A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is
more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types
of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the effectiveness, 1000
participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the
nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu
and 420 did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people
developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The
proportion of people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16,
and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24.
The calculated p value = .0008.
For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the
hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study.
Interpret the statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical
methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what you
have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by discussing
how you might conduct a follow-up study.
Your essay must address the following points:
- Describe the research question for this experiment.
- What were the null and alternative hypotheses?
- Were the results of this test statistically significant?
- If so, why were they significant?
- Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
- Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative
- Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.
- What are some possible limitations to this study?
- Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your
- Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.