Fluid, Electrolytes, Acids/Bases....

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Question description

Question 1

Can you discuss hypOchloremia?

Question 2

Can you outline the differences between isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic?

Question 3

There are three important mechanisms that the body uses to handle changes in serum pH. Buffers such as the bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffering system, phosphate buffers in our bones and intracellular protein buffers are equipt to handle changes in pH. Pulmonary compensation and renal compensation also maintain pH values. Ventilation works to change the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide which, in turn, decreases pH. Renal mechanism are very slow, but over time the kidneys will excrete H+ organic acids which, in turn, will regulate pH.

Can you list the the three major ways that our bodies buffer?

Dear Tutor:

I need 100-150 words for each answer with intext citations, page number and credible references.  Thanks.

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