PSY 326 FINAL PAPER HELP

Anonymous
timer Asked: Jul 12th, 2014

Question Description

THESE ATTACHMENTS BELOW ARE NEEDED TO COMPLETE THE FINAL PAPER

Research Proposal

WEEK 3 CRITIQUE 

ARTICLE FROM WEEK ONE

Design a research study on the topic of the study selected in Week One and critiqued in Week Three. Your design should seek to resolve the limitations you identified in the study you critiqued. Your paper must address all of the components required in the “Methods” section of a research proposal:

  • State the research question and/or hypothesis.
  • Specify the approach (qualitative or quantitative), research design, sampling strategy, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques to be used.
  • If the design is quantitative, also describe the variables, measures, and statistical tests you would use.
  • Analyze ethical issues that may arise and explain how you would handle these issues.
Your Final Paper must be eight to ten pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Utilize a minimum of six peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last 10 years, in addition to the textbook, that are documented in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. The sources should consist of the following:
  • One source should be the article you critiqued in the Week Three assignment.
  • At least two sources should be about the research methodology you have chosen for your study.
  • At least one source should be on ethical issues in research.
  • The remaining sources may be about anything pertinent to your study.
In accordance with APA style, all references listed must be cited in the body of the paper.

Required Sections and Subsections (use these headings in your paper)
  1. Introduction – Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present your research question and/or hypothesis.
  2. Literature Review – Summarize the current state of knowledge on your topic, making reference to the findings of previous research studies (including the one you critiqued in Week Three). Briefly analyze and critique these studies and mention the research methods that have previously been used to study the topic. State whether your proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach using methods that have not been used before. Be sure to properly cite all of your sources in APA style.
  3. Methods
    1. Design – Indicate whether your proposed study is qualitative or quantitative in approach. Identify the specific research design, using one of the designs we have studied in Weeks Three through Five, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate your chosen design and explain why you believe this design is appropriate for the topic and how it will provide the information you need to answer the research question. Cite sources on research methodology to support your choices.
    2. Participants – Identify and describe the sampling strategy you would use to recruit participants for your study. Estimate the number of participants you would need and explain why your sampling method is appropriate for your research design and approach.
    3. Procedure/Measures – Apply the scientific method by describing the steps you would use in carrying out your study. Indicate whether you will use any kind of test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument. If using an existing published instrument, provide a brief description and cite your source. If you are creating a questionnaire, survey, or test, describe the types of information you will gather and explain how you would establish the validity and reliability. If you are not using such an instrument, describe how you would collect the data.
    4. Data Analysis – Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) you plan to use to analyze the data. Cite at least one source on the chosen analysis technique (from your Week Two assignment).
    5. Ethical Issues – Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on your proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. After analyzing the ethical issues that apply to your research proposal, indicate what you would do to handle these concerns.
  4. Conclusion – Briefly summarize the major points from your paper and reiterate why your proposed study is needed.
Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:
  1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least six peer-reviewed sources that were published within the last 10 years, in addition to the textbook.
  7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Nursing and Health Sciences (2011), 13, 323–327 Research Article Factors involved in recovery from schizophrenia: A qualitative study of Thai mental health nurses nhs_621 323..327 Chettha Kaewprom, rn, mn,1 Janette Curtis, phd1 and Frank P. Deane, phd2 1 School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health and 2School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia Abstract Recovery-oriented services increasingly are being called for around the world. These services do not just consider recovery from mental illness as symptom remission, but as individuals’ ability to redefine their self and to “live well”, even with enduring symptoms. However, little is known about the views of Thai nurses regarding the conceptualization of recovery. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that explored the perspectives of 24 Thai nurses regarding schizophrenia and recovery. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses who were providing care for persons who were living with schizophrenia in both hospital and community settings. A thematic analysis identified the personal and environmental factors that were related to recovery. Illness acceptance, hope, and adherence to treatment were viewed as the facilitators of recovery, while a low level of self-responsibility and illness-related factors were barriers. Environmental factors, such as the presence of a supportive environment and accessibility to mental health services, were described as facilitators, while stigma towards mental health illness and fragmented health services were barriers. The implications of these results in promoting recovery-oriented mental health services in Thailand are discussed. Key words mental health nursing, recovery, schizophrenia, thematic analysis. INTRODUCTION Traditional clinical definitions of recovery are associated with individuals returning to a prior state of “normality” or with a “cure”. In the context of mental health disorders, historically this has been viewed as a remission of symptoms and a return to normal behavioral functioning. More recent conceptualizations of recovery have been referred to as “personal recovery” (Slade, 2009). This shifts the meaning of recovery towards a process that a person uses to achieve a satisfying life beyond the limitations that are caused by a mental illness (Anthony, 1993). Recovery is less about getting rid of the symptoms or problems and more about developing a greater hopefulness, meaning, and purpose in life and a positive sense of identity beyond that associated with having a mental illness. Personal recovery has been described as a journey that is about growth and as taking control of, and responsibility for, one’s life (Andresen et al., 2003). There is a range of barriers to supporting persons in their personal recovery. In Thailand, a qualitative study by Sanseeha et al. (2009) reported that schizophrenia was viewed as a chronic and incurable disorder. Persons who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia are stigmatized and dis- Correspondence address: Chettha Kaewprom, Prapokklao Nursing College, Chantaburi 22000, Thailand. Email: kaewck@gmail.com Received 28 February 2011; accepted 8 June 2011. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. criminated against in this society. Thus, stigma might be a barrier to individuals with schizophrenia having the opportunity to develop the valued social roles or more positive identity that would be considered essential to their personal recovery. There has been a strong desire by Thailand’s Department of Mental Health to promote recovery among persons who have been diagnosed with a mental illness. In the 1970s, mental health services were integrated into the public health system (Siriwanarangsan et al., 2004). Since then, the health system has been redesigned into four levels: family, primary care service, secondary care service, and tertiary care service (Department of Mental Health, 2008). Mental health services at the family and primary care levels are focused on mental heath promotion and prevention, while those at the secondary and tertiary care levels mainly relate to treatment and rehabilitation (Department of Mental Health, 2008). In addition, a referral system is provided for transferring consumers with complicated disorders to specialized care facilities. The cost of mental health care is covered by the national universal healthcare scheme (Department of Mental Health, 2008). In 2005, the Department of Mental Health revised the national mental health policy, prioritizing the improvement of accessibility to mental health services, promotion of consumer involvement, and improvement in the quality of life among persons who are living with mental disorders (Ministry of Public Health, 2006). Increasing consumer doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00621.x 324 involvement and quality of life are both consistent with recent international efforts to promote recovery-oriented services (Anthony, 2000; Farkas, 2007). In order to facilitate a recovery from schizophrenia, there is a need to understand the views of mental health professionals about the nature of recovery. Internationally, there has been an effort to identify the factors that are involved in the recovery from schizophrenia. A number of factors has been identified as facilitating recovery, such as hope, illness acceptance, self-responsibility (Smith, 2000; Tooth et al., 2003), optimal treatment (Resnick et al., 2004), and supportive environments (Smith, 2000). In contrast, stigma towards mental illness (Smith, 2000) and unwanted side-effects of medication (Tooth et al., 2003) have been reported as the barriers to recovery. The concept of psychological recovery is relatively new for Thai mental health nurses and the empirical research around the concept of recovery from mental illness is limited. Providing evidence about what Thai nurses view as the factors that are involved in recovery from schizophrenia will contribute to the improvement in recovery-oriented nursing practice for persons who are diagnosed with schizophrenia. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to explore Thai mental health nurses’ views about recovery from schizophrenia, including the meaning and characteristics of recovery, the factors that are involved in recovery, and current nursing practices that promote recovery. This article reports the findings related to what the nurses considered to be the factors that are involved in a recovery from schizophrenia. METHOD Design The design was a descriptive, qualitative study. The data were collected by semistructured interviews and were analyzed by a thematic analysis method that was suggested by Braun and Clarke (2006). Sampling method The participants were selected by a purposive sampling of the mental health nurses of two general hospitals and one psychiatric hospital in Thailand. The research project was described to the potential nurse participants and was targeted at registered nurses who had been providing nursing care for at least 1 year to persons who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. If the nurses were willing to participate, they provided their name and contact details. The first author selected the participants who provided diversity with regard to age, education background, and work experience. Description of the participants The participants were 24 nurses, comprising 19 women and five men. Their ages ranged from 26 to 56 years, with a mean © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. C. Kaewprom et al. age of 41.17 years. The duration of work experience in psychiatric nursing ranged from 3 to 27 years. All the nurses had completed a bachelor of nursing degree. Furthermore, 13 nurses had completed a master degree related to mental health, 15 nurses had completed a 4 month training program in advanced psychiatric nursing, and seven nurses had completed both a master degree and the advanced training program. Data collection The data were collected through semistructured interviews, which were conducted in a private room that was provided by the hospital in which the participants worked. The participants were asked to share their opinions about recovery from schizophrenia, as well as the factors that are involved in recovery.The following four questions were used as the initial prompts for the semistructured interviews: (i) What does recovery from schizophrenia mean to you?; (ii) What do you consider to be the characteristics of recovery from schizophrenia?; (iii) Which factors facilitate recovery from schizophrenia?; and (iv) What are the barriers to recovery from schizophrenia? Each interview lasted ~ 60 min. All the interviews were audio-recorded to facilitate the process of data transcription. Data analysis There were two main processes of data analysis. The first process involved data preparation, which was initiated by transcribing the recorded interview verbatim into text. Then, each transcription was translated from Thai into English. Although concerns have been voiced that the process of translation has the potential to increase inaccuracies in the data (Kapborg & Bertero, 2002), the English transcription was needed in order to use NVivo 8, the software that was used to support the data analysis (QSR International, 2008). The second process involved a thematic analysis, as described by Braun and Clarke (2006). It included gaining familiarity with the data, generating initial codes, collating the codes into potential themes, checking the relationship of the codes, data extracts, and themes, and refining and naming the themes. Throughout the process of generating the codes and themes, discussion was undertaken among the researchers to confirm and refine the codes, themes, and relationships between the codes and themes to ensure accuracy. Ethical considerations This study received primary ethical approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. In addition, ethics approval was granted by the ethics committees of two local hospitals in Thailand, where the data were collected. A detailed description of the study, including the risks and benefits, audio-recording, and confidentiality, was explained to the potential participants. Written consent was obtained from each participant before the interview.The data Factors in recovery from schizophrenia were treated confidentially. Pseudonyms were used for the data analysis and presentation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION This study revealed that the Thai nurses viewed recovery from schizophrenia as involving symptom stabilization and the restoration of psychosocial functioning. Their views of recovery were characterized by a focus on clinical and functional improvement, such as symptom remission, an ability to carry out daily living activities, and a return to work or study. It is concluded that the Thai nurses’ understanding of recovery from schizophrenia was dominated by a biomedical perspective of health (Davidson et al., 2005). Regarding the factors that are involved in recovery, four themes were identified: personal facilitators, environmental facilitators, personal barriers, and environmental barriers. Personal facilitators The Thai nurses mentioned three personal factors that helped persons to recover from schizophrenia. These factors were illness acceptance, hope, and adherence to psychiatric treatment.Twenty-one nurses considered that, with improved understanding and increasing acceptance of the condition, individuals with schizophrenia can change their thoughts and behaviors, which will help them to move the process of recovery forward: I think an acceptance of mental illness can promote recovery. If people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia accept their mental illness, they tend to be aware of the development of psychiatric symptoms. When they realize that they cannot manage such symptoms, they will seek help from others (Lisa, 50 years old, mental health nurse in a general hospital). Hope also was mentioned by four nurses as a facilitator that helps persons to recover from schizophrenia: Hope is important for promoting people to recover from their mental illness. It gives them motivation to change [their] behaviors or lifestyle for recovery (Joann, 41 years old, community mental health nurse). Treatment adherence was considered to be another factor that facilitates a recovery from schizophrenia. Four nurses considered that recovery from mental illness requires individuals to adhere to therapeutic interventions, especially medication treatment. Without it, the recovery will not be maintained: Recovery from schizophrenia can be developed well if clients are cooperative and follow what we suggested (Tina, 50 years old, mental health nurse in a psychiatric hospital). These results were consistent with four studies that revealed illness acceptance, hope, and adherence to treatment as the facilitators of recovery from schizophrenia (Smith, 2000; Tooth et al., 2003; Ochocka et al., 2005; Jensen & Wadkins, 2007). Some authors have argued that recovery 325 begins when persons start to develop an understanding and acceptance of their illness (Ochocka et al., 2005; Jensen & Wadkins, 2007). However, in models of recovery, this is viewed as part of the early stages of recovery (Andresen et al., 2006). Increasing understanding and acceptance are thought to reduce the level of anxiety and fear about what is happening. Only a few of the Thai nurse participants considered hope as important in facilitating the recovery from schizophrenia, even though many studies suggest hope as a crucial factor of recovery (Andresen et al., 2003; Kylma et al., 2006). This might reflect a lack of knowledge about the concepts of hope and recovery among Thai nurses. Furthermore, although firstperson descriptions of recovery highlight the importance of hope, empirical research that is related to hope and the recovery from schizophrenia is relatively limited (Kylma et al., 2006). Environmental facilitators Two environmental factors were reported as facilitators of recovery from schizophrenia: a supportive environment and good access to mental health services. All the nurses considered that recovery from mental illness requires a supportive environment, where persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia can gain help and resources for their recovery. The nurses suggested two tiers of supportive environment: the family and the community. Eleven nurses considered that a supportive family is a powerful facilitator in promoting the recovery from schizophrenia. With love and care from family members, persons who are living with schizophrenia are supported in all the aspects of life that are necessary for recovery: Family support can help people to recover from the mental illness. For example, when people feel stressful [sic], they can seek some help from their relatives, who can treat them with love and care (Amy, 43 years old, community mental health nurse). A supportive community was considered necessary for persons living with schizophrenia, in terms of promoting social inclusion, a sense of belonging, acceptance, and recognition as a member of the community. Thirteen nurses considered that persons living with schizophrenia need support, not only from their family but also from the community: People in [the] community can promote anyone to recover from schizophrenia by accepting and supporting such a person so that his/her recovery has been maintained (Nancy, 48 years old, community mental health nurse). Good access to mental health services was reported as another facilitator of recovery by 13 nurses. The nurses highlighted the importance of an effective referral system in helping individuals to access mental health services and to improve their recovery: [An] effective transferral system can promote the client’s recovery. It helps clients to access mental health © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. 326 services and get treatments promptly, so the client’s recovery is developed quickly (Mary, 44 years old, mental health nurse in a psychiatric hospital). Eleven nurses commented that recovery requires optimal treatment, especially during the initial phases of recovery. However, as noted earlier, effective treatment was primarily thought to involve medications: I think that people start to recover from mental health illness after they get some treatment . . . Effective treatment can promote recovery (Jimmy, 47 years old, mental health nurse in a psychiatric hospital). Prior studies have suggested that persons recover well within supportive environments (Hoffmann & Kupper, 2002; Jensen & Wadkins, 2007). In the Thai context, Dangdomyouth et al. (2008) reported that Thai families support recovery through promoting medication adherence and greater social inclusion. Personal barriers Although the participants believed that personal factors have the capacity to facilitate recovery, they also mentioned personal factors that serve as barriers. The two main barriers were poor self-responsibility and the components of the illness. Fifteen nurses indicated that persons who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia often have low levels of personal responsibility, which leads to reduced medication adherence. This was viewed as the most common cause of relapse. Relapse tended to be viewed as an impediment to recovery (rather than as a part of the process of recovery): Poor adherence to medication is a common barrier that hinders the process of recovery. I found it led to a symptom relapse (Mary). Meanwhile, eight nurses cited low levels of personal responsibility with regard to alcohol consumption: When people get drunk, they fail to manage themselves, especially to take psychiatric medication (Nancy). Another theme was illness-related factors. Six nurses suggested that negative symptoms (e.g. decreased or lost normal function, such as apathy and motionlessness) impair recovery and that those with higher levels of negative symptoms tend to recover more slowly than those with positive symptoms (e.g. excessive or distorted normal function, such as agitation and aggression): I noticed that clients with positive symptoms tend to recover from their mental illness faster than those with negative symptoms. It could be that clients with negative symptoms were too inert or did not interact with others, so it was difficult for them to develop a recovery (Sally, 41 years old, mental health nurse in a general hospital). Environmental barriers The nurses suggested two environmental barriers that hinder the process of recovery. The first barrier was stigma towards © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. C. Kaewprom et al. persons with a psychiatric disability. The nurses commented that the stigma towards schizophrenia not only contributes to a slower recovery process, but also contributes to the relapse of psychiatric symptoms: [The] public attitude towards people living with schizophrenia is a barrier to recovery. I found that people with this illness are considered as an insane person, so they are not accepted and treated as a person (Laura, 32 years old, mental health nurse in a psychiatric hospital). The fragmentation of mental health services also was mentioned as a barrier by five nurses. The integration of mental health services into the public health system without sufficient coordination was raised as a concern: Now, [the] mental health system does not adequately support people for their recovery from mental illness. People living with schizophrenia do not receive ongoing care because [the] health system seems to be fragmented. Some hospitals do not provide drugs as effectively as a psychiatric hospital because of management by a cost orientation (Gary, 32 years old, community mental health nurse). Qualitative studies by Tooth et al. (2003) and Smith (2000) also highlighted how stigma can negatively impact recovery. A qualitative study by Sanseeha et al. (2009) found that stigma and discrimination against persons with a psychiatric disability also is present in Thai society.This results in persons with schizophrenia feeling that they are somehow different to everyone else. Some are referred to as “an insane person” and are distrusted by society. Although mental health services in Thailand are integrated into the public health system, the services are not always well coordinated. This is because psychiatric care often is considered to be a lower priority by healthcare providers at the community and general hospital levels (Department of Mental Health, 2008). Furthermore, the availability of psychotropic medication at these levels is limited. As an example of poor coordination, some patients can be transferred to receive psychiatric medication from a local hospital, when the local hospital does not provide or have access to this medication. Limitations of the study This study described the perceptions of 24 Thai nurses regarding the factors that are involved in a recovery from schizophrenia; therefore, it is impossible to claim that the results of the study can be generalized to mental health nurses across Thailand. This is compounded by the fact that the data were collected in only three mental health care settings. CONCLUSION It appears that the Thai nurses’ perceptions of recovery from schizophrenia were more consistent with biomedical models than with a recovery model. As the term “recovery” has multiple meanings, it can be confusing to Thai nurses. In a Factors in recovery from schizophrenia medical model, it is a synonym of “cure” (Ramon et al., 2007), while it is referred to as “personal empowerment” in psychological approaches (Munetz & Frese, 2001). In order to promote recovery-oriented nursing practice, the meaning of “personal” recovery might need to be clarified first. Furthermore, recovery-based education or training should be provided for Thai nurses so that their attitude, knowledge, and practice regarding a recovery orientation are improved (Peebles et al., 2009). It is increasingly accepted that hope is central to developing both psychological recovery and personal growth (Tooth et al., 2003; Kilbride & Pitt, 2006). Helping Thai persons with schizophrenia to develop and maintain hope for recovery should be promoted among service providers and the general community. There are various strategies that Thai nurses can use to enhance their clients’ hope, such as helping them to identify meaningful goals and promoting their experiences of success towards those goals (Darlington & Bland, 1999; Kirkpatrick et al., 2001). The coordination of mental health services at all service levels should be improved. As mentioned by the World Health Organization, most of the comprehensive mental health services are delivered by healthcare providers at a tertiary service level (Department of Mental Health, 2008). Thus, the promotion of personal recovery at other service levels seems to be limited. It is suggested that the policies, procedures, resources, and guidelines that serve recoveryoriented practices should be shared across service levels. This helps persons in the community to maintain their progress towards both clinical and personal recovery. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was funded by the Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council (PhD. 11–2/2551), Nontaburi, Thailand. We also express our appreciation to Prapokkloa Nursing College, Chantaburi, Thailand, and all the research participants, including the research coordinators and nurse participants, for their cooperation. REFERENCES Andresen R, Oades L, Caputi P. The experience of recovery from schizophrenia: towards an empirically validated stage model. A. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 2003; 37: 586–594. Andresen R, Caputi P, Oades L. Stages of recovery instrument: development of a measure of recovery from serious mental illness. A. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 2006; 40: 972–980. Anthony W. The guiding vision of the mental health service system in the 1990s. Psychiatr. Rehabil. J. 1993; 16: 11–23. Anthony W. A recovery-oriented service system: setting some system level standards. Psychiatr. Rehabil. J. 2000; 24: 159– 168. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual. Res. Psychology 2006; 3: 77–101. 327 Dangdomyouth P, Stern P, Oumtanee A, Jintana Y. Tactful monitoring: how Thai caregivers manage their relative with schizophrenia at home. Issue Ment. Health Nurs. 2008; 29: 37–50. Darlington Y, Bland R. Strategies for encouraging and maintaining hope among people living with serious mental illness. Aust. Soc. Work 1999; 52: 17–23. Davidson L, Lawless M, Leary F. Concepts of recovery: competing or complementary? Curr. Opin. Psychiatry 2005; 18: 664–667. Department of Mental Health. Community Mental Health Thailand Country Report. 2008. [Cited 10 Dec 2010.] Available from URL: http://www.aamh.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/411091/ Thailand_country_report.pdf Farkas M. The vision of recovery today: what it is and what it means for services. World Psychiatry 2007; 6: 4–10. Hoffmann H, Kupper Z. Facilitators of psychosocial recovery from schizophrenia. Int. Rev. Psychiatry 2002; 14: 293–302. Jensen LW, Wadkins TA. Mental health success stories: finding paths to recovery. Issue Ment. Health Nurs. 2007; 28: 325–340. Kapborg I, Bertero C. Using an interpreter in qualitative interview: does it threaten validity? Nurs. Inq. 2002; 9: 52–56. Kilbride M, Pitt L. Researching recovery from psychosis. Mental Health Practice 2006; 9: 20–23. Kirkpatrick H, Landeen J, Woodside H, Byrne C. How people with schizophrenia build their hope. J. Psychosoc. Nurs. Ment. Health Serv. 2001; 39: 46–53. Kylma J, Juvakka T, Nikkonen M, Korhonen T, Isohanni M. Hope and schizophrenia: an integrative review. J. Psychiatr. Ment. Health Nurs. 2006; 13: 651–664. Ministry of Public Health. WHO-AIMS Report on Mental Health System in Thailand. Bangkok: Nontaburi, 2006. Munetz M, Frese F. Getting ready for recovery: reconciling mandatory treatment with the recovery vision. Psychiatr. Rehabil. J. 2001; 25: 35–42. Ochocka J, Nelson G, Janzen R. Moving forward: negotiating self and external circumstances in recovery. Psychiatr. Rehabil. J. 2005; 28: 315–322. Peebles SA, Mabe PA, Fenley G et al. Immersing practitioners in the recovery model: an educational program evaluation. Community Ment. Health J. 2009; 45: 239–245. QSR International. NVivo 8: Getting Started. 2008. [Cited 20 Oct 2008.] Available from URL: http://www.qsrinternational.com/ support_resource-articles_detail.aspx?view=346 Ramon S, Healy B, Renouf N. Recovery from mental illness as an emergent concept and practice in Australia and the UK. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry 2007; 53: 108–122. Resnick S, Rosenheck R, Lehman AF. An exploratory analysis of correlates of recovery. Psychiatr. Serv. 2004; 55: 540–547. Sanseeha L, Chontawan R, Sethabouppha H, Disayavanish C, Turale S. Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schizophrenia. Nurs. Health Sci. 2009; 11: 306–311. Siriwanarangsan P, Liknapichitkul D, Khandelwal S. Thailand mental health country profile. Int. Rev. Psychiatry 2004; 16: 150– 185. Slade M. Personal Recovery and Mental Illness. A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Smith M. Recovery from a severe psychiatric disability: finding of a qualitative study. Psychiatr. Rehabil. J. 2000; 24: 149–158. Tooth B, Kalyanasundaram V, Glover H, Momtnzadah S. Factors consumers identify as important to recovery from schizophrenia. Australas. Psychiatry 2003; 11: 70–77. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Copyright of Nursing & Health Sciences is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARTICLE 1 Bibliography of Article Name of the Student Name of the University BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARTICLE 2 Introduction This article consists of factors which involves in recovery from schizophrenia for detailing the qualitative study of Thai mental health nurses. The purpose of this article is to explore Thai Mental health nurse’s views about recovery from schizophrenia including the meaning and characteristics that are involved in recovery and current nursing practices that promote recovery. It also reports the findings related to what the nurses need to be considered as the factors that are involved in a recovery from schizophrenia. The critique of article by title and authors is to present the findings of qualitative study for exploring the perspectives of 24 Thai nurses regarding schizophrenia and recovery. The main analysis of this article identifies the personal and environmental factors that are related to recovery. The hypothesis of this article is that environmental analysis factors are described as factors in order to promote recovery oriented mental health services in Thailand (Kilbride M, 2006). The background information of this article is that recovery-oriented services are being called for around the world. These services didn’t consider recovery from mental illness as symptom remission and but as individuals’ ability for redefining their self with enduring symptoms. This article is to focus views of Thai nurses regarding the conceptualization of recovery. In this author had presented a well-balanced summary of current knowledge about the topic by means of exploring the perspectives of Thai nurses regarding schizophrenia and recovery. He includes the environmental factors of presence of supportive environmental and accessibility to mental health services in order to make a well-balanced summary of current knowledge about this topic of article. In this, the poor self-responsibility and components of illness both are considered to be apparent bias of article in hindering the process of recovery. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARTICLE 3 Methods of article This design of article is an experimental and qualitative study and data are collected by semi structured interviews and analyzed by a thematic analysis which was suggested by Braun and Clarke. The sampling method of article is that the participants are selected by a purposive sampling of mental health nurse of two general hospitals and one psychiatric hospital in Thailand. The research project of article is described to the potential nurse participants for providing nursing care for at least 1 year to persons who had been diagnosed which schizophrenia. If the nurses of healthcare are willing to participate, then they will provide their names and contact details. The first author was selected by healthcare participants who provided diversity with regard to work experience, age, and education background. The data collection of article collected through semi structured interviews which are conducted in a private room which was provided by the hospital in which healthcare participants can be worked. The healthcare data collection includes that the four questions from interview are used as the initial prompts for the semi structured interviews that what does recovery from schizophrenia mean to you?, what do you consider to be the characteristics of recovery from schizophrenia?, which factors facilitate recovery from schizophrenia, and what are the barriers to recovery from schizophrenia? The two kinds of main coding and processes are presented in this article that data preparation and thematic analysis. The data preparation was initiated by transcribing the recorded interview verbatim into text. The concerns had been voiced that the process of translation had the potential of increasing inaccuracies in the data (Meyrick, 2006). BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARTICLE The thematic analysis 4

This question has not been answered.

Create a free account to get help with this and any other question!

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors