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Chapter 1 Orientation and Fire Service History 0 0 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Orientation and Fire Service History SAUDI ACADEMY OF CIVIL AVIATION TRAINING CENTER NAME VERSION : DATE OF IMPLEMENTATION : Handout/2020/Feb/V.1.0 1.0 25-03-2020 |Page 2 0 0 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Contents 1 2 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 6 1.1 The Work ethic. ........................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Pride ............................................................................................................................ 6 1.3 Courage ....................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Loyalty ........................................................................................................................ 6 1.5 Respect ........................................................................................................................ 6 1.6 Compassion ................................................................................................................. 7 Fire Service Mission and Organization.............................................................................. 7 2.1 3 Fire Department Organization ........................................................................................... 8 3.1 4 5 6 7 Fire Service Mission.................................................................................................... 7 Organization Structure ................................................................................................ 9 Separation of departmental Duties ................................................................................... 10 4.1 Fire Companies ......................................................................................................... 11 4.2 Fire Department Personnel ........................................................................................ 12 Organizational Principles ................................................................................................. 14 5.1 Chain Command........................................................................................................ 14 5.2 Unity of Command .................................................................................................... 14 5.3 Span of Control ......................................................................................................... 15 5.4 Division of Labor ...................................................................................................... 15 5.5 Discipline .................................................................................................................. 15 Fire Department Regulations ........................................................................................... 15 6.1 Policies ...................................................................................................................... 16 6.2 Procedures ................................................................................................................. 17 6.3 Laws, Statutes, or Ordinances ................................................................................... 17 6.4 Codes and Standards ................................................................................................. 17 6.5 Orders and Directives ................................................................................................ 18 Interacting with Other Organizations............................................................................... 18 7.1 Emergency Medical Services .................................................................................... 18 7.2 Hospitals .................................................................................................................... 19 7.3 Emergency Disaster Management ............................................................................. 19 7.4 Law Enforcement ...................................................................................................... 20 7.5 Utility companies ...................................................................................................... 20 Handout/2020/Feb/V.1.0 |Page 3 0 0 1 Orientation and Fire Service History 7.6 Public Works ............................................................................................................. 20 7.7 Media......................................................................................................................... 20 7.8 Other Agencies .......................................................................................................... 21 Handout/2020/Feb/V.1.0 |Page 4 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Upon completion of the session, all participants will be able to: 1. Summarize the history of the fire service. 2. Explain the organizational characteristics, cultural challenges, and cultural strengths that influence the fire service. 3. Describe the mission of the fire service. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1] 4. Describe the organization of fire departments. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1] 5. Distinguish among functions of fire companies. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1] 6. Summarize primary knowledge and skills the firefighter must have to function effectively. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1, 6.1.1] 7. Distinguish among the primary roles of fire service personnel. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1, 6.1.1] 8. Describe fire department organizational principles. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1] 9. Locate information in departmental documents and standard or code materials. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.2] 10. Distinguish between fire department SOPs and rules and regulations. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1] 11. Explain the ways the fire service may interact with other organizations. [NFPA® 1001, 5.1.1]. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I |Page 5 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History 1 1.1 Introduction The Work ethic. Having a good work ethic means valuing the virtues of hard work and thoroughness. It means doing what needs to be done without being told, doing what you are asked to do without complaint, doing the task completely, and doing it to the best of your ability. It also means being prompt, reliable, and willing to take the initiative. Even tasks that are unpleasant or seem unimportant require your best effort. It is important to remember that throughout your fire service career, you will be judged by the quantity and quality of the work that you do. 1.2 Pride For most firefighters, being a part of the fire service gives them a feeling of self-respect and self-worth. In addition to personal pride, firefighters are proud of their department and of the fire service in general. They demonstrate this by taking pride in their personal appearance, displaying fire service symbols on personal vehicles, wearing no uniform apparel with the department name or Maltese Cross, and collecting fire service memorabilia. 1.3 Courage Of all the personal characteristics firefighters have, courage is the most obvious. Courage is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, or uncertainty. Although the image of firefighters racing into a hazardous situation while others are racing out is an overused stereotype, they do place themselves in harm’s way to protect others. They confront danger in a controlled and rational way, analyzing the risk, planning the most appropriate response, and relying on their training to do the best job possible. 1.4 Loyalty Firefighters are faithfully loyal to the fire service, their department, and their coworkers. They will risk their own lives to save a trapped or missing firefighter. They will take care of an injured firefighter or the family of a fallen firefighter. They will defend their department and the service when someone attempts to tarnish its image. 1.5 Respect Firefighters have always exhibited an attitude of esteem toward their peers, superiors, and fellow citizens. This attitude, as well as the public service firefighters provide, has always led the public to respect the work of the fire service. In North America, this respect has been heightened since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The courage shown by the New York Fire Department and the horrific losses they suffered generated sympathy and admiration for the survivors that has carried over to the fire service as a whole. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I |Page 6 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History 1.6 Compassion Finally, firefighters care about the citizens they serve, their fellow fire- fighters, and their families. They show this compassion when they comfort victims while giving medical aid, provide assistance when fire leaves families homeless, and grieve when a department member is killed in the line of duty. Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) — Term used in codes and standards to identify the legal entity, such as a building or fire official, that has the statutory authority to enforce a code and to approve or require equipment; may be a unit of a local, state, or federal government, depending on where the work occurs. In the insurance industry, it may refer to an insurance rating bureau or an insurance company inspection department. 2 Fire Service Mission and Organization The mission of the fire service — the reason the fire service exists — is usually mandated by a law or ordinance enacted by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). The AHJ determines what services are needed to protect its citizens and establishes the fire service to meet that need. Different communities require different types of services, so fire departments’ missions will vary among different cities, states/provinces, and regions. However, the most basic objectives of the fire service will always include protecting lives, property, and the environment. The AHJ also establishes the organization of the department. It determines the number of facilities and their locations, types of apparatus, number of personnel, and the overall type of department. The AHJ also establishes a hierarchy or organizational chart, assigning functions and responsibilities to specific jobs and ranks. It also sets requirements for the minimum levels of training and certification necessary to attain those ranks. 2.1 Fire Service Mission The mission of the fire service is to save lives and protect property and the environment from fires and other hazardous situations. As mentioned earlier, this mission has evolved. Today many fire departments take an all-hazard concept approach to the services they provide. An all-hazards approach means that the department may provide: • Fire suppression protection • Emergency medical services • Technical rescue services • Hazardous materialsof mitigation Figure 1.8 Members the fire service honor fallen firefighters and offer support to their families. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I |Page 7 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History • Airport and/or seaport protection • Emergency management services • Fire prevention services and public education (engineering, education, and enforcement) • Community risk reduction • Fire cause determination The mission of your local department will depend on the legal mandate that established it, and this mandate will be based on the needs of your community. Your own duty will be to fulfill the stated goals and objectives of your department’s mission statement. These statements are part of the department’s rules and regulations and are usually posted in every department facility. They are made available to all personnel and should be available to the community you protect. AII Hazard Concept — Provides a coordinated approach to a wide variety of incidents; all responders use a similar, coordinated approach with a common set of authorities, protections, and resources. 3 Fire Department Organization Fire and emergency services organizations are structured to meet the missions they are mandated to fulfill. To understand the organizational structure of your department, you need to know the general organizational structures used the common types of fire departments, types of staffing, and the separation of departmental duties. You will also need to know the types of fire department units, known as companies, and the positions that personnel fill to complete the mission of the department. Finally, you need to know your own duties as a Firefighter I or II. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I |Page 8 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History 3.1 Organization Structure Generally, the organizational structure forms a pyramid/hierarchy with the chief of the department at the tip and the firefighters forming the base. In between, the layers are composed of personnel assigned by rank and duty. As a person moves up the pyramid, the number of positions between the tip and base decreases and their authority and responsibility increase (Figure 1.9). Scalar Organizational Structure Based on Rank Deputy Chief Captains Lieutenants Driver/Operators Firefighters/EMTs Figure 1.9 A scalar model includes all personnel in an organizational hierarchy. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I |Page 9 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Figure 1.10 Volunteer organizations protect areas that may not have a high enough population or incident rate to fund a full-time Line Functions — Personnel who provide eminency services to external customers (the pubic). Staff/Support Functions— Personnel who provide administrative and logistical support to line units (internal customers). External Customer — Customer 0f the service area protected by the organization. Internal Customer— Employees and membership of the organization. 4 Separation of departmental Duties In some volunteer and most career departments, personnel are divided into two groups: Line and Staff. Line personnel deliver emergency services to external customers (the public). Stay personnel provide administrative and logistical support for internal customers (line personnel) in areas such as finance, maintenance, and training (Figures 1.11a and b). In some departments, staff officers deliver services to both internal and external customers. For instance, training officers may provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to the public as well as to firefighters. Both line and staff functions are critical to the successful operation of any organization. In the end, we are all members of the same department and the same profession. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I | P a g e 10 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Figure 1.11a Line personnel deliver emergency services to the public, including fire suppression. Courtesy of Bob Esposito. 4.1 Figure 1.11b Staff personnel deliver services to line personnel, including Fire Companies The basic unit of firefighting operations is a company, which is commanded by a company officer and typically includes a driver/operator or engineer, firefighter, and/ or emergency medical technician. Actual staffing is determined by the AHJ. Multiple companies within a response area are grouped into a battalion or district, whose dayto-day functions are overseen by the operations division. There are many different types of companies, each of which are organized based on local needs. In large departments, most companies are specialized. That is, they are organized and trained to excel at one particular aspect of the fire service, such as structural firefighting, rescue, or EMS. In smaller departments, a single company typically performs all of these functions. These are the general types of companies, and their primary duties (Figures 1.12a-d). Figure 1.12a An engine company provides fire suppression, but may also perform ventilation and search and rescue duties. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I Figure 1.12c A hazardous materials company may be placarded to indicate the scope of the incidents that may be addressed. | P a g e 11 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Figure 1.12d An aircraft rescue and firefighting company provides rescue and fire suppression duties in incidents involving aircraft. Courtesy of Edwin Jones. Figure 1.12b A ladder company provides access to upper levels of a structure and performs forcible entry, salvage and overhaul, and utilities control duties. Courtesy of Ron Moore, McKinsey (TX) FD. • • • • • • • • 4.2 Engine company — Performs fire suppression duties at structure, vehicle, wild- land, and other types of fires, such as providing a water supply and advancing attack hoselines. Additional duties may include search and rescue, extrication, ventilation, and emergency medical care. Truck (Ladder) company — Performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, and utilities control, and provides access to upper levels of a structure. May also provide elevated water streams, extrication, and emergency medical care. Rescue squad/company — Searches for and removes victims from areas of danger or entrapment and may perform technical rescues. Brush company — Extinguishes ground cover or grass fires and protects structures in areas close to fields and woodlands, referred to as the wildland/urban interface. Hazardous materials company — Mitigates hazardous materials incidents. Emergency medical/ambulance Company— Provides emergency medical care to patients and may transport them to a medical facility. Special rescue company — Performs technical rescues, including rapid intervention for the rescue of firefighters. Aircraft rescue and firefighting company — Performs rescue and fire suppression activities involving aircraft accidents Fire Department Personnel In most jurisdictions, professional qualifications for firefighters are based on the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 1001, Standard for hire higher Professional Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I | P a g e 12 C H 1 Orientation and Fire Service History Qualifications. The NFPA standard establishes basic criteria and then distinguishes between two levels of competency/professionalism: Firefighter I and Firefighter II. To be considered for employment by a fire department, a candidate must first meet the following criteria: • • • • Minimum educational requirements set by the AHJ, usually a high school diploma or general educational diploma (GED) Age requirement set by the AHJ, which may have a maximum limit based on the local or state/provincial pension law Medical requirements set forth in NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire Departments Job-related physical fitness requirements set forth by the AHJ. Candidates must also be able to provide basic medical care, including cardio- pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), bleeding control, infection control, and shock management. If they do not already possess these skills, they may also receive this training from the department. Departments that provide EMS may also require that candidates be certified EMS First Responders, EMTs, or paramedics. In most organizations, personnel are classified as either uniformed or non- uniformed. Uniformed personnel have received basic firefighter training and may perform line or staff functions. No uniformed personnel, sometimes referred to as civilians, are not trained as firefighters and do not perform firefighting or other hazardous activities. The following sections provide an overview of the variety of uniformed and no uniformed positions that you may hold or meet during your career in the fire service. Handout/2020/March/V.2.0 Fire Fighter I | P a g e ...
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