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There are 5 essays to make, no need to make introduction & conclusion. Answer each essay
directly and put the heading for each essay e.g essay 1 .
Post should comprise two to three paragraphs of text (approx. 300 words), plus non-text
additions such as photos, videos, drawings, music, or other creative forms related to your
post. If the non-text content is created by you please indicate your authorship with your
name and date. If it is not practical within the discussion post formatting to locate it next
to the image or video in the post, you may add the attribution information in a reference
list at the end.
Your posts should include concepts, ideas or issues from the readings and/or modules,
and other reliable peer-reviewed sources into your posts. You must always cite the source
when you do so using APA format. Although you do not need to reference external
material for all posts, it is expected that throughout the term you will refer to at least two
scholarly sources from a sociological perspective that are additional to required course
readings as part of the evidence for the contribution you are making in your post. An
academic/scholarly source may include a peer-reviewed journal article (such as those
listed in Chapter 1 of the textbook), a book chapter with a scholarly approach, a
government policy paper (e.g. Canadian government, European Union or
intergovernmental organizations like the United Nations or the World Bank), or a report
published by a credible not-for profit organization (e.g. Oxfam or La Via Campesina).
You may also use a chapter of the textbook that was NOT assigned as required reading
for the course.
Posts should be well organized and clearly written with attention to grammar and
spelling. The title of the post should clearly indicate the topic of the post.
As much as possible, connect your commentary to specific examples of your own food habits or
experiences as well as to course concepts, debates, or issues (not only from the module in
question but from previous modules and readings). You may also connect your posts to concepts
you’ve learned in other courses. You are encouraged to not only make statements but also to
raise questions that come up for you and reflect on how your perspective may be similar or
different than your peers. In a post of this length it is better to focus on making several points
clearly, than to try and bring in too many ideas.
Choose a food store or market that may be considered an alternative to the conventional food
system (e.g., a farmers’ market, a health food store, a food co-op). It might be useful for your to
check out Whole Foods Market or Karma Co-op since you’ve read about them, but you’re
welcome to choose another venue that is convenient for you to get to.
When you’re there, think (and jot down some ideas) about the following:
1. How are capitalist consumer values such as convenience, predictability, consistency,
cost-effectiveness, and variety either promoted or challenged (or both) at this venue?
2. Is alternative hedonism promoted at this venue? How? (Are different pleasures than those
above promoted? Are the values above framed as unpleasurable? How?)
3. Does this venue mostly fetishize or de-fetishize food? In what ways?
4. Does your experience relate in any way to other concepts from this week (e.g., food
taboos, practical consciousness, discursive consciousness, and cultural schemas?)
You might also want to take a few photos or a short video for your post. Be aware, though, that
some stores might not allow photography on their premises.
After your trip, describe your experience in relation to one of the above questions, giving
specific examples. Also, comment on the implications of what you found for sustainability,
health and social justice in the food system. Remember that your post entries should be
approximately 300 words. This may not seem like a lot of words to relate your experiences.
However, including references to scholarly sources and non-academic sources such as news
articles, advertisements, images weblinks and scholarly articles are ways to effectively reinforce
and illustrate your points, while keeping your writing concise and readable. As with any images
or videos please be sure to provide a full citation for the source of these images.
You have a choice of two topics:
1) Should we try to create a society where foodwork is shared equally, regardless of gender?
Why or why not and/or what might be required for that to happen?
2) Should we try to create a society where gender identity is not connected to food choices
(while there still being individual non-gender-related differences in how people eat)? Why or
why not and what might be required for that to happen?
The more you bring in concepts and reflect on ideas from the module and readings and provide
evidence of your position from experience, readings and supplementary scholarly articles, media
examples or government statistics (or previous modules and readings, if relevant) in your debate,
Implications: Gender, Food, and Oppression
In Chapter 6 of the textbook reading for this week, Brady and colleagues suggest that gendered
food practices are linked to gender oppression. Why?
Think back to what you learned about gender and foodwork, as well as gender and eating styles.
How might they also be harmful to men, women, and transgendered folk who act and live in
non-traditional ways? Remember, we are talking about systemic and structural inequality—we
are not blaming individuals. The point is that our underlying—sometimes unconscious—
assumptions about eating/foodwork roles and our social system contribute to gender inequality.
Foodwork in the home and gender inequality
Gender inequality around domestic foodwork relates to a number of issues, including the
If one person in a relationship is expected to do the majority of the household foodwork,
even if they are employed, this can lead to overwork and exhaustion.
• If one person in a relationship is expected to do the majority of the household foodwork,
they may have trouble balancing work, life, and career advancement. This, in turn, leads
to inequalities in the public sphere (e.g., men having more leadership roles in government
and companies than women).
• If household foodwork is seen as “feminine,” men are discouraged from doing it, and
they are denied the pleasures, meanings and skills associated with this work.
• If one person in a relationship works only part time, or is “stay-at-home”, they may
become less time-crunched. However, these choices mean financial dependence. In other
words, they become dependent on the wage earner in their lives (often a man) and have
fewer choices if they want or need to change life paths (e.g., leave a failed or abusive
relationship). Financial independence is also important for self-confidence.
• If time for foodwork in the household is limited, and food choices are affected, parents
may be made to feel responsible/guilty for poor eating habits and limited food skills of
Gendered foods and eating styles and gender inequality
Gender inequality around food and eating styles include the following issues:
If women are expected to eat “healthy,” dainty foods and small portions (and pay
attention to their weight), this can contribute to a culture where women are
undernourished or develop eating disorders. (Susan Bordo  has done great work on
this subject. If you're interested in reading more, check out her book, Unbearable Weight:
Feminism, Western Culture and the Body, especially the chapter called “Hunger as
Studies of college-age students across a range of gender identities found transgender
women to be particularly vulnerable to pressures to conform to specific eating and body
image norms as evidenced by rates of eating disorders in this group that greatly exceeded
studies of women that did not differentiate based on gender identity. (Gordon et al, 2016).
If men are expected to eat meat, avoid healthy foods, and eat larger portions, they may
find it difficult to resist gender norms and chose foods they actually like or that represent
their political convictions through eating patterns such as vegetarianism (Sumpter,
Studies have also shown that this association among meat, unhealthy foods, and
“masculinity” can be detrimental to men's health (Mroz et al., 2011) and make it more
challenging to adopt healthy food practices.
If eating “healthy,” dainty foods and small portions is encouraged as a feminine ideal
(and paying attention to body weight), this may also contribute to fat discrimination and
“body moralizing.” This is something that Brady, et al. discuss in Chapter 6 of the
textbook. We will also discuss this more in
Critical Perspectives in Food Studies (2017), Chapter 6 (Brady, Power, Szabo and Gingras)
Given the increasing poverty and food bank use in Canada, some organizations are promoting
initiatives called Food Bank or Food Basket “Challenges” to encourage citizens to get to know
what it is like to live on a low income and rely on food banks. One of these is the Welfare Diet
Challenge (https://welfarefoodchallenge.org/) in which participant have a set amount of money
for the food budget for a week. In 2017, that was $19 per week as per the welfare food allowance
in BC. In order to raise public awareness on the issue of food security some organizations
challenge media and government personalities to take on such as challenge.
Hamilton Spectator journalist Jeff Green took up such a challenge put on by McMaster
Rather than a food budget challenge, his goal was to live on typical food bank provisions for 3
days. Here are his supplies (for one person):
1 loaf of brown bread
3 juice boxes
1 package of brown sugar
2 boxes of macaroni and cheese
1 can of beans in tomato sauce
2 cans of cream-style corn
1 package of chocolate chips
1 litre carton of milk
2 cans of chicken noodle soup
1 can of tuna
1 large packet of instant oatmeal
For this week’s post, your job is to take a similar food bank challenge and write about your
experiences. You have 2 choices:
Imagine you were going to live on the food supplies listed above for 3 days (plus $5 for
additional purchases of your choice). Create meal plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks
for each day. If you’re really keen, you’re welcome to buy these items and try to actually live on
them for 3 days (plus $5 for additional purchases of your choice), but this is not required. The
provisions listed are for one person. The word count for your menu is not included in the
assignment word count.
You may have already used or volunteered at a food bank or charitable food program yourself
(In Canada or elsewhere) and are willing to share your experiences. If this is the case, write
about the challenges you have faced in getting sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets
your dietary needs and preferences or in providing it in your volunteer role.
Whichever option you choose, write about your experience. What difficulties did you encounter,
if any? Why? What, if anything, surprised you? How does this relate to the topic of charitable
food assistance as presented by Dachner and Tarasuk or food soveriegnty as presented by
Desmarais in this week's readings and/or other scholarly or media reports on the topic? How
does it relate to the definition of food security described in the module? What, if anything, did
this help you realize about poverty and food banks?
Misleading food terms: Describe one CFIA definition (e.g., homemade, organic, local, pure)
that you find surprising or confusing and why. Check out the Canadian Food Inspection
Agency’s (CFIA's) Guide to Food Labelling and Advertising (Opens new window)
(https://www.inspection.gc.ca/food-label-requirements/labelling/forconsumers/eng/1400426541985/1400455563893). Explain what influence you think this might
have on shoppers.
Canada's new Food Policy, called "Food Policy for Canada: Everyone at the Table."
six priority outcomes identified in Canada's national food policy.
The six priority outcomes are:
1. Vibrant communities: Improved community capacity and resilience to food-related
2. Increased connections within food systems: Increased governance spaces and
partnerships that connect multiple sectors and actors across the food system.
3. Improved food-related health outcomes: Improved health status of Canadians related to
food consumption and reduced burden of diet-related disease, particularly among groups
at higher risk of food insecurity.
4. Strong Indigenous food systems: To be co-developed in partnership with Indigenous
communities and organizations.
5. Sustainable food practices: Improvements in the state of the Canadian environment
through the use of practices along the food value chain that reduce environmental impact
and that improve the climate resilience of the Canadian food system.
6. Inclusive economic growth: Improved access to opportunities in the agriculture and
food sector for all Canadians within a diversified, economically viable, and sustainable
Choose ONE of the six priority outcomes, and identify at least TWO course topics or themes that
reflect the priority you choose. Don't just list the topics or themes. Be sure to explain HOW each
one is connected to the priority outcome that you choose, and WHY you feel it is an important
be sure to use evidence to support your argument (e.g. course readings, videos, other course
material, or insights from other students). Your response must be more than simply an opinion.
Bain, J. (2009, November 11). Youth cooking contest lets teens shine at Royal. Toronto Star.
City of Toronto. (2001). Toronto’s Food Charter.
Food Secure Canada (2019). Food Secure Canada's summary and analysis of Canada's Food
Government of Canada (2019). Food Policy Press Release.
Greenbelt. (2013). Bringing More Local Food to Universities and Hospitals.
Lahey, D. (2013, October 25). Personal Communication.
MacRae, R. (2017). Food policy for the 21st century. In Koç., M., Sumner, J., & Winson, A.
(Eds), Critical Perspectives in Food Studies (pp. 310–323). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University
Meal Exchange. (2012). National Student Food Charter.
Mendes, W. (2012). Municipal governance and urban food systems. In Koç., M., Sumner, J., &
Winson, A. (Eds), Critical Perspectives in Food Studies (pp. 290–309). Don Mills, ON: Oxford
Ridgeway, J., & Mathews, M. (2015) Campus gardens: Food production or sense of
place? Canadian Food Studies, 2(1), 99–118
Toronto Public Health. (2010). Cultivating Food Connections: Toward a Healthy and Sustainable
Food System for Toronto.