How does this module work

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TEAM SUPERVISOR READ THIS BEFORE YOU DO ANYTHING ELSE! 1. TUTORIAL INTRODUCTION 2. HOW DOES THIS MODULE WORK? This module is grouped into different chapters. In Chapter 1 we will start with a foundational understanding of supervision that will prepare you for the rest of the programme. Chapters start with a title followed by the lessons for that chapter, or what you will learn in that chapter. This is usually followed by the Assessment Criteria. This is a statement of what will be assessed on in order to declare you competent against the Unit Standard. YOU ARE NOT REQUIRED TO ANSWER THESE STATEMENTS. We are only informing you on WHAT you will be assessed on in that specific chapter. In this Module you will learn to: •Plan, Organise and Allocate Work •Manage interpersonal team processes to achieve required outputs. •Evaluate Achievement of Work Unit Objectives. 2 STUDY INSTRUCTIONS 3. ICONS USED IN THIS MANUAL LESSON 1 Indicates the start of a new lesson Indicates the start of a Chapter (also top left of STUDY chapters) Questions that need to be completed as part of the Assignment Usually an explanation or definition of a specific word or concept Examples of a specific topic or concept Important information. Take a break from your studies! Making notes while you study is very important. Spaces have been allocated throughout this manual for this purpose Indicates the beginning of an assignment (also top left of ASSIGNMENT sections) Bibliography for this Module Assessment Criteria (YOU ARE NOT REQUIRED TO ANSWER THESE STATEMENTS) Steps to be followed in order to complete/execute/do a specific action or task. 3 Type Lesson or Question number Description STUDY PLANNER Expected time Suggested of completion Duration (in minutes) (to be completed by the learner) Lesson Formative Q Formative Q Lesson Formative Q Lesson Formative Q Formative Q Formative Q Lesson Formative Q Lesson 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.4.1 1.5 Chapter 1 - Plan, Organise and Allocate Work Importantance of the work plan to be aligned with the business plan 30 Page 9 in this guide Page 10 in this guide Communication methods Page 11 in this guide The planning process Page 16 in the guide Page 16 in the guide Page 17 in the guide Facilitating the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of the team effectively Page 27 in the guide Aligning work in progress with allocated costs Chapter 2 - Manage interpersonal team processes to achieve required outputs. Lesson Formative Q Formative Q Lesson Formative Q Lesson Lesson Formative Q 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 2.2.1 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 Leading Page 31 Page 34 Track progress against the plan Page 41 Gathering information and reporting it to management Analysing progress reports and taking corrective action. Page 49 Chapter 3 - Evaluate Achievement of Work Unit Objectives. consolidating financial and work Lesson 3.1 outcomes for the teams and identify standard results. Lesson Formative Q Summative 3.2 3.2.1 communicating results in order to set benchmarks and to improve productivity. Page 53 Pages 54 - 61 CHAPTER 1 PLAN, ORGANISE AND ALLOCATE WORK IN THIS CHAPTER: • INTRODUCTION • LESSON 1.1: IMPORTANTANCE OF THE WORK PLAN TO BE ALIGNED WITH THE BUSINESS PLAN • LESSON 1.2: COMMUNICATION METHODS • LESSON 1.3: THE PLANNING PROCESS • LESSON 1.4: FACILITATING THE ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITIES OF THE TEAM EFFECTIVELY • LESSON 1.5: ALIGNING WORK IN PROGRESS WITH ALLOCATED COSTS TEAM SUPERVISOR INTRODUCTION This unit standard is intended for people who are heading up a work unit or supervising a department or division. Persons credited with this unit standard are able to plan, organise and allocate work to an individual or members of a team according to the defined business plan for a work unit within an organisation; and to monitor and evaluate achievement of the defined objectives for the work unit. In this unit standard, we are going to cover essential aspects with regards to planning, organising and allocating work to subordinates, how to manage interpersonal team processes to achieve desired results and how to evaluate if you have achieved the desired results. There are four main functions that a supervisor has to perform that cover all of the detailed jobs above in order to achieve results. The following is a synopsis of these functions. Planning: To establish a course of action. A Supervisor must always be planning and looking ahead. Organising: To arrange and delegate work to be done in order to make sure the objectives and goals are accomplished. Leading:To guide or direct subordinates to take the correct action to make sure the objectives are met. Controlling: To measure and regulate work to ensure that progress towards objectives is according to plan. 6 LESSON 1.1 In this lesson we are going to take a closer look at why it is important for the work plan to be aligned with the business plan of the organisation. 1.1.1 Why do you believe it is important to plan? Planning is that aspect of management in which you determine in advance what you want to achieve with your business and how you want to achieve it. When you plan, you draw up objectives for your business, and work out a systematic plan for achieving these objectives. 1. PLANNING Profit seeking organisations have a primary goal of attaining an above average return for investors and their stakeholders. Stakeholders of an organisation include the employees, the customers, the suppliers, the community and the government. In order for this to be achieved, the company needs to do planning that will facilitate this goal. Planning is an essential part of any organisation and it happens at all levels of management. However planning done by supervisors cannot be compared to planning done by top level managers since their responsibility levels differ. Planning can be very expensive and although it is an important aspect of an organisation, it should not be done at an excessive high cost. Planning should be effective. Effective planning does not only include input (resources) in terms of output, but should also include ethical values and the satisfaction of employees. 2. TYPES OF PLANNING • Strategic Planning: This type of planning is mainly done by top management. It includes planning on how the organisation will align itself with changes in the external environment. Planning at this level is about creating a vision and mission statement for the organisation, to transform this mission into measurable long term goals and choosing tactics on how these long term goals are going to be realised. LESSON 1.1 • Tactical Planning: This planning deals with action plans that will accomplish the long term planning of top management. It focuses on the internal environment of 7 TEAM SUPERVISOR the organisation such as marketing, finance, administration, human resources, purchasing, etc. Middle management will deal with this kind of planning and will focus on the section of the organisation which they are responsible for. It is important for department managers to remember that even though they make plans for their department, the organisation needs to run in synergy. Their department goals need to be aligned with other departments and should aim towards accomplishing the organisation’s main goals. • Operational Planning: This is done by lower management and or supervisors. This planning includes activities that will facilitate the achieving of the day to day operational goals. Operational goals are relatively short term goals. It is clear from the above the that ALL goals should be aligned (support) to the organisation’s overall business plan. 1.1.2 Write down in your own words your understanding of strategic, tactical and operational planning. 8 LESSON 1.2 In this lesson you will learn about communication methods and how to use them to communicate the action plans given to the team. LESSON 1.2 1.2.1 Write down all the communication methods you can think of. 1. COMMUNICATION Communication is a process where a message or information is transferred from one person to another via a certain medium. How do we communicate? Verbally:talking and listening. Writing:letters, memos and reports Gestures:pointing a finger. Facial expressions: frowning. Posture:sitting, lying down. Locomotion:moving about. Content of communication: Body language Tone of voice Words TOTAL = 55%. = 38%. = 7%. = 100% If you are not aware of what your voice sounds like or what your body is doing, you cannot communicate effectively! Communicating a message: • Prepare the message: what is it you want to say? • Prepare yourself: make sure you know what you want to say. 9 TEAM SUPERVISOR • Get attention: call group together. • Prepare the receiver: tell them what you are going to tell them. Send the message: tell them. • Receive feedback: listen to what is said in response. • Close the message: tell them what you told them. Check understanding and follow-up: ask them what you told them and you may • later need to check if they still understand. • 2. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Non-verbal communication is also referred to as body language. Being aware of your body language can help you be more effective in meetings and communication in general. To effectively utilise body language you have to: • Learn to observe other people’s body language. • Learn to be aware of your own body language. • Learn to read the effect you have on others by reading their body language they give you in response. • Learn to send the messages you intend. • Learn what to do with body language information. There are three types of body language: 1. Open and approachable. 2. Aggressive or defensive. 3. Passive or protective. 3. LISTENING SKILLS You spend about 70% of your time communicating in some form or another. This communicating time is made up as follows: 45% listening 30% speaking 15% reading 10% writing How much is listened to? Only about 25% of what you say is listened to! And of that 25% only a very small part is actually understood. In order to be an effective listener you need the following skills: 10 ATTENDING: increasing your span of attention: Incline your body towards the speaker; Sit forward in your chair; Face the speaker; Sit with arms and legs open; Keep eye contact. FOLLOWING: the following can help to follow the person speaking: Encourage the speaker to carry on speaking. Brief responses such as: “oh”, “I see”, and “right”, “yes”, and “go on” Ask open-ended questions. REFLECTING: you now show the speaker that you are reflecting upon his/her ideas and words: Tell the speaker what he/she said in your own words. Show that you understand what he/she said. LESSON 1.2 4. HOW TO GIVE INSTRUCTIONS. Instructions should be direct and clear so that the receiver knows the “who, what, when, where and how” a job should be done. People will not be able to do their work well and to the required standard if instructions are unclear. Here are guidelines to follow when giving instructions: • Decide what needs to be done; the outcome of the task. • Supply reasons why the job needs to be done. • Follow the steps of the jobs in the correct order. • Use action words or verbs. • Ask the other person to rephrase the instructions given to them. • Make sure you use words that are understandable to the other person. • Use simple and familiar words. Do not use a set of abbreviations that may not be familiar with the other person. • If there are any equipment involved in completing this task, make sure the other person knows how to use the equipment. • Make sure that your timing in giving the instructions is effective. instructions 5 minutes before the person is supposed to go home. • Follow up on progress of how the person is doing with the task. • Insist on receiving feedback. Do not give 11 e11 TEAM SUPERVISOR NOTES: 12 1 ---- LESSON 1.3 In this lesson we are going to focus on the planning process. 1. THE PLANNING PROCESS It was discussed in the introduction of this unit standard that in order for supervisors to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organisation, they first need to plan how they are going to coordinate the team or individual they are heading up. The planning process is a process that can be used by the supervisor of how they are going to accomplish the goals and objectives set out for their particular department or team. The process of planning: 1. Forecasting 2. Setting Objectives 3. Programming 4. Scheduling 5. Budgeting 6. Select the final Now lets look at each of these steps in detail. LESSON 1.3 13 TEAM SUPERVISOR 2. FORECASTING Forecasting is the process whereby you determine what will happen in the future. By doing so you will be able to visualise conditions under which you will be operating. It is, understandably, not easy to predict the future. You can never be 100% sure what will actually happen in the future. Assumptions concerning the future are based on what happened in the past and new information/facts you currently have available. There are three methods of forecasting: 1.Mechanical projection: You presume that what has happened in the past will recur without any changes, and you project it just as it is. It is obvious that this method of planning is not adequate. Example: the price of petrol has escalated by 10% over the last year; therefore it will escalate at the same rate next year. 2.Analytical projection: Here we study events of the past as well as their consequences for the future. You then analyse the effect of the changing circumstances on future events and take them into account. 3.Prediction of Human Behaviour: This is the most unpredictable aspect of any projection. You have to determine why people act the way they do. You therefore have to know your people, and the people you deal with regularly, very well. You must understand why they behave the way they do and what the consequences of their behaviour will be. FORECASTING WILL NEVER BE TOTALLY CORRECT! Remember this and be prepared to adjust your planning whenever necessary. Be flexible and consult with other people. Do the following forecasting exercise. The price of the BMT HRM Certificate was R5500.00 last year. This years price is R6600.00. The escalation in price was 20%. This is calculated as follows: R6600-R5500=R1100. R1100/R5500 x 100 = 20% 1.3.1 If you use the method of Mechanical projection, what will the price be in the following year? 1.3.2 If you heard on the news that the government is going to regulate educational prices and that the HRM Certificate’s price cannot exceed R7500. What do you think the price of the HRM Certificate will be the following year? Motivate your answer. 14 LESSON 1.3 3. SETTING OBJECTIVES Now that you have completed your forecast of the future, you need to decide what the desired final result or objective should be, that which you hope to achieve. Objectives are statements of measurable improvement , in results, that must be accomplished within a specific time period. Objectives are normally relatively short term , one year or less and can change from year to year. Objectives are made up of two components/elements: •a statement of intention (what it is that you want to achieve). •measurement criteria (how you will know that you were successful, i.e. quantity, quality, time and cost). INTENTION Draft a new overtime roster. MEASUREMENT CRITERIA Must include all employees per shift and completed and approved by Friday, 2 May 20.. The measurement criteria must only define an •end result, •an output, (and only one objective per output.) “To design invitations for a luncheon.” The above example is not a well stated objective. It is not specific in terms of who, what, where, etc. It does not state a set date of completion. On the other hand, “The advertising department needs to design invitations before the 16th of February 2009 for a clients lunch.” is a well stated and meaningful objective. 1.3.3 Rewrite the following objective and make sure you include what needs to be done, by whom it needs to be done, by when it needs to be done, etc. The department needs to increase it’s sales by 10% 15 TEAM SUPERVISOR 4. PROGRAMMING: Now that you have done your forecasting and you have set your objectives, you need to do your programming. Programming means establishing the sequence and priority of the action steps, to be followed, in achieving objectives. There are three steps that you have to follow: 1. Determine the main steps or actions: Do a brain-storming session, get all the people involved in the process. Allow them to contribute from their own experience, what they believe the main steps or actions should be. Write every contribution down. When all have had their say, only then do you discuss each contribution and determine the priorities of the actions. Prioritise: Take each of the action steps you have written down in step 1 and decide which of the steps are the most important in order to accomplish the 2. goal. Allocate responsibilities: You now determine who will be responsible for performing the above tasks. 3. Example: The advertising department needs to design invitations before the 16th of February 2009 for a clients lunch.” Action Steps 1. Call meeting 2. Assign design team 3. Draft ready 4. Sign draft off 5. Print Invitations 6. Check invitations 7. Distribute invitations Person Responsible John Davis Sandra Finn Design Team John Davis Jacques Meyer Design Team John Davis 16 5. BUDGETING A budget is a document whereby resources necessary to achieve objectives, are allocated. The necessary costs are therefore also determined. A budget is also a yardstick for measuring results. LESSON 1.3 1. Determine beforehand all the resources at your disposal. The main resources include money, time, personnel and equipment. Put together an action plan of how to use these resources in the best 2. possible way. 6. SCHEDULING You have now determined the steps/tasks that need to be performed in order of priority and responsibilities are allocated. You now need to establish the time duration for each step/task. Scheduling allows you to accurately forecast when the task will be completed, what resources you will need and when you will need it. It helps you co-ordinate the employees that are responsible for these tasks. Refer to the example of the invitations. Programming Scheduling Budget Action Steps 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Responsible Person John Davis Sandra Finn Design Team John Davis Jacques Meyer Design Team John Davis Deadline Date 30/01/2009 02/02/2009 08/02/2009 09/02/2009 13/02/2009 14/02/2009 15/02/2009 Material 0 0 0 Paper Paper 0 Envelopes Labour Team Team Design Team John Davis Jacques Meyer Design Team John Davis Equipment Room Room PC Room Printer Room Room Costs R500 R200 R4000 R200 R3000 R500 R500 17 TEAM SUPERVISOR 7. SELECT THE FINAL Go through your entire plan and make sure that you have included everything in you planning session. At this stage, it is also important to look at the policies and procedures of the organisation. Policies and procedures are written instructions from management as to what actions need to be taken when handling specific problems. This will help you in your planning as certain issues have already been addressed by management and the best solution has already been selected for you. Policies and procedures will pre-determine certain solutions for you. Like rules procedures are already established and available to you in your planning process. Procedures will help you achieve your objectives through applying standardised methods. 8. HOW TO OVERCOME PLANNING PROBLEMS. • Allow for subordinates to participate in the planning process. • Communicate clearly all the advantages and keep subordinates informed. Ensure that they know what is expected of them. • Lead them from their comfort zones into the challenges of the unknown. • Show them that the unknown promises new and exciting challenges. Let them experience the planned change through the benefits that it holds. • Use the energy, generated to resist change, in the process of getting people • involved in changing their environment for the better. • MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS OF PLANNING. TAKE A BREAK! 18 LESSON 1.4 In this lesson you are going to learn how to facilitate the roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of the team effectively, in other words, organising. Duties: The work assigned to a specific position. Authority: The rights and powers a worker has to perform his/her duties. Responsibility: Your duty to carry out your tasks and to achieve your objectives. Accountability: The obligation to perform duties, to exercise authority, and to ensure that objectives are achieved, in terms of established performance standards. You may delegate duties together with the necessary authority but you can never delegate accountability. 1. ORGANISATIONAL CONCEPTS. Difference between Responsibility and Accountability: Your manager delegates a task to you. You are now responsible for carrying out the task. Your manager, however, remains accountable for the task. If that task is not performed to standard, you are responsible, but your manager is accountable. Organising takes place when two or more people work together to achieve common purpose. This means that one must determine in advance how, where, by whom, when and with what resources the jobs must be carried out to achieve the objectives of the business. 2. DEVELOPING AN ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE IN YOUR TEAM. As a supervisor or team leader, your part in developing organisational structure within your team will be limited to identify and group the work that must be done in your department, section or area. Developing Organisation Structures is the work of Senior Management. We will, however briefly look at two types of organisation structures: (i) Formal Organisation Structure: This structure shows : job titles; : levels of authority; : communication lines; : task responsibilities. LESSON 1.4 19 TEAM SUPERVISOR The formal organisation structure holds the company together; it ensures that the different departments and sections work together as a unit and in harmony. It ensures that all employees achieve the same objectives. (ii) Informal Organisation Structure: This is normally the structure that accommodates the social contact between workers. It is done informally and develops spontaneously in groups of people with the same interests. Notwithstanding the fact that these structures are informal, they fulfil a very important function in the organisation as they cater for the social needs of employees. Examples are: Tea groups; Dart or table tennis groups; Lift clubs; Prayer groups; Hiking clubs. 3. DELEGATING Delegating is a crucial part of a supervisor’s work. It is also the area of your responsibility where you need the greatest amount of discretion to decide what and what not to delegate. Delegation is when you decide to turn over to a subordinate the freedom to carry out the responsibilities associated with key performance areas of his/her job, always with the necessary follow-up and control. One of the best ways to motivate subordinates is to give them the freedom to decide how the job must be done. The decisions which employees are most committed to, are those which they have made themselves. Advantages of delegation are: •Gives you additional time and allows you to control your time. •You can now focus on those aspects of your job that only you are qualified to do. •You can now also properly plan and anticipate problems. •It motivates employees. •It increases their self-worth. •It increases their skills and knowledge. Before an employee can assume the responsibility of delegation he/she must obviously possess the necessary knowledge and skill to effectively carry out that responsibility. When an employee takes on delegated responsibility, he/she must know that there are three constraints upon him: 20 1. Objectives and standards. 2. Policies. 3. Degree of Freedom (Authority). Action steps for Delegating Responsibility: If you want to assist your employees to deal effectively with the abovementioned three constraints, apply the following action steps: LESSON 1.4 • State the responsibility that you would like the employee to handle and why. • Describe the new responsibility, giving specific tasks, performance standards, and degrees of freedom (authority). Ask for the employee’s reaction. • Listen to the employee’s comments and respond openly, acknowledging concerns. Ask for the employee’s agreement and offer your assistance. • • 4. MANAGING DIVERSITY In South Africa, we have many different cultures that are represented in our workforce. In order for teams in the organisation to work efficiently and effectively, the cultural differences of people need to be understood and properly managed. The challenge is to make sure that all employees with their different languages, backgrounds, lifestyles, etc. are all accommodated. It is important not to overlook these differences but to recognise these differences and celebrate them. Cultures can learn from each other. Culture refers to the way we do things, what we like and dislike, what we eat and how we eat, what we wear, what songs we sing and how we dance. What we believe in and what we fear. • Culture shows itself by the way people speak and behave. • It can also be seen in the way that people act and interact every day. What and how do they use tools, toys, what they eat and how they travel. Culture can also be seen in people’s art, their songs, and their poetry. • Organisational culture can also be seen in the uniforms and overalls people wear, how their offices are furnished and their logos. • Culture is recognised by its symbols: # Hell’s Angels wear leather jackets and ride on motor cycles. • 21 TEAM SUPERVISOR Culture in an Organisation: •Organisations have their own cultures. •Ideas, habits, the way of doing things, rules, procedures that apply and are shared by all groups in the organisation, are the culture of that organisation. •Organisational culture stays the same for a long period of time. •When a group of people work together for a long time, they discover ways to do things. •They discover the best, the easiest, the shortest or the most comfortable way of doing their jobs or to solve problems. •These convenient ways to do things become the organisation’s culture. Types of Cultures: • Religious cultures: Hindu, Islam, Zion Christian Church, Dutch Reformed Church. • Ethnic Cultures: Chinese, Shona, Zulu, Pedi, Xhosa, German, Afrikaner. Political cultures: ANC, Inkhata, NNP, DP, UDM. • Art cultures: Reggae, Blues, Roman –Dutch, Renaissance. • Sports cultures: Kaizer Chiefs, Bafana-bafana, Amabokoboko, Comrades marathon. Business cultures: Coca-Cola, Camel, Marlboro, Anglo-American, M-Net. • Family cultures: a combination of all the above. • • Traditions and Behaviour: A tradition is an unwritten body of beliefs and practices. These beliefs and practices become customs and are of longstanding nature. They are handed down from generation to generation. In some Black cultures it is tradition to ask the forefather’s blessing before someone is leaving on a long trip. Beer and snuff are thrown on the ground and then the ancestors are asked to protect the traveller. In Western cultures it is tradition to have trees decorated over Christmas and gifts are exchanged. Opinions and Culture: Our views of other people are often based on what we see and hear from or about them. These views or opinions are often not based on fact. It is only when you experience first hand the ways of others that you really begin to understand them. 22 Can We Change Culture? LESSON 1.4 • Culture is learned from a young age. • The traditions of a culture are so often repeated that they become firm habits. People seldom, if ever, question these habits, traditions and behaviours of their • own culture. It is never easy for people to change. Therefore we must find ways to accept and understand each other. • We should rather appreciate each other’s ways of doing things than fight about it. • People from different cultural groups often have different viewpoints and skills, different ways of doing things that we can learn from. • • Ways To Understand Cultural Diversity: • Be aware of your own assumptions about other cultures. • Try to learn more about other cultures. Try and understand why they do things the way they do. If you understand why people do things in a certain way, you can be more • understanding and patient and problems can be prevented. How you see people will influence your behaviour towards them. Ensure that your views are based on fact. • Differences in culture are simply different starting points to achieve the same objectives. • Working In a Multi-Cultural Environment: • All people belong to cultural groups, all of us to more than one. These groups are different in nature. The ways we behave are the results of our cultural differences. • Cultural differences may awaken feelings of discomfort, uncertainty and fear. • In the workplace differences in culture can be used to benefit all. The future challenge for employees is to find out how they can use their • differences to the advantage of all. The differences become a starting point and a • bridge to overcome problems rather than a barrier. The most important interpersonal skill that we all will have to acquire is the ability to interact and communicate effectively across cultures. • 23 TEAM SUPERVISOR 5. CO-ORDINATION Co-ordination is used where two or more people need to work together to achieve the same goal or objective. Co-ordination is the process whereby the supervisor accomplishes unity among the team members and the activities. Methods for achieving co-ordination: • Mutual adjustment: This includes achieving co-ordination through face-to-face interpersonal interaction. The supervisor of the team sets certain rules and procedures for the team members. When these team members start with the actual project they need to do, unexpected problems arise. As these problems arise the team members interact with each other in order to solve these problems. This interaction is referred to as mutual adjustment. Rules or procedures: If the work is planned in advanced, the supervisor can allocate certain actions to the team members. Rules and procedures can be useful when certain activities are recurring. This ensures a course of action that team • members will follow, if a specific action arises. Direct supervision: This is achieved when one person co-ordinates the work of the team members. The person gives instructions to team members and monitors the results. • 6. RULES FOR HEALTHY WORK RELATIONSHIPS • Always keep your subordinates informed. • Allow them to participate in accordance with their capabilities and experience. Remember that you are your subordinates’ representative to higher levels of • management. You and your subordinates must adhere to the chain of command. Give recognition where due. • Discourage negativeness. • Encourage team spirit. • • 24 LESSON 1.5 In this lesson you are going to learn about aligning work in progress with allocated costs. Work in progress can be defined as a piece of work that is not yet finished. 1. WHAT IS WORK IN PROGRESS? Some tasks or activities can take a long time before they are completed. It is vital to calculate and allocate costs to these specific tasks as they are concluded. This will ensure that you keep to your budget. If you are allocating the costs and you realise you are overspending, you can also adjust the costs for future action steps to align with your budget. This will ensure that the total costs of your project is still within your original budgeted amount. You are halfway through the month. You budgeted R3000 for food this month. You add all your food bills and realised you already spent R3000 on food. You have a budget of R2000 allocated for spending and have only spent R1000 on spending. Since you realise your shortfall and food takes a priority, you decide to cut down on your spending money so that you can have more money for your food. LESSON 1.5 25 CHAPTER 2 MANAGE INTERPERSONAL TEAM PROCESSES TO ACHIEVE REQUIRED OUTPUTS. IN THIS CHAPTER: • LESSON 2.1: DEVELOPING AND ARRANGING PROCESSES TO MONITOR WORK PROGRESS, IN OTHER WORDS LEADING. • LESSON 2.2: TRACK PROGRESS AGAINST THE PLAN. • LESSON 2.3: GATHERING INFORMATION AND REPORTING IT TO MANAGEMENT. • LESSON 2.4: ANALYSING PROGRESS REPORTS AND TAKING CORRECTIVE ACTION. LESSON 2.1 In this lesson we are going to focus on developing and arranging processes to monitor work progress, in other words leading. Leading is the art of influencing the behaviour of other people in order to achieve results. 1. LEADERSHIP LESSON 2.1 Sets goals Communicate Motivate Coach Train Initiate Leader Supervisor Organise Deputise (represents) Supervise Control Plan React 2. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LEADING AND SUPERVISING A supervisor will take control over tasks. A supervisor tends to own tasks and the way tasks are performed. A leader encourages others to own the work and the end result. The leader initiates. 3. RESPONSIBILITIES OF A LEADER • Identify your own strengths and areas for improvement in order for you to develop and improve your leadership skills. Be consciously aware of your position and the effect you will have on others, • particularly when dealing with employees from different ethnic and cultural groups. You must think and act like a leader. You must be concerned about the welfare and growth of your subordinates. Train • and develop them. • People like to feel important, welcome ideas from your subordinates. Do not be afraid to make mistakes. Learn from your mistakes and tolerate those who are making mistakes. Mistakes can also be educational. • Keep your promises. • Lead by example. • • 27 TEAM SUPERVISOR 4. LEADERSHIP STYLES There are four basic leadership styles: Autocratic Bureaucratic Laissez-fair Democratic - telling people what to do - selling ideas to people - leaving people to do their own thing - consulting with and involving people CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS STYLES: Autocratic: •keeps vital information to him/herself. •makes decisions without consulting his/her team. •announces or dictates his/her decisions to his/her team. •does not allow group discussions or evaluation of decisions because he/she does. not want to be questioned. •disregards the views and feelings of subordinates. •accepts full responsibility/accountability for decisions made. •has a broad and diversified knowledge and experience of issues involved. •gets what he/she wants. •leads by fear. Bureaucratic: •makes decisions on his/her own. •sells decisions by concentrating on the advantages of his/her decisions. •appears to consult his/her team by approaching them individually and privately. •knows the standpoints of the individual team members and then uses personal influence and group pressure to persuade those who do not follow. •manoeuvre, bargains and compromises to gain his/her own way. •listens attentively so that he/she can use the information in counter arguments. Laissez-Fair: •invites the team to join him in decision making. •keeps all the team members happy and involved and everyone has an equal say. •creates an informal, permissive atmosphere in which ideas are freely expressed, shared and explored. •has a high level of participation in meetings. •transfers major part of responsibility to team. •can lose control of the situation. •can be seen as weak. •only effective with team of high specialised subordinates. 28 Democratic: •makes tentative decisions, then consults his/her team. •is prepared to alter or change his/her decisions based on input from team. •makes final decisions based on input from team. •creates a climate of mutual trust and confidence during discussions. •takes into account the effects of decisions on his/her subordinates. •has a high level of commitment and support from his/her team. LESSON 2.1 2.1.1 You have a subordinate that always challenges your way of doing things. You have an important project coming up and your deadline is soon. What kind of leadership style would you use in this situation. Motivate your answer. Which style is the best? There is no one best style. You must supervise/manage every situation on its merits and use the style most suited for that situation. To be effective and efficient your style must be consistent with the realities of the situation. 5. LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES In order for you to be an effective leader, you have to get your subordinates to: •accept the goals of the organisation. •ensure their work makes a meaningful contribution to these goals. •merit their wages and salary. •display reasonable initiative within the limitations of their jobs. •be loyal to the company and their leader. •try and adjust to their leader’s style. •keep you informed. •abide by the rules, regulations and policies of the company. •try and get on with others in a civil manner. •accept the need for change and modification. •keep themselves informed. •ensure they understand instructions. •train and develop them as much as possible within their own jobs. 6. AUTHORITY AND POWER Authority: Every Supervisor is also a leader who sees to it that subordinates co-operate in attaining the goals of the organisation. Without authority, no supervisor can manage. Authority has to do with the obtaining of the right to enforce certain actions, within certain guidelines, and the right to punish failure. 29 TEAM SUPERVISOR Authority is closely related to leadership. Authority is awarded to a supervisor by the management of an organisation. Unlike authority, power is not awarded to a supervisor, but is obtained in various ways. This is also the important difference between authority and power. Authority is awarded and power is earned or obtained. Power is thus the basis for leadership! Power: Power is the ability to influence the behaviour of others. It has nothing to do with the hierarchical position held by a supervisor and is not obtained through a title. For this reason it is better to be a supervisor with both authority and power. To have power, a leader must have followers (subordinates). Without authority and power a leader will not be able to influence others to attain goals. Types of Power: Legitimate power: This authority allocated to a supervisor by the organisation and is the same as authority described above. According to this type of power a supervisor can instruct and discipline. Reward power: Supervisor can give or withhold rewards. Coercive power: This is exercised through fear. Referent power: Also referred to as personal power. Subordinates will follow a leader because they like him/her or respect him/her or identify with him/her. Expert power: based on the knowledge and experience a leader has. Monetary power: Money can buy you power. 30 7. DECISION MAKING Decision making can be defined as an action that determines the flow of events. LESSON 2.1 The Stages of Decision Making: Step 1: Establish aims : What are the end result/s that you want to achieve and how will you know that you have achieved them? Against what standards will you measure your success? A decision involves a choice and stating the aim that you want to achieve limits the alternatives you have to consider. Step 2: Establish the success criteria of the decision: In order to know whether your decision was effective or not, you have to, beforehand, specify the standards or criteria the decision needs to satisfy. What resources (labour, finances, time, and equipment) can be utilised and what company policies and procedures or regulations may have to be taken into account? What are your restrictions? Step 3: Generating alternatives: The two activities concerned here are collecting information and developing alternative solutions. To make a good decision, the more information you have the better. When looking for alternative solutions you have to analyse all the information you have collected, consider past experience and then be creative to find new solutions! Finding the best solution is not just a matter of logic and analysis. Other people’s views can be of great help. You must identify the cause of the problem, not only the symptoms. Step 4: Evaluating alternatives: When assessing risk two common issues arise: •the chance of the decision going wrong (probability of failure); •the seriousness of the consequences. All decisions bear an element of risk and it is only natural that you will anticipate this and take steps to minimise the impact of failure. The simplest way of assessing risk is to: •Consider what could go wrong relative to the success criteria you have set; •Determine the level of risk: high (H), medium (M), low (L). •Consider what the impact of the negative consequences is and what can be done to minimise this. 31 TEAM SUPERVISOR Step 5: Implementing and Evaluating decisions: Implement your chosen alternative (choice) by discussing it with your subordinates. Explain to them why this specific choice and what you want to achieve with it. Get them committed! You may need to plan the implementation with your subordinates, especially if it concerns major changes: •Determine how things will look when a decision is fully implemented. •Chronologically order the steps necessary for implementation. •List the resources necessary to implement. •Estimate the time for each step. •Assign the responsibility for each step to individuals (DELEGATE!). The final stage is to evaluate the success of your decision. You must, as soon as possible after implementation, start collecting information relating to the aims and success criteria of the decision. This will allow you to accurately determine the success or failure of your decision. You must know why you were successful or why not! 2.1.2 You decide you want to study. You can study distance education or enroll for full time studies. Use the steps of decision making to make the decision. Write down every step and the factors that come into play with that particular step. Motivation is primarily concerned with the behaviour of people and why people behave in a certain way. Motivation is not behaviour itself, neither is it performance! Motivation concerns action and the internal and external forces that will influence a person’s choice of action. 8. MOTIVATION If you as a supervisor want to improve the performance of your subordinates you need to know what is going to motivate your subordinates. Lets look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: •The primary needs are physiological and are for food, drink, shelter and sex. Little energy will be aimed at satisfying the other needs unless the primary needs are satisfied. • The safety needs are next on the list. These are for physical safety at work and 32 at home, economic security, and job security. Fair payment and fringe benefits, including pension, life and accident insurance are important. One of the reasons individuals resist change is because their safety needs are threatened. LESSON 2.1 • Social needs are those for acceptance, to belong to a group and for love and affection. In the work environment this is achieved through induction programs, socializing and team activities. • The next categories of needs are those for recognition, status and esteem. Each of us needs to be recognized for our capabilities and achievements by our superiors, peers, and subordinates. We also need to have self-respect. This is achieved in the work environment by tangible things such as rewards, titles, cars, and other status symbols. • The highest need is for self-actualisation and achievement. The need is to fulfil oneself and to make something of one's life and to use one's capabilities to their maximum. Maslow assumed that a person would attempt to satisfy the more basic needs before satisfying the higher level needs. In one sense this is true because a person who is hungry, thirsty and without shelter will not be interested in achievement. However, this is not always true as other factors can also affect motivation. Self Actualisation Needs Personal Growth and Fulfillment Ego Needs Self-Respect, Status, Achievement, Responsibility Social Needs Affection, Acceptance, Family, Relationships, Work Group Safety Needs Protection, Security, Order, Law, Limits, Stability Biological and Physiological Needs Basic Life Needs : Hunger, Air, Water/Drink, Shelter, Warmth, Sex, Sleep 33 TEAM SUPERVISOR For example: If one of your subordinates does not have a permanent place to live in and he / she battles to provide food for the family, it will be pointless to try motivating him or her with a specific job title (which is on level 5). Motivation should happen on the level where the person feels the need. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Guidelines for Motivating and Empowering: • Recognise and respect individuals especially where there are different cultures. • Practice participation but don’t be scared to say what you want. Be clear on what is expected. • Provide the right environment. • Lead by example. • 9. ESTEEM AND COMPETENCE Levels of Esteem: 1.Self-esteem: How you view yourself. 2.Esteem from others: How others view you, your need for recognition and appreciation. The above two levels of esteem are very closely interrelated. Your feelings about yourself are often influenced by the way other people relate to you. The way you feel about yourself and the way you experience how others feel about you is very important in the process of self-motivation. A major motivator is a desire to be competent. You want to control your environment rather than being controlled by it. To be competent is to be successful and success is important for continuous personal growth and feelings of self-worth. As a supervisor you must create an environment in which your subordinates can give expression to their creativity and be allowed to demonstrate competence. This is necessary because the way employees feel about themselves and their level of competence strongly influences their work performance. It is a fact that a person who feels confident and competent is more likely to perform at a higher level. How to Maintain and Improve Self-worth and Competence: 34 LESSON 2.1 • Praise specific results achieved. • Praise effort as well as achievement. Show interest for ideas and suggestions. • Use employees’ names. • Ask for ideas and suggestions. Accept differences in others. • Ask employees to train others. • Tell employees what you expect of them, i.e. to perform well. Delegate responsibility. • Keep appointments with employees. • Recognise important events in people’s lives. • Give reasons for instructions. Share ideas. • Support other’s actions and statements. • Ask someone to take control of a meeting. Spend time with others. • •Listen. • •Pay attention to others. • • • THIS WASLONG LESSON. TAKE SOME TIME OUT AND MAKE SURE YOU UNDERSTAND ALL THE CONCEPTS OF THIS LESSON. 35 e11 TEAM SUPERVISOR NOTES: 36 1 ---- LESSON 2.2 In this lesson you are going to learn how to track progress against the plan. 1. CONTROLLING Communication is a process where a message or information is transferred from one person to another via a certain medium. The reason why organisations implement control procedures is to make sure that the goals they have set are being achieved and that the resources are used productively. Control is important because it ensures the following: •It makes sure the activities and tasks that are accomplished are in line with the goals and mission of the organisation. •It makes sure that all the resources used to accomplish these tasks are utilised correctly and not wasted in the process. •It ensures better quality of tasks, services and production. •It makes sure that employees are doing their work correctly. 2. TYPES OF CONTROLLING LESSON 2.2 • Personal observation: The supervisor personally checks the work done by subordinates. Changes or deviations in work being performed are spotted immediately and corrected very quickly. The disadvantages of this type of control are that it limits delegation and it makes employees feel that they are not trusted. This type of control must only be used when no other methods can apply. •Control by exception: The supervisor uses resources to make comparisons between actual results and objectives and then he/she controls the deviations which occur. You will therefore only control by exception and allow the employee to perform at standard. A condition for this type of control is that employees must report on progress on a regular basis. 37 TEAM SUPERVISOR 3. CONTROL ACTIVITIES There are four different activities: 1. Developing performance standard

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