Anonymous
timer Asked: Apr 21st, 2020

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I need an outline for a research paper (argumentative essay) about : Should the use of psychoactive drugs such LSD and psilocybin mushrooms be legal in psychiatric purposes or not?

( I need the outline with the full introduction) in 5 hours. If i like it i’ll proceed with the research paper 1300 words APA style( argumentative) + I have the sources you can use.

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Outline for Research Paper I. Introduction (copy-paste full introduction you wrote in class on Monday. This must include a hook, background information, counterargument and your thesis statement): II. Body Paragraph 1 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 2 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 3 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 4 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 5 (optional) A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 6 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 7 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Body Paragraph 8 A. Topic Sentence with paragraph-level transition (in sentence form): B. Supporting Details (1-4 words only) 1. (evidence) 2. (significance to thesis) 3. (concluding sentence) Conclusion A. General Thesis Statement restated (in sentence form): B. Conclusion Strategy (1-4 words only) 1. 2. 4 Illegal Drugs That Might Be Medicines Written by Rachel Barclay on November 30, 2013 for Healthline After decades of prohibition, research is illuminating new uses for some illegal drugs. In the 1960s, drug scares swept the nation. In 1970, the Controlled Substances Act was passed, banning or restricting the use of some of these drugs, due in part to the political climate of the time. For 40 years, research into these drugs was prohibited. In a paperTrusted Source, former chair of the U.K. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, David Nutt, called these drug laws "the worst case of scientific censorship since the Catholic Church banned the works of Copernicus and Galileo." Today, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is permitting study into many drugs that were once banned. Research is also occurring in other countries with more relaxed drug policies than the United States. And scientists are finding that some illegal drugs have significant medicinal uses. 1. Heroin for Opiate Addiction The majority of opiate addicts don’t use heroin. They’re addicted to pharmaceutical opiates, such as Vicodin, Percocet, Oxycontin, or Demerol. And almost invariably, they’re using opiates to self-medicate an underlying psychiatric condition, such as anxiety, depression, flashback memories, nightmares, or sleep disorders. “It appears that these psychiatrically severely ill people simply need a medication,” said Dr. Torsten Passie, of the Hannover Medical School in Germany, in an interview with Healthline. Users of opiates are also likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and benzodiazepines to try to control their symptoms. Passie foundTrusted Source that compared to methadone, the opiate drug currently used to treat addiction to opiates, patients taking heroin reduced their use of other drugs by a third, with 60 percent of patients stopping the use of all other drugs within the first year. He also found that after four weeks of heroin use, patients no longer experienced any intoxicating effects from the drug, bolstering the theory that they’re not just taking drugs to get high. “There is no detectable intoxication in most of them. Neuropsychological results show that they can perform mostly so well that even car driving would have to be allowed,” said Passie. “This is not true when additional substances were taken, right?” Passie hopes that his work will change the way people think about addicts (or, as he calls them, heroin-using humans). “Because other substances do not help them sufficiently, we are kind of nonsensical putting people who need a strong medication for their strong symptoms in prisons instead of treating them with respect and dignity as patients,” he said. 2. Ketamine for Bipolar Disorder Although ketamine is not completely banned, it’s still strictly regulated, and is used primarily as a sedative. A study published in 2012 found that it might have other uses. Dr. Demitri Papolos, Director of Research at the Juvenile Bipolar Research Foundation, examined ketamine as a treatment for bipolar disorder in children. Current medications for bipolar disorder can take weeks or months to fully come into effect. Many patients struggle to find the right combination of drugs that will give them relief, meaning that new drugs offer patients valuable new options. Papolos found that the children treated with ketamine showed an immediate improvement in their symptoms, and that the improvements lasted for almost two weeks after they stopped using ketamine. Side effects were minimal once the children got used to the drug. 3. MDMA for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Although there are many treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), some people are resistant to them. “Common reasons for this are that, when people revisit their traumatic experiences in therapy, they may be either emotionally flooded or emotionally numb, and either one gets in the way of successful therapeutic processing,” explained Dr. Michael Mithoefer, an assistant professor at the Medical University of South Carolina, in an interview with Healthline. Mithoefer has begun a series of studies treating PTSD in veterans who haven’t responded to conventional therapies. The MDMA doesn’t replace therapy, but adds to it. Patients received two to four doses of MDMA, spaced at least one month apart, to augment their therapy. “MDMA seems to give people a period of time in which they connect with their emotions but are not overwhelmed by them, a sense that ‘this is difficult, but I can do it,’” said Mithoefer. In his pilot study, every single patient treated saw a reduction in their PTSD symptoms, often taking them below the threshold for the disorder. One patient even appeared to be cured after a single dose. Eleven to 20 percent of veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan show signs of PTSD, often leaving them on lifetime disability. A drug that could not just treat PTSD but outright cure it would be invaluable. 4. Magic Mushrooms for Alcoholism and Anxiety MDMA isn’t the only drug that might have significant effects in just a single use. Dr. David Nichols, an adjunct professor in the School of Pharmacy at UNC, Chapel Hill, explained that psychedelic drugs, including LSD and magic mushrooms, can bring about profound spiritual experiences. Sometimes, a shift in perspective is exactly what people need. Dr. Stan Grof ran a study in Baltimore in which he gave psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, to patients who were dying of cancer. “A lot of people die in great fear, anxiety, and depression,” said Nichols. “There’s not a lot you can do for these people. The conventional drugs won’t work well, and they don’t work fast.” Grof’s results were nothing short of miraculous. With a single dose, his patients were able to change their perspective on death, understanding, and accepting their fate. “Their fear of death is gone,” said Nichols. “Their anxiety related to dying has basically disappeared.” Three more studies at New York University, Johns Hopkins, and UCLA Harvard Medical Center are now also looking at psilocybin to treat end-of-life anxiety and the anxiety associated with a cancer diagnosis. Fear of death isn’t the only thing that psilocybin can treat. Two studies, at the University of New Mexico and at Newark University, have examined the effects of psilocybin on alcoholism. For alcoholics, a major shift in life perspective can be just what they need to quit drinking. “Imagine if people who were alcoholics and wanted to quit drinking had something more reliable that could help them stop,” said Nichols. “It’d be of a huge benefit to society.” Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health-news/mental-four-illegal-drugs-withmedicinal-qualities-113013#1 Your source for the latest research news Fast-acting psychedelic associated with improvements in depression/anxiety Date: Source: Summary: March 18, 2019 Johns Hopkins Medicine Researchers have discovered that use of the synthetic psychedelic 5-methocy-N,-N-dimethyl‐ tryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) appears to be associated with unintended improvements in self-re‐ ported depression and anxiety when given in a ceremonial group setting. 5-MeO-DMT is a psy‐ chedelic that is found in the venom of Bufo Alvarius toads, in a variety of plants species, and can be produced synthetically. FULL STORY Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered that use of the synthetic psychedelic 5methocy-N,-N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) appears to be associated with unin‐ tended improvements in self-reported depression and anxiety when given in a ceremonial group setting. 5-MeO-DMT is a psychedelic that is found in the venom of Bufo Alvarius toads, in a variety of plants species, and can be produced synthetically. In a survey of 362 adults, approximately 80 percent of respondents reported improvements in anxiety and de‐ pression after use. These improvements were related to more intense acute mystical effects during the 5MeO-DMT experience, as well as increases in rating of the personal meaning and spiritual significance of the experience. Improvements were also related to stronger beliefs that the experience contributed to enduring well-being and life satisfaction. These results were published in The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. One of the unique properties of 5-MeO-DMT is the fast action and short duration of the psychedelic effects when compared to other psychedelics. "Research has shown that psychedelics given alongside psychothera‐ py help people with depression and anxiety. However, psychedelic sessions usually require 7 -- 8 hours per session because psychedelics typically have a long duration of action," says Alan K. Davis, Ph.D., a postdoc‐ toral research fellow in the Behavioral Research Unit, at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "Because 5-MeO-DMT is short-acting and lasts approximately 30-90 minutes, it could be much easier to use as an adjunct to therapy because current therapies usually involve a 60 -- 90 minute session." Last year, Davis published a study in Frontiers in Psychology that found that 5-MeO-DMT administered in a psychospiritual retreat setting produced comparable ratings of mystical experience as a high-dose psilocybin session in the laboratory setting. Another study by Davis that came out last year in The Journal of Psy‐ chopharmacology showed that 5-MeO-DMT had a safe profile of use and low risk for health and legal consequences. "It is important to examine the short- and long-term effects of 5-MeO-DMT, which may enhance mood in gen‐ eral or may be particularly mood enhancing for those individuals experiencing clinically significant negative mood," says Davis. "Regardless, this research is in its infancy and further investigation is warranted in healthy volunteers." The authors on this paper were Alan K. Davis, Sara So and Roland R. Griffiths of Johns Hopkins, Rafael Lancelotta of University of Wyoming and Joseph P. Barsuglia of New School Research. The study was funded by grants from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse (AA 007747) and the National In‐ stitute on Drug Abuse (T32 DA007209, R01 DA003889). Story Source: Materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medicine. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Journal References: 1. Alan K. Davis, Sara So, Rafael Lancelotta, Joseph P. Barsuglia, Roland R. Griffiths. 5-methoxy-N,N-di‐ methyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in depression and anxiety. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2018.1545024 2. Joseph Barsuglia, Alan K. Davis, Robert Palmer, Rafael Lancelotta, Austin-Marley Windham-Herman, Kris‐ tel Peterson, Martin Polanco, Robert Grant, Roland R. Griffiths. Intensity of Mystical Experiences Occa‐ sioned by 5-MeO-DMT and Comparison With a Prior Psilocybin Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 2018; 9 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02459 3. Alan K Davis, Joseph P Barsuglia, Rafael Lancelotta, Robert M Grant, Elise Renn. The epidemiology of 5methoxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) use: Benefits, consequences, patterns of use, sub‐ jective effects, and reasons for consumption. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2018; 32 (7): 779 DOI: 10.1177/0269881118769063 Cite This Page: MLA APA Chicago Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2019, March 18). Fast-acting psychedelic associated with improvements in depres‐ sion/anxiety. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 8, 2020 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190318132628.htm RELATED STORIES Psychedelic Drugs Promote Neural Plasticity in Rats and Flies June 12, 2018 — Psychedelic drugs may have mind-altering powers in the physical sense, too. A new study ...
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