THIS FINAL PAPER HAS TO BE ORIGINAL WORK.
The purpose of the Final Exam is to assess your understanding of the
main statistical concepts covered in this course and to evaluate your
ability to critically review a quantitative research article. The exam
will consist of two parts: Part I includes three essay questions and
Part II includes a research critique. All of your responses should be
included in a single Word document for submission.
Please include the following general headings for each section of the written exam within your Word document:
Part I: Essay Questions1. Essay 1
2. Essay 2
3. Essay 3
Part II: Research Study Critique1. Introduction
Your complete Word document must include a title page with the following:
1. Student’s name
2. Course name and number
3. Instructor’s name
4. Date submitted
Part I: Essay QuestionsThere
are three essay questions in this section. You must answer all three
questions. The length of each essay should be one to two double-spaced
pages (excluding title and reference pages). Use 12-point font and
format your paper with regular 1-inch margins. Do not include the essay
prompt in your document. It will not count toward the length
requirement for your essays.
group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine
is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two
different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the
effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people
getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated
with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who
were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380
did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of
people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and
the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was
.24. The calculated p value = .0008.
For this essay, describe the
statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research
methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the
statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical
methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what
you have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by
discussing how you might conduct a follow-up study.
Your essay must address the following points:
- Describe the research question for this experiment.
- What were the null and alternative hypotheses?
- Were the results of this test statistically significant?
- If so, why were they significant?
- Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
- Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis?
- Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.
- What are some possible limitations to this study?
- Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer.
- Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.
Essay 2A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.
For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.
- Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation.
- Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researcher’s chosen variables.
- Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.
Your essay response must address the following questions:
- How strong is this correlation?
- Is this a positive or negative correlation?
- What does this correlation mean?
- Does this correlation imply that individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQ) have high Grade Point Averages (GPA)?
- Does this correlation provide evidence that high IQ causes GPA to go higher?
- What other variables might be influencing this relationship?
- What is the connection between correlation and causation?
- What are some of the factors that affect the size of this correlation?
- Is correlation a good test for predicting GPA?
- If not, what statistical tests should a researcher use, and why?
researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a
memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:
this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data into meaningful
sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the results, and
evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the variables. You may
use Excel, one of the many free online descriptive statistics
calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a calculator.
separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be the lower
reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reaction times.
Then, address the following points in your essay response:
- Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.
- How do the two groups differ?
- Are there any outliers in either data group?
- What effect does an outlier have on a sample?
double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points in each group.
You will have a total of 20 data points for each group. After
completing this, address the following in your essay response:
- Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis.
- Did any of the values change?
- How does sample size affect those values?
Part B: Research Study CritiqueIn
this second portion of the Final Exam, you will identify and critically
evaluate a quantitative research article based on a social science
topic. Your selected article must include a research question(s) and/or
hypothesis(es) and utilize statistical analyses covered in the course.
The article must be peer-reviewed and published within the last 10
In the body of your critique, describe the statistical
approaches used, the variables included, the hypothesis(es) proposed,
and the interpretation of the results. In your conclusion, suggest
other statistical approaches that could have been used and, if
appropriate, suggest alternative interpretations of the results. This
process will allow you to apply the concepts learned throughout the
course in the interpretation of actual scientific research. Your
critique must include the following sections:
This section will include a general introduction of the quantitative
study from a peer-reviewed source published within the last 10 years.
The research questions and/or hypothesis(es) as well as the purpose of
the study should be clearly defined.
Describe and evaluate the procedures and methods of data collection,
measures/instruments used, the participants and how they were selected,
and the statistical techniques used.
- Results: In this section describe and critique the results presented in the study.
Discuss and evaluate the efficacy of the results presented in the
study. Address, the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the
study, and suggest future research directions. Include additional forms
of statistical analyses as part of the suggestions for future research.
The Research Study Critique:
be three to four double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and
reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the
Ashford Writing Center. Use 12-point font, with 1-inch margins.
- Must use the sections and headings described above.
address the article with critical thought by examining, reflecting, and
evaluating the article from an objective viewpoint and by using facts
to support your argument. Refer to the Critical Thinking Community
website for further assistance.
- Must end with a conclusion that summarizes your critical evaluation.
- Must use one quantitative research study from a peer-reviewed source that was published within the last 10 years.
- Must properly cite the source article in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.