Written Proposal, seven to ten pages.

timer Asked: Jul 22nd, 2014

Question Description

A minus research proposal.docx - EXAMPLE !!!!!

Purpose:  The purpose of this paper for this course is twofold: 1) to demonstrate and extend your understanding of the concept/theory you’ve chosen to examine, 2) to further develop the skills necessary to design a reasonably sound research study. 


Your paper will be typed, double-spaced, 7-10 pages in basic APA style.  Please include a

·  Title Page

·  Abstract

·  Running Header

·  Page Numbers

·  Reference Page. 

The title page and reference pages will NOT be counted as the page requirement. Your paper should include the following:

  1. Choose a topic of interest.  Be sure your question is something you’re interested in knowing, not just for the sake of completing the assignment.  You may choose a topic that we cover in class, one you’ve found in the text that we won’t cover in class, or another topic that is closely related to the course material. 
  1. Literature Review: This is the theoretical framework; therefore, it is very important.  Find at least 5 outside, scholarly sources.  The sources must have been published between the years 2000-2013.  The objective of this section is not only to provide support or your topic, but also to inform you of current research and guide you to develop your own design.
  1. Methods:  The method section answers the questions, “What will you do to find the answer to your question, or prove your hypothesis correct?” Include the specifics of how you will set this up.  Include which research design you will use and why.  Include which statistical analysis you will perform. 
  1. Statement of Hypothesis:  Provide your hypothesis, including 1 dependent and 1 independent variable.

After reading this section, I should be able to easily follow your instructions and conduct the study myself.  If there are any holes in your methods, your procedures are not clear enough.

From the following topics please choose 1 to talk about through out the whole paper 


intrinsic/extrinsic motivation

goal orientation

attribution theory


stereotype threat

social cognitive theory

reciprocal determinism



self-determination theory

motivation and technology....


rewards and punishments

operant conditioning


learned helplessness

classical conditioning

garcia effect

emotions and learning/behavior/motivation

observational learning

 Here is the Rubric which it will be graded on 

Levels of Performance

Literature Review/Introduction


Statement of hypothesis 


Explanation of methodology




Exceeds criteria  70-80 pts

Provides exceptional descriptions of articles and how they relate to topic.

Clearly states the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.  Provides reasons why author chose this topic AND/OR why topic is important to the field of psychology. Keeps it simple: one dependent variable and one independent variable.

Provides an in-depth explanation of the design.  Design is appropriate to the hypothesis.

Thoroughly demonstrates how author will control for confounding variables.

No grammar or spelling errors. Smooth transitions from paragraph to paragraph.  Easy to read and follow.


Meets criteria

Provides sufficient descriptions of articles and how they relate to the topic.

Clearly states the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.  Keeps it simple: one dependent variable and one independent variable.

Provides a sufficient explanation of the design.  Design is appropriate to the hypothesis.

Demonstrates how author will control for confounding variables.

One or two grammar or spelling errors. Smooth transitions from paragraph to paragraph.  Easy to read and follow.


Progressing towards meeting criteria

Provides barely sufficient descriptions of articles and how they relate to the topic.

States the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.  Hypotheses may not be relevant or simple.

Provides a somewhat sufficient or clear explanation of design.  Design may or may not be appropriate to the hypothesis.

Some demonstration of how author will control for confounding variables.

Several grammar or spelling errors. Choppy or no transitions from paragraph to paragraph. 


Does not meet criteria

Does not provide sufficient descriptions of articles and few, if any, demonstrations of how articles are relevant.

Does not state the null hypothesis and/or the alternative hypothesis.  Hypotheses is not relevant or simple.

Provides an insufficient or unclear explanation of design.  Design is not explained or not appropriate to the hypothesis.

No demonstration of how author will control for  confounding variables OR insufficient controls.

Many glaring grammar or spelling errors. Choppy or no transitions from paragraph to paragraph.  Hard to follow.


Absent/Off task

Provides no descriptions of articles AND/OR articles are not related to topic.

Provides no hypotheses statements.


Provides no explanation of design or controls.

Paper is impossible to read because of grammar and spelling errors.

1 Running head: AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING Ages Impact on Implanting False Memories Name Date PSY 324- Memory & Cognition Christa Lynch Arizona State University 2 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES Introduction/ Literature Review Past research has taken a close look into one of the particularly fascinating areas in cognitive psychology, the concept of false memories. "Studies on false memories and beliefs, for example, have compellingly shown that misleading information can lead to the creation of recollections of entire events that have not occurred" (Bernstein, Geraerts, Linders, Loftus, Merekellbach, Raymackers, 2008). A well-known study done by Elke Geraerts, Daniel M. Bernstein, Harald Merekellbach, Christel Linders, Linsey Raymackers, and Elizabeth F. Loftus (2008) demonstrates how easy it is to implant memories into individuals of college age. The study consisted of a total of one-hundred and eighty college students, onehundred and thirty-five females and only forty-five males. Within this study participants completed a variety of tasks and two groups were formed. One group of participants received information from the experimenter stating things they did and did not like as a child such as the notion that they did not like Brussels sprouts. The second group of participants received all of the information the first group did and the additional notion that they had gotten sick from eating egg salad as a child. After the research process came to a close the researchers were able to conclude that they were able to implant false memories into the participant’s minds and by doing so they were able to significantly change their attitudes and behaviors. The study points to the notion that adults are easy targets when wanting to implant false memories. 3 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES Mark Howe, Marina Wimmer, and Katrina Blease (2008) used the DeeseRoediger-McDermott, DRM to study seventy children. These children were two different ages, thirty-five were seven years old and the other thirty-five were eleven years old. The DRM lists are those in which they all share a common theme but that common theme isn't one of the words in that given list. For instance: book, teacher, learn, write, math. This is a sample list much like the one the children in the study were given, the related theme present here is school. Six DRM lists and six category lists were read aloud to each participant for a total of twelve lists. After each list was read a thirty second pause was given with some sort of distraction to participants then after that time interval was up they were asked to recall the words from the list. When this was concluded the experimenter started naming off words and the participant was to either say yes or no as to whether that word was in one of the lists they had heard before. Howe, Wimmer, and Blease (2008) found that the seven year old children falsely recalled fewer items than the eleven year old children. This was also consistent with false recognition; it was found that the seven year old children falsely recognized fewer items than the eleven year old children did. They concluded that both false recall and false recognition increased with age and was consistent with what they expected to come from their findings. In addition to Howe, Wimmer, and Blease's study, these results of the factor of age having an effect on false recall were also found in another study. Paula Carnerio and Angel Fernandez (2009) conducted a study aiming to look at whether 4 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES a child's age has an effect on their ability to reject associative false memories when using DRM lists. The study consisted of seventy-two children, thirty-six that were four and five years old and thirty-six that were eleven and twelve years old. These participants were to listen to associative lists via recording after the recording was finished they were asked to say the words that they had remembered hearing. The results displayed that older children showed higher false recall than the younger children. Another study similar in nature to the ones previously mentioned is a study done by Jeffrey Anastasi and Matthew Rhodes (2008). This study really pinpointed the topic of looking into how age affects false memories being implanted in a comparison between children between the ages of five and eight with young adults. A total of sixty-two participants were used, thirty children and thirty-two adults. This study also used DRM lists; however what sets this study apart from other studies is the simple fact that the researchers used different sets of lists depending on the age distinction of participants. There were adult-normed lists and childnormed lists. The procedure that followed is the same as other studies using the DRM a simple recall and a recognition task after hearing the list. At the end of this study it was concluded by Anastasi and Rhodes (2009) that lower levels of false memories were found in adults than in the children on both the recall and recognition measures. 5 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES A researcher by the name of Hedwige Dehon (2006) focused a study on comparing younger adults and older adults on their ability to resist false memories using DRM lists. Participants in this study included people of a wide age range, the youngest participant being eighteen and the oldest on average in their seventies. This study results found that older adults believed false memories more so than the younger adults. With the knowledge from previous studies done in the area of false memories specifically looking at the factor of age this proposed study will do the same. All of the studies reviewed have all found the same general idea that false memories are easily implanted more so in adult individuals than with children, stating that with age individuals become more susceptible to believing false memories. Within this study I will be questioning the same thing; does a person’s age impact how easy it is to implant false memories? My hypothesis is consistent with what the current research has found; furthermore I believe that I will also find age impacting false memories in a way that older individuals will be easier to implant false memories than younger individuals. More specifically, if different aged individuals are presented with a false memory and it is made believable then the false memory will be successfully implanted in more of the older participants than in the younger participants. 6 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES Method Participants Two hundred participants will be used for this study, including fifty young children aged six, fifty adolescents aged thirteen, fifty young adult’s aged twentyone, and fifty middle aged adults aged forty. Of these participants in each age category half of them will be female and half of them will be male. The participant’s ages six and thirteen will be randomly selected from a public school in Chandler, Arizona. These participants will receive a pass to a local bowling alley. The participants age twenty-one and forty years old will be randomly selected from Arizona State University Tempe campus. These age groups will include both students and employees of the university. These participants will receive a free movie pass to a local movie theater for their time. Since all participants will be randomly selected the participants should be diverse in nature in regards to ethnic background. Written consent will be obtained from all participants prior to the start of the study. The children ages six and thirteen parents will give their consent on their children's behave as they are minors. Materials and Procedure A variety of materials will be used in order to conduct the experiment. Since a lot of past research in this area has used the DRM lists as their main tools I have chosen to not use that in this study. Participants will be required to come in at 7 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES three different times, in one week intervals. The first session will involve participants completing a basic survey we will have put together in order to get a general food history about each of them. Items on the survey will ask whether the participant likes or dislikes a variety of popular foods one would eat at a fair, carnival, or amusement park. Some of the questions on the survey will be asking participants about a time when they went to a fair, carnival, or amusement park when they were younger. After completing the survey the participant will be thanked for their time and told to come back in a week to complete another task. The next session the following week will have participants brought in one at a time to meet with an experimenter. During this time participants will be asked to picture in their minds the day they went to that fair, carnival, or amusement park. Experimenters will tap into all of their senses by having them remember what it looked like, felt like, smelled like, etc.. All of the participants will then be told during this imagery stage to remember when they won the large teddy bear from a game they had played. Additionally, participants will also be told they ate funnel cake and threw up after eating it from all the rides they had been on. After this session was complete participants were thanked again and asked to come back in a week. The final session had participants fill out a survey that asked them all different questions about a time they visited a carnival, fair, or amusement park when they were younger. The most important items on the survey obviously being asking if they had won a large teddy bear and whether or not they liked funnel 8 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES cake. The results from this survey will be compared with the initial survey that also had these questions on it. Participants whose finals surveys answer yes to one or both of the questions will have had the false memory successfully implanted into them and those final surveys who answer no to the questions will have not had the false memory implanted. Any participants whose initial survey that stated they had in fact won a teddy bear or had gotten sick from funnel cake will be thrown out of the data collection. Research Design and Measures The research design that will be used for this study is a descriptive design specifically survey research. Both paper-pencil surveys and face-to-face interviews will be used. I selected this design because I want to be able to use the knowledge I gain from the initial survey to then implant a false memory to the participant in the interview session and then have them take a final survey to see if the false memory was actually implanted. The statistical analysis I will perform is correlation data. I want to see if the variable of age is related to the variable of the believing the false memory. I will see if there is a positive, negative, or no relationship at all between these two variables. 9 AGES IMPACT ON IMPLANTING FALSE MEMORIES References Anastasi, J. S., & Rhodes, M. G. (2008). Examining differences in the levels of false memories in children and adults using child-normed lists. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 889-889-894. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.889 Carnerio, P, & Fernandez, A. (2010). Age differences in the rejection of false memories: the effects of giving warning instructions and slowing the presentation rate. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105(1-2), retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/science/article/pii/S002209 6509001672 doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.09.004 Dehon, H. (2006). Variations in processing resources and resistance to false memories in younger and older adults. Memory, 14(6), 692-711. doi:10.1080/09658210600648456 10 Geraerts, E., Bernstein, D.M., Merckelbach, H, Linders, C., & Raymaekers, L. . (2008). Lasting false beliefs and their behavioral consequences. Association for Psychological Science, 19(8), Howe M, Wimmer M, Blease K. The role of associative strength in children's false memory illusions. Memory [serial online]. January 2009;17(1):8-16. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed August 2, 2011. Good Literature review and good job incorporating previous studies into your ideas with a creative experiment design. Your hypothesis is clear and based on previous studies, however you didn’t provide a clear description of IVs and DVs. Your statistics tests are good, but you should also include ANOVA to analyze if there are differences between ages in implanting false memories (your study’s rationale). Overall good job. 72/80 A-

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