
There are three steps that you have to follow:
1. Determine the main steps or actions: Do a brain-storming session, get all the people involved
in the process. Allow them to contribute from their own experience, what they believe the main
steps or actions should be. Write every contribution down. When all have had their say, only then
do you discuss each contribution and determine the priorities of the actions.
Prioritise: Take each of the action steps you have written down in step 1 and decide which of the
steps are the most important in order to accomplish the
Allocate responsibilities: You now determine who will be responsible for
performing the above tasks.
Example: The advertising department needs to design invitations before the
16th of February 2009 for a clients lunch.”
1. Call meeting
2. Assign design team
3. Draft ready
4. Sign draft off
5. Print Invitations
6. Check invitations
7. Distribute invitations
John Davis Sandra Finn Design Team John Davis Jacques Meyer Design Team John Davis
A budget is a document whereby resources necessary to achieve objectives, are allocated.
The necessary costs are therefore also determined. A budget is also a yardstick for measuring
1. Determine beforehand all the resources at your disposal. The main resources include money,
time, personnel and equipment.
Put together an action plan of how to use these resources in the best
2. possible way.
You have now determined the steps/tasks that need to be performed in order of priority and
responsibilities are allocated. You now need to establish the time duration for each step/task.
Scheduling allows you to accurately forecast when the task will be completed, what resources you
will need and when you will need it. It helps you co-ordinate the employees that are responsible
for these tasks.
Refer to the example of the invitations.
John Davis Sandra Finn Design Team John Davis Jacques Meyer Design Team John Davis
Team Design Team John Davis Jacques Meyer Design Team John Davis
Room Room PC Room Printer Room Room
7. SELECT THE FINAL
Go through your entire plan and make sure that you have included everything in you planning
At this stage, it is also important to look at the policies and procedures of the organisation.
Policies and procedures are written instructions from management as to what actions need to be
taken when handling specific problems. This will help you in your planning as certain issues have
already been addressed by management and the best solution has already been selected for you.
Policies and procedures will pre-determine certain solutions for you.
Like rules procedures are already established and available to you in your planning process.
Procedures will help you achieve your objectives through applying standardised methods.
8. HOW TO OVERCOME PLANNING PROBLEMS.
• Allow for subordinates to participate in the planning process.
• Communicate clearly all the advantages and keep subordinates informed.
Ensure that they know what is expected of them.
• Lead them from their comfort zones into the challenges of the unknown.
• Show them that the unknown promises new and exciting challenges.
Let them experience the planned change through the benefits that it holds.
• Use the energy, generated to resist change, in the process of getting people
• involved in changing their environment for the better.
MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS OF PLANNING. TAKE A BREAK!
In this lesson you are going to learn how to facilitate the roles, responsibilities and
accountabilities of the team effectively, in other words, organising.
Duties: The work assigned to a specific position.
Authority: The rights and powers a worker has to perform his/her duties.
Responsibility: Your duty to carry out your tasks and to achieve your objectives.
Accountability: The obligation to perform duties, to exercise authority, and to ensure that
objectives are achieved, in terms of established performance standards. You may delegate duties
together with the necessary authority but you can never delegate accountability.
1. ORGANISATIONAL CONCEPTS.
Difference between Responsibility and Accountability:
Your manager delegates a task to you. You are now responsible for carrying out the task. Your
manager, however, remains accountable for the task. If that task is not performed to standard, you
are responsible, but your manager is accountable.
Organising takes place when two or more people work together to achieve common purpose. This means
that one must determine in advance how,
where, by whom, when and with what resources the jobs must be carried out to achieve the objectives
of the business.
2. DEVELOPING AN ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE IN YOUR TEAM.
As a supervisor or team leader, your part in developing organisational structure within your team
will be limited to identify and group the work that must be done in your department, section or
area. Developing Organisation Structures is the work of Senior Management. We will, however briefly
look at two types of organisation structures:
(i) Formal Organisation Structure: This structure shows : job titles;
: levels of authority;
: communication lines;
: task responsibilities.
The formal organisation structure holds the company together; it ensures that the different
departments and sections work together as a unit and in harmony. It ensures that all employees
achieve the same objectives.
(ii) Informal Organisation Structure:
This is normally the structure that accommodates the social contact between workers. It is done
informally and develops spontaneously in groups of people with the same interests. Notwithstanding
the fact that these structures are informal, they fulfil a very important function in the
organisation as they cater for the social needs of employees. Examples are:
Dart or table tennis groups; Lift clubs;
Prayer groups; Hiking clubs.
Delegating is a crucial part of a supervisor’s work. It is also the area of your responsibility
where you need the greatest amount of discretion to decide what and what not to delegate.
Delegation is when you decide to turn over to a subordinate the freedom to carry out the
responsibilities associated with key performance areas of his/her job, always with the necessary
follow-up and control.
One of the best ways to motivate subordinates is to give them the freedom to decide how the job
must be done. The decisions which employees are most committed to, are those which they have made
Advantages of delegation are:
•Gives you additional time and allows you to control your time.
•You can now focus on those aspects of your job that only you are qualified to do.
•You can now also properly plan and anticipate problems.
•It motivates employees.
•It increases their self-worth.
•It increases their skills and knowledge.
Before an employee can assume the responsibility of delegation he/she must obviously possess the
necessary knowledge and skill to effectively carry out that responsibility. When an employee takes
on delegated responsibility, he/she must know that there are three constraints upon him:
1. Objectives and standards.
3. Degree of Freedom (Authority).
Action steps for Delegating Responsibility:
If you want to assist your employees to deal effectively with the abovementioned three constraints,
apply the following action steps:
• State the responsibility that you would like the employee to handle and why.
• Describe the new responsibility, giving specific tasks, performance standards, and
degrees of freedom (authority).
Ask for the employee’s reaction.
• Listen to the employee’s comments and respond openly, acknowledging concerns.
Ask for the employee’s agreement and offer your assistance.
4. MANAGING DIVERSITY
In South Africa, we have many different cultures that are represented in our workforce. In order
for teams in the organisation to work efficiently and effectively, the cultural differences of
people need to be understood and properly managed.
The challenge is to make sure that all employees with their different languages, backgrounds,
lifestyles, etc. are all accommodated. It is important not to overlook these differences but to
recognise these differences and celebrate them. Cultures can learn from each other.
Culture refers to the way we do things, what we like and dislike, what we eat and how we eat, what
we wear, what songs we sing and how we dance. What we believe in and what we fear.
• Culture shows itself by the way people speak and behave.
• It can also be seen in the way that people act and interact every day. What and how do
they use tools, toys, what they eat and how they travel.
Culture can also be seen in people’s art, their songs, and their poetry.
• Organisational culture can also be seen in the uniforms and overalls people wear, how
their offices are furnished and their logos.
• Culture is recognised by its symbols: # Hell’s Angels wear leather jackets and ride on
Culture in an Organisation:
•Organisations have their own cultures.
•Ideas, habits, the way of doing things, rules, procedures that apply and are shared by all groups
in the organisation, are the culture of that organisation.
•Organisational culture stays the same for a long period of time.
•When a group of people work together for a long time, they discover ways to do things.
•They discover the best, the easiest, the shortest or the most comfortable way of doing their jobs
or to solve problems.
•These convenient ways to do things become the organisation’s culture.
Types of Cultures:
• Religious cultures: Hindu, Islam, Zion Christian Church, Dutch Reformed Church.
• Ethnic Cultures: Chinese, Shona, Zulu, Pedi, Xhosa, German, Afrikaner.
Political cultures: ANC, Inkhata, NNP, DP, UDM.
• Art cultures: Reggae, Blues, Roman –Dutch, Renaissance.
• Sports cultures: Kaizer Chiefs, Bafana-bafana, Amabokoboko, Comrades marathon.
Business cultures: Coca-Cola, Camel, Marlboro, Anglo-American, M-Net.
• Family cultures: a combination of all the above.
Traditions and Behaviour:
A tradition is an unwritten body of beliefs and practices. These beliefs and practices become
customs and are of longstanding nature. They are handed down from generation to generation.
In some Black cultures it is tradition to ask the forefather’s blessing before someone is leaving
on a long trip. Beer and snuff are thrown on the ground and then the ancestors are asked to protect
the traveller. In Western cultures it is tradition to have trees decorated over Christmas and gifts
Opinions and Culture:
Our views of other people are often based on what we see and hear from or about them. These views
or opinions are often not based on fact. It is only when you experience first hand the ways of
others that you really begin to understand them.
Can We Change Culture?
• Culture is learned from a young age.
• The traditions of a culture are so often repeated that they become firm habits.
People seldom, if ever, question these habits, traditions and behaviours of their
• own culture.
It is never easy for people to change.
Therefore we must find ways to accept and understand each other.
• We should rather appreciate each other’s ways of doing things than fight about it.
• People from different cultural groups often have different viewpoints and skills,
different ways of doing things that we can learn from.
Ways To Understand Cultural Diversity:
• Be aware of your own assumptions about other cultures.
• Try to learn more about other cultures. Try and understand why they do things the way
If you understand why people do things in a certain way, you can be more
• understanding and patient and problems can be prevented.
How you see people will influence your behaviour towards them. Ensure that your
views are based on fact.
• Differences in culture are simply different starting points to achieve the same
Working In a Multi-Cultural Environment:
• All people belong to cultural groups, all of us to more than one. These groups are
different in nature.
The ways we behave are the results of our cultural differences.
• Cultural differences may awaken feelings of discomfort, uncertainty and fear.
• In the workplace differences in culture can be used to benefit all.
The future challenge for employees is to find out how they can use their
• differences to the advantage of all. The differences become a starting point and a
• bridge to overcome problems rather than a barrier.
The most important interpersonal skill that we all will have to acquire is the ability
to interact and communicate effectively across cultures.
Co-ordination is used where two or more people need to work together to achieve the same goal or
Co-ordination is the process whereby the supervisor accomplishes unity among the team members and
Methods for achieving co-ordination:
• Mutual adjustment: This includes achieving co-ordination through face-to-face
interpersonal interaction. The supervisor of the team sets certain rules and procedures for the
team members. When these team members start with the actual project they need to do, unexpected
problems arise. As these problems arise the team members interact with each other in order to solve
these problems. This interaction is referred to as mutual adjustment.
Rules or procedures: If the work is planned in advanced, the supervisor can allocate certain
actions to the team members. Rules and procedures can be useful when certain activities are
recurring. This ensures a course of action that team
• members will follow, if a specific action arises.
Direct supervision: This is achieved when one person co-ordinates the work of the team members. The
person gives instructions to team members and monitors the results.
6. RULES FOR HEALTHY WORK RELATIONSHIPS
• Always keep your subordinates informed.
• Allow them to participate in accordance with their capabilities and experience.
Remember that you are your subordinates’ representative to higher levels of
You and your subordinates must adhere to the chain of command. Give recognition where due.
• Discourage negativeness.
• Encourage team spirit.
In this lesson you are going to learn about aligning work in progress with allocated costs.
Work in progress can be defined as a piece of work that is not yet finished.
1. WHAT IS WORK IN PROGRESS?
Some tasks or activities can take a long time before they are completed. It is vital to calculate
and allocate costs to these specific tasks as they are concluded. This will ensure that you keep to
your budget. If you are allocating the costs and you realise you are overspending, you can also
adjust the costs for future action steps to align with your budget. This will ensure that the total
costs of your project is still within your original budgeted amount.
You are halfway through the month. You budgeted R3000 for food this month. You add all your food
bills and realised you already spent R3000 on food. You have a budget of R2000 allocated for
spending and have only spent R1000 on spending. Since you realise your shortfall and food takes a
decide to cut down on your spending money so that you can have more money for your food.
MANAGE INTERPERSONAL TEAM PROCESSES TO
ACHIEVE REQUIRED OUTPUTS.
IN THIS CHAPTER:
• LESSON 2.1: DEVELOPING AND ARRANGING PROCESSES TO MONITOR WORK PROGRESS, IN OTHER WORDS
• LESSON 2.2: TRACK PROGRESS AGAINST THE PLAN.
• LESSON 2.3: GATHERING INFORMATION AND REPORTING IT TO MANAGEMENT.
• LESSON 2.4: ANALYSING PROGRESS REPORTS AND TAKING CORRECTIVE ACTION.
In this lesson we are going to focus on developing and arranging processes to monitor work
progress, in other words leading.
Leading is the art of influencing the behaviour of other people in order to achieve results.
Sets goals Communicate Motivate Coach
Deputise (represents) Supervise
Control Plan React
2. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LEADING AND SUPERVISING
A supervisor will take control over tasks. A supervisor tends to own tasks and the way tasks are
A leader encourages others to own the work and the end result. The leader initiates.
3. RESPONSIBILITIES OF
• Identify your own strengths and areas for improvement in order for you to develop and
improve your leadership skills.
Be consciously aware of your position and the effect you will have on others,
• particularly when dealing with employees from different ethnic and cultural groups.
You must think and act like a leader.
You must be concerned about the welfare and growth of your subordinates. Train
• and develop them.
• People like to feel important, welcome ideas from your subordinates.
Do not be afraid to make mistakes. Learn from your mistakes and tolerate those
who are making mistakes. Mistakes can also be educational.
• Keep your promises.
• Lead by example.
4. LEADERSHIP STYLES
There are four basic leadership styles:
Autocratic Bureaucratic Laissez-fair Democratic
- telling people what to do
- selling ideas to people
- leaving people to do their own thing
- consulting with and involving people
CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS STYLES:
•keeps vital information to him/herself.
•makes decisions without consulting his/her team.
•announces or dictates his/her decisions to his/her team.
•does not allow group discussions or evaluation of decisions because he/she does. not want to be
•disregards the views and feelings of subordinates.
•accepts full responsibility/accountability for decisions made.
•has a broad and diversified knowledge and experience of issues involved.
•gets what he/she wants.
•leads by fear.
•makes decisions on his/her own.
•sells decisions by concentrating on the advantages of his/her decisions.
•appears to consult his/her team by approaching them individually and privately.
•knows the standpoints of the individual team members and then uses personal influence and group
pressure to persuade those who do not follow.
•manoeuvre, bargains and compromises to gain his/her own way.
•listens attentively so that he/she can use the information in counter arguments.
•invites the team to join him in decision making.
•keeps all the team members happy and involved and everyone has an equal say.
•creates an informal, permissive atmosphere in which ideas are freely expressed, shared and
•has a high level of participation in meetings.
•transfers major part of responsibility to team.
•can lose control of the situation.
•can be seen as weak.
•only effective with team of high specialised subordinates.
•makes tentative decisions, then consults his/her team.
•is prepared to alter or change his/her decisions based on input from team.
•makes final decisions based on input from team.
•creates a climate of mutual trust and confidence during discussions.
•takes into account the effects of decisions on his/her subordinates.
•has a high level of commitment and support from his/her team.
2.1.1 You have a subordinate that always challenges your way of doing things. You have an important
project coming up and your deadline is soon. What kind of leadership style would you use in this
situation. Motivate your answer.
Which style is the best?
There is no one best style. You must supervise/manage every situation on its merits and use the
style most suited for that situation. To be effective and efficient your style must be consistent
with the realities of the situation.
5. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES
In order for you to be an effective leader, you have to get your subordinates to:
•accept the goals of the organisation.
•ensure their work makes a meaningful contribution to these goals.
•merit their wages and salary.
•display reasonable initiative within the limitations of their jobs.
•be loyal to the company and their leader.
•try and adjust to their leader’s style.
•keep you informed.
•abide by the rules, regulations and policies of the company.
•try and get on with others in a civil manner.
•accept the need for change and modification.
•keep themselves informed.
•ensure they understand instructions.
•train and develop them as much as possible within their own jobs.
6. AUTHORITY AND POWER
Every Supervisor is also a leader who sees to it that subordinates co-operate in attaining the
goals of the organisation. Without authority, no supervisor can manage. Authority has to do with
the obtaining of the right to enforce certain actions, within certain guidelines, and the right to
Authority is closely related to leadership. Authority is awarded to a supervisor by the management
of an organisation. Unlike authority, power is not awarded to a supervisor, but is obtained in
This is also the important difference between authority and power. Authority is awarded and power
is earned or obtained. Power is thus the basis for leadership!
Power is the ability to influence the behaviour of others. It has nothing to do with the
hierarchical position held by a supervisor and is not obtained through a title. For this reason it
is better to be a supervisor with both authority and power.
To have power, a leader must have followers (subordinates). Without authority and power a leader
will not be able to influence others to attain goals.
Types of Power: Legitimate power:
This authority allocated to a supervisor by the organisation and is the same as authority described
above. According to this type of power a supervisor can instruct and discipline.
Supervisor can give or withhold rewards.
This is exercised through fear.
Also referred to as personal power. Subordinates will follow a leader because they like him/her or
respect him/her or identify with him/her.
based on the knowledge and experience a leader has.
Money can buy you power.
7. DECISION MAKING
Decision making can be defined as an action that determines the flow of events.
The Stages of Decision Making:
Step 1: Establish aims :
What are the end result/s that you want to achieve and how will you know that you have achieved
them? Against what standards will you measure your success? A decision
involves a choice and stating the aim that you want to achieve limits the alternatives you
have to consider.
Step 2: Establish the success criteria of the decision:
In order to know whether your decision was effective or not, you have to, beforehand, specify the
standards or criteria the decision needs to satisfy. What resources (labour, finances, time, and
equipment) can be utilised and what company policies and procedures or regulations may have to be
taken into account? What are your restrictions?
Step 3: Generating alternatives:
The two activities concerned here are collecting information and developing alternative solutions.
To make a good decision, the more information you have the better. When looking for alternative
solutions you have to analyse all the information you
have collected, consider past experience and then be creative to find new solutions!
Finding the best solution is not just a matter of logic and analysis. Other people’s views can be
of great help. You must identify the cause of the problem, not only the symptoms.
Step 4: Evaluating alternatives:
When assessing risk two common issues arise:
•the chance of the decision going wrong (probability of failure);
•the seriousness of the consequences.
All decisions bear an element of risk and it is only natural that you will anticipate this and take
steps to minimise the impact of failure. The simplest way of assessing risk is to:
•Consider what could go wrong relative to the success criteria you have set;
•Determine the level of risk: high (H), medium (M), low (L).
•Consider what the impact of the negative consequences is and what can be done to minimise this.
Step 5: Implementing and Evaluating decisions:
Implement your chosen alternative (choice) by discussing it with your subordinates. Explain to them
why this specific choice and what you want to achieve with it. Get them committed!
You may need to plan the implementation with your subordinates, especially if it concerns major
•Determine how things will look when a decision is fully implemented.
•Chronologically order the steps necessary for implementation.
•List the resources necessary to implement.
•Estimate the time for each step.
•Assign the responsibility for each step to individuals (DELEGATE!).
The final stage is to evaluate the success of your decision. You must, as soon as possible after
implementation, start collecting information relating to the aims and
success criteria of the decision. This will allow you to accurately determine the success or
failure of your decision. You must know why you were successful or why not!
2.1.2 You decide you want to study. You can study distance education or enroll for full time
studies. Use the steps of decision making to make the decision. Write down every step and the
factors that come into play with that particular step.
Motivation is primarily concerned with the behaviour of people and why people behave in a certain
way. Motivation is not behaviour itself, neither is it performance! Motivation concerns action and
the internal and external forces that will influence a person’s choice of action.
If you as a supervisor want to improve the performance of your subordinates you need to know what
is going to motivate your subordinates.
Lets look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
•The primary needs are physiological and are for food, drink, shelter and sex.
Little energy will be aimed at satisfying the other needs unless the primary needs are satisfied.
• The safety needs are next on the list. These are for physical safety at work and
at home, economic security, and job security. Fair payment and fringe benefits, including pension,
life and accident insurance are important. One of the
reasons individuals resist change is because their safety needs are threatened.
• Social needs are those for acceptance, to belong to a group and for love and affection.
In the work environment this is achieved through induction programs, socializing and team
• The next categories of needs are those for recognition, status and esteem.
Each of us needs to be recognized for our capabilities and achievements by our superiors, peers,
and subordinates. We also need to have self-respect. This is
achieved in the work environment by tangible things such as rewards, titles, cars, and other status
• The highest need is for self-actualisation and achievement. The need is to fulfil
oneself and to make something of one's life and to use one's capabilities to their maximum.
Maslow assumed that a person would attempt to satisfy the more basic needs before satisfying the
higher level needs. In one sense this is true because a person who is hungry, thirsty and without
shelter will not be interested in achievement. However, this is not always true as other factors
can also affect motivation.
Self Actualisation Needs
Personal Growth and Fulfillment
Self-Respect, Status, Achievement, Responsibility
Affection, Acceptance, Family, Relationships, Work Group
Protection, Security, Order, Law, Limits, Stability
Biological and Physiological Needs
Basic Life Needs : Hunger, Air, Water/Drink, Shelter, Warmth, Sex, Sleep
For example: If one of your subordinates does not have a permanent place to live in and he / she
battles to provide food for the family, it will be pointless to try motivating him or her with a
specific job title (which is on level 5). Motivation should happen on the level where the person
feels the need.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Guidelines for Motivating and Empowering:
• Recognise and respect individuals especially where there are different cultures.
• Practice participation but don’t be scared to say what you want.
Be clear on what is expected.
• Provide the right environment.
• Lead by example.
9. ESTEEM AND COMPETENCE
Levels of Esteem:
1.Self-esteem: How you view yourself.
2.Esteem from others: How others view you, your need for recognition and appreciation.
The above two levels of esteem are very closely interrelated. Your feelings about yourself are
often influenced by the way other people relate to you. The way you feel about yourself and the way
you experience how others feel about you is very important in the process of self-motivation.
A major motivator is a desire to be competent. You want to control your environment rather than
being controlled by it. To be competent is to be successful and success is important for continuous
personal growth and feelings of self-worth.
As a supervisor you must create an environment in which your subordinates can give expression to
their creativity and be allowed to demonstrate competence. This is necessary because the way
employees feel about themselves and their level of competence strongly influences their work
It is a fact that a person who feels confident and competent is more likely to perform at a higher
How to Maintain and Improve Self-worth and Competence:
• Praise specific results achieved.
• Praise effort as well as achievement.
Show interest for ideas and suggestions.
• Use employees’ names.
• Ask for ideas and suggestions.
Accept differences in others.
• Ask employees to train others.
• Tell employees what you expect of them, i.e. to perform well.
• Keep appointments with employees.
• Recognise important events in people’s lives.
• Give reasons for instructions.
• Support other’s actions and statements.
• Ask someone to take control of a meeting.
Spend time with others.
• •Pay attention to others.
THIS WASLONG LESSON. TAKE SOME TIME OUT AND MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND ALL THE CONCEPTS OF THIS
e11 TEAM SUPERVISOR
36 1 ----
In this lesson you are going to learn how to track progress against the plan.
Communication is a process where a message or information is transferred from one person to another
via a certain medium.
The reason why organisations implement control procedures is to make sure that the goals they have
set are being achieved and that the resources are used productively.
Control is important because it ensures the following:
•It makes sure the activities and tasks that are accomplished are in line with the goals and
mission of the organisation.
•It makes sure that all the resources used to accomplish these tasks are utilised correctly and not
wasted in the process.
•It ensures better quality of tasks, services and production.
•It makes sure that employees are doing their work correctly.
2. TYPES OF CONTROLLING
• Personal observation:
The supervisor personally checks the work done by subordinates. Changes or deviations in work being
performed are spotted immediately and corrected very quickly.
The disadvantages of this type of control are that it limits delegation and it makes employees feel
that they are not trusted. This type of control must only be used when no other methods can apply.
•Control by exception:
The supervisor uses resources to make comparisons between actual results and objectives and then
he/she controls the deviations which occur. You will therefore only control by exception and allow
the employee to perform at standard. A condition for this type of control is that employees must
report on progress on a regular basis.
3. CONTROL ACTIVITIES
There are four different activities:
1. Developing performance standard