EPidemiology and biostatistics essay

timer Asked: May 26th, 2014

Question description

Question 1.1. Which of the following is not a measure of central tendency? (Points : 2)

Question 2.2. Calculate the Attributable Risk using the following data: A= 191, B=99,809, C=8.70, D= 99,991.30; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)

Question 3.3. The reduction of social disability produced by a given level of impairment through the strengthening of a patient’s remaining functions as well as assisting patient to function alternatively is known as: (Points : 2)
  Risk factor modification
  Limitation of disability

Question 4.4. When developing a decision tree, which comes first: (Points : 2)
  Chance Node
  Neither A or B are correct
  Decision node
  Doesn’t Matter

Question 5.5. [A/(A + B)] – [C/ (C + D)] is the formula for: (Points : 2)
  Risk Ratio
  Risk Factor
  Attributable Risk
  Risk Difference

Question 6.6. Cumulative Incidence is defined as: (Points : 2)
  The incidence of people without antibody protection (i.e. immunity) from a disease
  The incidence of death to identified populations during a study period
  The total number of epidemic cases that are seen over time
  The number of people with a particular disease in a particular area

Question 7.7. (A / C) / (B / D) is the formula for: (Points : 2)
  Risk Ratio
  Odds Ratio
  Absolute Ratio
  Relative Ratio

Question 8.8. The most basic requirements for a causal relationship to exist and be recognized as such is: (Points : 2)
  Valid Reasoning
  None of the above

Question 9.9. The ability of a measurement to be correct on the average is known as: (Points : 2)

Question 10.10. A Type I error is also known as a: (Points : 2)
  False Positive Error
  False Negative Error
  Alpha Error
  A and C are correct

Question 11.11. Reasoning which is learned from mathematics including geometry is known as: (Points : 2)
  None of the above are correct

Question 12.12. What is the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA? (Points : 2)
  The type of variance
  The type of variable
  The number of variables
  Nothing is different

Question 13.13. An immune system that is deemed normal at birth and suffers no damage from a disease such as HIV is termed a/an: (Points : 2)
  Innate immunity
  Herd immunity
  Intact immunity
  Objective immunity

Question 14.14. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 2,8,10,21,46,58,31,2,9,141. (Points : 2)

Question 15.15. The unusual occurrences of disease is known as a/an: (Points : 2)
  Epidemic time curve

Question 16.16. What is the defining difference between a prospective and a retrospective cohort study? (Points : 2)
  None of the above
  All of the above

Question 17.17. When a death, disease or injury occurs to a person at risk for the  same event at the beginning of a study period it is known as: (Points : 2)
  Risk event
  Susceptible population

Question 18.18. Which of the following is not a part of the procedure for investigating a suspected epidemic? (Points : 2)
  Name the epidemic
  Establish a diagnosis
  Establish the case definition
  Define time, place and person
  Develop a hypothesis

Question 19.19. How many steps are there in the process of testing a null hypothesis for statistical significance? (Points : 2)

Question 20.20. Calculate Attributable Risk using the following data: A=1346, B= 100,000-1346, C=200, D=100,000-200; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)

Question 21.21. A vector of disease may be all of the following except: (Points : 2)

Question 22.22. The difference between incidence and prevalence has to do with: (Points : 2)

Question 23.23. Another name for “bias” is: (Points : 2)
  Differential Error

Question 24.24. If the cost of preventing a hip fracture is greater than the cost of surgical repair, which of the following is true: (Points : 2)
  A preventative strategy still may be indicated
  If a hip fracture occurs, it should be managed non-surgically
  No attempt should be made to prevent hip fracture until a more cost-effective strategy is devised
  The least costly preventative strategy should be chosen

Question 25.25. The value of alpha serves as protection against which of the following: (Points : 2)
  False negative results
  Inadequate sample size
  Selection bias
  Type I Error
  Type II Error

Question 26.26. The three stages of disease in the appropriate order from least to most detectable are: (Points : 2)
  Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease
  Symptomatic, latent, pre-disease
  Pre-disease, symptomatic, latent
  Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic

Question 27.27. Which of the following is an example of secondary prevention? (Points : 2)
  Cholesterol reduction in a patient with asymptomatic coronary artery disease
  Prescription drug therapy for symptoms of menopause
  Physical therapy after lumbar disk herniation
  Pneumococcal vaccine in a patient who has undergone a splenectomy

Question 28.28. How many steps are included in the creating of a decision tree? (Points : 2)

Question 29.29. Please select the appropriate answer for the “median” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2)

Question 30.30. Measures of health related “quality of life” are: (Points : 2)
  None of the above

Question 31.31. When vaccines are used to confer an immunity such as with children it is known as: (Points : 2)
  Passive immunity
  Active immunity
  Individual immunity
  Globular immunity

Question 32.32. The __________ is used to determine the probability of two things being true. (Points : 2)
  Addition Rule
  Independence Rule
  Product Rule
  Subtraction Rule

Question 33.33. Evaluation of which of the following potentially preventable causes of disease is most likely to raise ethical concerns: (Points : 2)
  Dietary intake
  Genetic susceptibility
  Immunization status
  Smoking history
  Social support network

Question 34.34. The definition of the word epidemiology includes: (Points : 2)
  The study of determining factors of disease in a population
  A way in which disease, injury and clinical practice are studied
  Neither of the above is correct
  Both a and b are correct

Question 35.35. Herd immunity refers to: (Points : 2)
  Genetic resistance to species-specific disease
  Immunity naturally acquired by a population
  The high levels of antibody present in a population after an epidemic
  The vaccination of domestic animals to prevent disease transmission to humans

Question 36.36. Widely publicized fatalities associated with an “emerging” disease such as Hantavirus may be an example of: (Points : 2)
  Active surveillance
  Case Findings
  The first responder response
  The iceberg phenomenon

Question 37.37. Which of the following is a test of statistical significance? (Points : 2)
  Student t-test
  Both of the above are correct
  Neither is correct

Question 38.38. A false positive error is also known as __________ and a false negative error is known as _____________. (Points : 2)
  Type I/Type II
  Neither is correct
  Both are correct

Question 39.39. The natural history or stages of a disease are three in number; which of the following is the correct stages in the correct order or occurrence? (Points : 2)
  Latent, pre-disease, symptomatic
  Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease
  Symptomatic, pre-disease, latent
  Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic

Question 40.40. Which of the following is not a common type of intervention? (Points : 2)
  Modification of environment
  Putting a barrier to the infection within the hosts
  Treatment of diagnosed individuals
  Eradication and control of vectors
  Identification of surveillance methods

Question 41.41. Precision is also known as: (Points : 2)
  Ability of a measurement to give the same results with repeated measuring
  All of the above are correct

Question 42.42. A comparison of the ratio of risk in an exposed group to that of an unexposed group is known as: (Points : 2)
  Absolute Risk
  Relative Risk
  Attributable Risk
  Relative Ratio

Question 43.43. Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion? (Points : 2)
  Mean Deviation

Question 44.44. Which of the following statements about semilogarithmic graphs is correct: (Points : 2)
  Is made up of a non-logarithmic scales
  Is made up of a vertical y-axis and a horizontal x-axis
  Is made up of a horizontal y-axis and a vertical x-axis
  Is generally graphed using a stem and leaf plot

Question 45.45. A method of depicting data which includes bars that are vertically arranged with sides not touching is known as: (Points : 2)
  Stem and Leaf Diagram

Question 46.46. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the median? (Points : 2)

Question 47.47. A Type II Error or false negative error is also known as a/an: (Points : 2)
  Alpha Error
  Beta Error
  Omega Error
  Delta Error

Question 48.48. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2)

Question 49.49. The systematic distortion found especially in retrospective studies is known as: (Points : 2)
  Recall bias
  Biological Plausibility
  Internal Validity

Question 50.50. The main difference between clinical and classical epidemiology are: (Points : 2)
  The time of the investigation
  The place of the investigation
  The population being studied
  A and c are correct
  B and c are correct

Question 51.51. An example of a nominal variable is: (Points : 2)
  Both B and C are correct
  All are correct

Question 52.52. The Decision Node: (Points : 2)
  Is a point where clinicians await outcomes
  Is a point where clinicians have to make a decision
  Is only related to undesirable outcomes
  Is only related to desirable outcome interpretation

Question 53.53. The administration of human immune globulin after exposure to Hepatitis B is an example of: (Points : 2)
  Health promotion
  Passive immunity

Question 54.54. It is important to consider beta error when: (Points : 2)
  The differences under consideration is not clinically meaningful
  The difference under investigation is statistically significant
  The null hypothesis is not rejected
  The null hypothesis is rejected

Question 55.55. A most imposing formula used in medicine dealing with probability of a person having or not having a disease based on test results is: (Points : 2)
  Cramer V-value Theorem
  Plasmodium Theory
  Calmette-Guerin Theory
  Bayes Theorem

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