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You have an aqueous solution of sodium iodide at a concentration of [NaI]=1 M. At a temperature of 20oC, you measure the vapor pressure of water above the NaI solution and find a value of 2275 Pa. You know that the vapor pressure of pure water is 2339 Pa at 20oC. You also know that the activity coefficient of the Na+ cation in water is 1 at this concentration. What is the activity coefficient of the anion Iin this solution?

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Question 1. On the following page you are given the single component phase diagram of a substance. Estimate the constant-pressure entropy change during condensation from the gas phase to solid phase at 380 K. Question 2. a. In the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning using hyperbaric oxygen, it is desirable to maintain an oxygen concentration of 0.1 mM in the patient’s interstitial fluid. What is the minimum necessary pressure of oxygen in the chamber to achieve this concentration if the patient is maintained at 37oC? You may assume that that interstitial fluid is a dilute aqueous solution. Carbon monoxide has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen so using higher oxygen pressures are necessary to displace CO from the hemoglobin molecules. b. You are working on a cell cryo-preservation project. You prepare an electrolyte for cell preservation in which you add 1 g of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to 100 ml of pure water. You measure a freezing point of -3 oC and a pH of 7.4 for the electrolyte with the DMSO addition. The molar mass of DMSO is 78.1 g/mol and the density of water is 1 g/ml. What is the freezing point depression constant (Kf) for water based on these measurements? c. You now need to complete the electrolyte by adding NaCl (molar mass 58.4 g/mol) to the DMSO/water solution. You plan to place cells in the electrolyte and cool to -2.5oC retaining the liquid phase. What is the minimum quantity of NaCl, in grams, that must be added to 100 ml of the DMSO/water electrolyte to avoid rupturing the cells by expansion, if the intracellular fluid has an overall concentration of 0.2 M? The rupture strength of a cell membrane from internal pressure is 150 kPa. Question 3. a) Of importance in the metabolic pathway is the reaction between pyruvate and NADH to form lactate and NAD+ in accordance with the following reaction, Reaction 1. pyruvate + NADH + H + => lactate + NAD+ a. Based on the reduction half-cell potentials provided in Table 7.1 and the data in the figure below, which were obtained at 1 bar, estimate the enthalpy of the reaction as at 310 K and pH=7. b) At the following cellular concentrations, [NAD+ ]=0.2 mM, [NADH]=0.08 mM, [lactate]=0.5 M, and [pyruvate]=0.004 M, what is the minimum pH for Reaction 1 to proceed spontaneously? Question 4. You have an aqueous solution of sodium iodide at a concentration of [NaI]=1 M. At a temperature of 20oC, you measure the vapor pressure of water above the NaI solution and find a value of 2275 Pa. You know that the vapor pressure of pure water is 2339 Pa at 20oC. You also know that the activity coefficient of the Na+ cation in water is 1 at this concentration. What is the activity coefficient of the anion Iin this solution? Question 1. On the following page you are given the single component phase diagram of a substance. Estimate the constant-pressure entropy change during condensation from the gas phase to solid phase at 380 K. Question 4. You have an aqueous solution of sodium iodide at a concentration of [NaI]=1 M. At a temperature of 20oC, you measure the vapor pressure of water above the NaI solution and find a value of 2275 Pa. You know that the vapor pressure of pure water is 2339 Pa at 20oC. You also know that the activity coefficient of the Na+ cation in water is 1 at this concentration. What is the activity coefficient of the anion Iin this solution? ...
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