timer Asked: Apr 25th, 2020

Question Description

Please write the paper in a high school level language and don't use very advanced words.


This assignment is designed to help you realize the importance of interpersonal communication in relationships. You will apply interpersonal communication theories and concepts to a relationship in a movie.


Choose a movie with a clear interpersonal relationship. ( I would like the movie to be Shrek or Tarzan, if you have a different suggestion please ask me first) That relationship must comprise much of the interaction in the movie.

Outline the aspects of interpersonal communication that you find evident in this movie relationship. Refer to your textbook and be certain to use terminology from class in your explanations.

Create a presentation (note: you don't have to creat a presentation or a powerpoint but you do have to give me an outline of the work so I can create the powerpoint, THIS IS NOT AN EXTRA WORK, IT SUPPOSE TO BE THE SAME WORK but just an outline ) t


1.. The paper should have a clear introduction, body, and conclusion.

2. A synopsis of the movie should be a SMALL portion of the paper. The majority of the paper should be examining the interpersonal communication concepts that you uncovered in the movie.

3. Examine 4-5 interpersonal communication concepts evident in the movie.


Minimal (1)

Indicator not met

Basic (2)

Indicator partially met

Proficient (3)

Indicator met

Advanced (4)

Exemplary Performance

Students will gain attention and interest before stating the topic.

There is no attention-getting strategy.

There is a basic attempt at getting attention.

Student uses attention-getting strategies discussed in class.

Student gains attention effectively and draws audience into the subject.

Students will offer a brief synopsis of the film.

Student has not offered a synopsis, or has made the synopsis the majority of the speech.

Student has attempted to narrow the synopsis appropriately.

The synopsis is narrowed and adapted to the purpose.

The synopsis is exemplary.

Students will deliver the speech within the time constraints.

Student has chosen a topic that is not appropriate for the time constraints or did not meet the time constraints.

Student has gone under or over the time constraints.

Student has met the time constraints within a 15 second cushion over or under time.

Student has narrowed the topic effectively, meeting the time constraints precisely.

Students will employ effective language related to their subject.

Student’s use of language is inappropriate or ineffective.

Student’s use of language is basic.

Student’s use of language is effective.

Student’s use of language is exemplary in its clarity and vividness.

Students will deliver their speech with enthusiasm and sincerity.

Vocal delivery does not reflect interest in the speaker’s subject.

Vocal delivery sometimes reflects the interest the student has in the subject.

Vocal delivery shows the student’s enthusiasm and sincerity about the subject.

Vocal delivery demonstrates the student’s enthusiasm and sincerity about the subject in an exemplary manner.

Students will provide a clear closing statement for the speech.

There is no final thought.

The final thought lacks creativity.

The final thought is effective.

The final thought creates an impact on the audience, leaving listeners with compelling reasons to remember the speech.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Social Cognition: Understanding Others and Ourselves Chapter 2 Photo by LauraLewis23 - Creative Commons Attribution License Created with Haiku Deck Making Sense of the Social World • • • • • • Attention Memory Judgment Impression Formation Making Attributions Stereotyping Thinking About Yourself • • • • • Self-concept Self-esteem Self-fulfilling prophecies Independent vs. dependent Self-perception and communication Improving Social Cognition • Question accuracy • Seek information • May need to update perceptions over time • Monitor messages • Monitor emotions Forming Impressions on Social Media • Self-generated social media cues • Other-generated social media cues • System-generated social media cues Culture 7 Intercultural Communication Interactions that occur between people whose cultures are so different that the communication between them is altered 8 Culture Culture Shock •the system of beliefs, •the psychological values, and attitudes discomfort of shared by a adjusting to a new particular segment cultural situation of the population 9 Identifying Cultural Similarities and Differences • Individualism-Collectivism: extent to which people in a culture are integrated into groups • Uncertainty Avoidance: extent to which people in a culture avoid unpredictability regarding people, relationships, and events • Power Distance: amount of difference in power between people, institutions, and organizations in a culture • Masculinity-Femininity: extent to which notions of "maleness" and "femaleness" are valued in a culture 10 Individualism-Collectivism Individualistic cultures value ➢Personal rights and responsibilities ➢Competition and personal achievement ➢Self-expression ➢Privacy Collectivist cultures value ➢Community, strong connection to groups ➢Harmony and cooperation ➢Avoiding embarrassment ➢Group interests over selfinterests 11 Uncertainty Avoidance Low Uncertainty Avoidance ➢Comfortable with unpredictability ➢Takes risks ➢Few rules ➢Accept multiple perspectives of “truth” High Uncertainty Avoidance ➢Create systems of formal rules ➢Believe in absolute truth ➢Less tolerant of deviant ideas or behaviors 12 Power Distance High Power Distance ➢Power distributed unequally ➢Power imbalances seen as natural ➢Power is respected Low Power Distance ➢Power is distributed equally ➢Inequalities are downplayed ➢People with power are not feared ➢Democracy is valued 13 Masculinity-Femininity Masculine Cultures ➢Traditional sex-based roles followed ➢Men are assertive and dominant ➢Women are nurturing, serviceoriented ➢Male traits valued over female traits Feminine Cultures ➢Roles not based on one’s sex ➢People free to act in nontraditional ways ➢Feminine traits valued ➢Both men and women demonstrate both masculine and feminine behaviors 14 U.S. Rankings (among 53 Countries/Regions) 15th 38th 43rd From Verderber,Verderber, figure 6.1 15 Dominant Culture Culture within a society whose attitudes, values, beliefs, and customs hold the majority opinion 16 Co-Cultures Groups of people living within a dominant culture who are clearly different from the dominant culture 17 Co-Cultures 1. Gender 2. Race 3. Ethnicity 4. Sexual orientation and gender identity 5. Religion 6. Social class 7. Generation 8. Cultural identity 18 Barriers to Effective Intercultural Communication • Anxiety • Assuming similarity with or difference from another culture • Ethnocentrism • Stereotyping • Incompatible communication codes • Incompatible norms and values 19 Intercultural Communication Competence • Tolerate ambiguity • Be willing to listen to ideas of others with an open mind • Be altruistic Display a genuine concern for the welfare of others • Acquire knowledge about other cultures • Practice intercultural empathy • Develop flexibility 20 Intercultural Empathy Imaginatively placing yourself in another person’s cultural world to attempt to experience what he or she is experiencing 21 What is Language? •Language •Lexicon •Phonology •Syntax and grammar •Language community •Dialect •Speech community Characteristics of Language • Arbitrary • Ambiguous • Abstract • Self-reflexive • Changes • Reveals attitudes Improving Message Semantics •Clarity •Specific language •Concrete language •Precise language •Strategic ambiguity •Dating information •Indexing generalizations Improving Message Semantics • Adapting Language to Listeners • Understandable vocabulary • Jargon • Slang • Linguistic Sensitivity • Emotional Vocabulary Conversational Maxims •Quality •Quantity •Manner •Relevancy Improving Pragmatic Understanding •Interpret a message within its context. •Avoid excessive maxim violation. •Consider acknowledging that you are deliberately violating a maxim. •Temper clarity with politeness. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication •Intentional and Unintentional •Primary •Continuous •Multi-channeled •Ambiguous Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Provides information • Regulates interaction • Expresses or hides emotions • Manages impressions and identities • Expresses dominance and affiliation Eye Contact Facial Expressions Gestures Posture touch Paralanguage •Pitch •Volume •Rate •Quality •Intonation •Vocal interferences Spatial Usage personal space close talker Acoustic Space Furnishings Self-Presentation Cues physical appearance olfactory cues time Improving Nonverbal Skills •Be Conscious/Mindful •Be purposeful •Adapt to situation •Match with verbal •Eliminate distractions Photo by beatplusmelody - Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License Created with Haiku Deck Relationship Types • Impersonal/Personal relationships • Voluntary/Involuntary relationships • Platonic/Romantic relationships • Acquaintances • • Friends Intimates/Close Friends Relationship Life Cycles Beginning Relationships Developing Relationships Sustaining Relationships Declining Relationships Relationship Theories Interpersonal Needs Theory Affection Inclusion Control Social Exchange Theory Relationship costs Relationship needs Dialectical Tensions in Relationships • Openness – Closedness • Autonomy – Connection • Novelty – Predictability Managing Tensions • • • • Temporal selection Topical segmentation Neutralization Reframing Guidelines for SelfDisclosure Kind of information Appropriate for relationship type Acceptable risk Gradual/Most personal for intimacy Reciprocity Guidelines for Privacy • • • • • Recognize that rules may be different Co-ownership of information as privilege Respect boundaries Ask to determine boundaries Communicate personal boundaries “The word listen contains the same letters as the word silent.” -- Alfred Brendel Listening Styles •Relational Listening Style: prefer to focus on partners and their feelings •Analytical Listening Style: prefer to gather information and reflect •Transactional Listening Style: prefer brief and swift conversations •Critical Listening Style: prefer to focus on accuracy and consistency Dual Processes in Listening •Passive listening: effortless, thoughtless, and habitual process •Active listening: skillful, intentional, deliberate, and conscious process Listening The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. • Attending • Understanding • Remembering • Critically evaluating • Responding Attending The process of willfully striving to perceive selected sounds that are being heard. •Get physically and mentally ready to listen. •Make the shift from speaker to listener a complete one. •Resist tuning out./Stay tuned in. •Avoid interrupting. Understanding Process of accurately decoding a message so that you share its meaning with the speaker. •Identify the speaker’s purpose and key points. •Observe nonverbal cues. •Ask clarifying questions. •Paraphrase what you heard. Paraphrase the following statements to reflect both the thoughts and feelings of the person speaking: 1. 2. 3. “I really like communication, but what could I do with a major in this field?” “I don’t know if Pat and I are getting too serious too fast.” “You can borrow my car, if you really need to, but please be careful with it. I can’t afford any repairs and if you have an accident, I won’t be able to drive to Chicago this weekend.” Remembering Process of moving information from short-term memory to long-term memory. Reasons we fail to remember Using repetition to remember • We filter out messages • We listen anxiously or passively • We remember “easy” or “desirable” messages • We forget the middle • Repeat two, three, four times • Create mnemonics • Take notes • Primacy effect • Recency effect Mnemonics Any artificial technique used as a memory aid For example: Take the first letter of a list you are trying to remember and create a word •HOMES (the five Great Lakes) Note Taking •Take notes when you are listening to complex information. •Brief Outline •Overall idea •Main points •Key developmental material Critically Evaluating Information •Separate facts from inferences •Fact – a verifiable statement •Inference – a conclusion drawn from facts •Probe for information Facts vs. Inferences • This car is a real bargain! It comes equipped with air conditioning and a stereo CD player, and it’s at least $1,000 cheaper than what you would pay anywhere else. • This Human Ecology class is fantastic. We go on field trips once a week and we haven’t had a single test all semester. It’s a breeze, nothing to it. 57 Responding •Process of providing feedback to your partner’s message •Back-channel cues: verbal and nonverbal signals demonstrating listener response to the speaker •Reply when message is complete •Respond to the previous message before changing the subject Digital Communication Literacy • Extra effort is required to understand digital messages. • Critically evaluate social media messages to separate facts from inferences. • Recognize underlying motives, values, ideologies. • Digital messages should not completely replace face-to-face communication. Conversations • Interactive, locally managed, sequentially organized, and extemporaneous interchange of thoughts and feelings between two or among more people Variation in Conversation • Purpose: what the conversation is intended to do • Sequence: • Turn-Taking: alternating between speaking and listening • Scripted: using routine conversational phrases or preplanned conversations • Tone: emotional, relational quality and degree of formality • Participants: intended or unintended audience • Setting: physical and emotional environment Types of Conversations 29 different distinct types of conversations common in friendships and romantic relationships • Small talk: exchanging messages about inconsequential (small) topics to meet social needs of participants with low risk • Gossip: exchanging messages about other people who are not present Guidelines for Effective Conversationalists •Focus on your partner. •Engage in appropriate turn-taking. •Maintain conversational coherence. •Protect privacy. •Engage in ethical dialogue. •Choose appropriate humor. The Structure of Conversations •Beginning (opening) •Middle (body) •Ending (conclusion) Beginning a Conversation Five ways to open a conversation: •Introduce yourself. •Refer to the physical context. •Ask a ritual question. •Refer to another person. •Use humor or a light-hearted remark. Sustaining a Conversation • Use free information: information volunteered during the conversation • Ask questions •Closed-ended: “yes” or “no” answers •Open-ended: more elaboration, explanation • Seek out topics of interest to the other person • Self-disclose appropriately • Actively listen Closing a Conversation • Notice and use leave-taking cues (nonverbal behaviors that indicate someone wants to end the conversation). • Verbalize your desire to end the conversation. • Ask to see the person again if appropriate. • Close with a brief stock message. Cultural Variations Low-Context Cultures High-Context Cultures ➢Include categorical words such as certainly, absolutely ➢Relevant comments that are directly to the point ➢Speaking one’s mind ➢Silence is uncomfortable ➢Include qualifiers such as maybe, perhaps ➢Indirect, ambiguous, and less relevant comments ➢Creating harmony ➢Silence indicates truthfulness, embarrassment, disagreement Digital Conversation Skills •Awareness of audience •Degree of conversational spontaneity •Abruptness of disengagement •Multiplicity of conversations •Acceptance of interruptions •Notions of privacy Empathizing •The cognitive and affective process of perceiving the emotions others are feeling and then acting on our perception Three Types of Empathy •Perspective Taking •Sympathetic Responsiveness •Empathic Responsiveness Guidelines for Improving Empathy •Nonverbal and paralanguage cues •Emotional content of verbal message •Perception checking Supportive Message Skills •Supportive Climate •Framing/Reappraising •Advice-giving Social Support in Cyberspace •Cyber support vs. Face-to-face support –Creates social distance –Chat with those in more similar situations –Hear from people around the world –Useful for introverted, shy, or lonely –Easier to manage messages –Crosses age/status/education boundaries –Time/place less important Using Interpersonal Influence Chapter 10 Coercive Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Expert Power Referent Power Sources of Power Principles of Power •Perception, not fact •Exists in relationship •Not inherently good or bad •Power makes rules Persuading Automatic Processors Reciprocity heuristic Social Proof heuristic Liking heuristic Authority heuristic Consistency heuristic Scarcity heuristic Compliance-gaining Strategies Supporting evidence Exchange Direct Request Empathy based Face maintenance Other-benefit strategies Distributive Passive Approach Aggressive Approach assertive approach Chapter 11 Types of Interpersonal Conflict Pseudoconflict Policy Conflict Fact Conflict Ego Conflict Value Conflict Metaconflict Conflict Management Styles •Withdrawing •Accommodating •Competing/Forcing •Compromising •Collaborating Destructive Conflict Patterns Serial Arguing Counterblaming Cross-complaining Demand-Withdrawal Mutual Hostility Pattern Guidelines for Effective Conflict Management Breaking Patterns of Destructive Conflict 1. Avoid Negative Start-ups 2. Manage Anger 3. De-escalate the conflict Guidelines for Successful Conflict Conversation • Rehearse • Take Ownership • Describe Behavior Consequences Feelings •Avoid Evaluation •Keep it short •Clarify •Common ground Responding to Conflict •Shields up •Empathy •Paraphrase and clarify •Common ground •Ask for other’s solutions Mediation •All agree to mediation •Establish ground rules •Identify real conflict •Remain neutral •Focus on resolving issue •Equal talk time •Establish action plan and follow-up Dark Side of Digital Communication Compulsive and Excessive Use Inappropriate Self-Disclosure Flaming Cyber Stalking and Cyberbullying Intimate Relationships Chapter 12 I. Characteristics of Intimacy • A. • • • • Intimate Conversations Emotional Disclosures Mutual Understanding Warmth Verbal and Nonverbal signals • B. Intimate Relationships • Mutual Affection • Trust • Cohesiveness Long-term Romantic Relationships • Enduring romantic relationships that are intimate and in which partners have some type of long-term commitment to each other. • Characteristics for long-term Romantic Relationships • 1. Mutual respect. • 2. Presence of a shared plan/life vision. • 3. Comfortable level of closeness. • Challenges in Long-Term Romantic Relationships • 1. Maintaining Intimacy • 2. Managing Life Transitions • 3. Negotiating Equitable Distribution of • 4. Sustaining Affection and Desire Work II. Families • A. Definition • B. Parent-Child Communication • C. Discipline • D. Modeling Families continued • E. Extended Family • F. Fictive kin • G. Intergenerational communication • H. Sibling Relationships • I. Improving Family Communication • 1. Create opportunities for communication • 2. Recognize interests and accomplishments • 3. Recognize and adapt to change III. Friendships • A. Definition • B. Communication Skills • • • • • Initiation Responsiveness Self-disclosure Emotional support Conflict management • C. Gender Differences V. The Dark Side of Intimacy • A. Infidelity • B. Jealousy/Possessiveness Communicating in the Workplace Chapter 13 Locating Job Openings • Career Center • Online Job Posting Sites • Networking I. Cover Letters & Resumes • A. Cover Letter • 1. Show interest • 2. Original, not copy or form • 3. Terms from job description • 4. Specific person • • • • 5. 6. 7. 8. Brief Neat, typed, no errors This position, this organization at Interest and enthusiasm this time • B. • • • • Resumes 1. Functional vs. chronological 2. Contact information 3. Career objective 4. Education • • • • • 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Experience (skills) Professional affiliations Military background Community service References II. How Interviews Have Changed • • • • • • A. much more structured B. more focused on actual behaviors C. more dependent on storytelling D. longer E. multistage and multi-interviewer F. pre-interview testing III. The Interview • • • • • • • A. Preparation 1. Homework 2. Prepare questions 3. Practice responses 4. Dress appropriately 5. Arrive on time 6. Supplies • • • • • B. During the interview 1. Interviewer’s context 2. Verify inferences and 3. Listen for Openings 4. Invitations for elaboration meanings • • • • • 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Think Enthusiasm Give examples Ask questions No salary/benefits discussion • • • C. Follow-up 1. Thank you note 2. Self-assessment IV. Communicating in Formal Relationships • A. Workplace Communicating in Managerial Relationships • 1. Understanding Manager/Employee Relationships • 2. Guidelines for Communication • Adapt to manager’s preferences • Effectively complete work of group • Volunteer • Clarify assignments • Seek feedback to improve • B. Communicating in Co-worker • 1. Types/Functions • 2. Guidelines • • • • • • Relationships Be approachable through positive nonverbal cues Share task-related information Seek/provide peer feedback Manage conflict through collaboration/respect Do not gossip Be a good team member V. Communicating in Informal Workplace Relationships • A. Mentoring Relationships • B. Workplace Friendships • C. Romantic Relationships at Work VI. Communicating in a Diverse Workplace • Culture-Based Work Style • Gender Linguistic Style • Integrational Communication VII. Improving Workplace Performance Through Feedback •Asking for Feedback •Constructively Criticizing •Responding to Negative Feedback •Show gratitude for feedback •Agree where you can •Ask for detail •Take responsibility ...
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