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timer Asked: Apr 29th, 2020

Question Description

Week 8 Discussion

Read Chapter 11

For this assignment, you must reply to this post and address the questions below, prior to 11:59 p.m. ET on Thursday, April 30th . Continue to follow your classmates' posts for the remainder of the week and post follow-up messages to at least two of your classmates' posts prior to 11:59 p.m. ET on Friday, May 1st. Your follow-up posts can add additional insight to a classmate's opinions or can challenge their opinions. Use examples from the readings, or from your own research, to support your views, as appropriate. For your follow-up posts this week, you may wish to visit a couple of the web sites contributed by your classmates and share your opinion of these sites with the class. Be sure to read the follow-up posts to your own posts and reply to any questions or requests for clarification. You are encouraged to conduct research and use other sources to support your answers. Be sure to list your references at the end of your post. References must be in APA citation format. All posts must be a minimum of 250-300 words. All follow-up posts to your classmates must be a minimum of 150 words for each required post.

Discussion Grading Rubric (100 Points)
Synthesis of Concepts55
Clear Citations using APA format10
Writing Standards10
Peer Reviews (minimum of 2) - Responses posted after the current week will not be accepted25
Timeliness - 10% penalty per week for late work
      1. Which is a better method for protecting personal privacy on the Internet: government regulation or industry self-regulation? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both methods?
      2. Courts currently recognize several privileges such as the attorney-client privilege and the physician-patient privilege. Would you support legislation that recognized a privilege in Internet search queries to prevent discover ability and admissibility in legal proceedings? Would you support any exceptions such as a legitimate law enforcement purpose with a warrant? Please explain.

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      PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 117 STAT. 2699 Public Law 108–187 108th Congress An Act To regulate interstate commerce by imposing limitations and penalties on the transmission of unsolicited commercial electronic mail via the Internet. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Dec. 16, 2003 [S. 877] This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Controlling the Assault of NonSolicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003’’, or the ‘‘CANSPAM Act of 2003’’. Controlling the Assault of NonSolicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003. 15 USC 7701 note. SEC. 2. CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND POLICY. 15 USC 7701. SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. (a) FINDINGS.—The Congress finds the following: (1) Electronic mail has become an extremely important and popular means of communication, relied on by millions of Americans on a daily basis for personal and commercial purposes. Its low cost and global reach make it extremely convenient and efficient, and offer unique opportunities for the development and growth of frictionless commerce. (2) The convenience and efficiency of electronic mail are threatened by the extremely rapid growth in the volume of unsolicited commercial electronic mail. Unsolicited commercial electronic mail is currently estimated to account for over half of all electronic mail traffic, up from an estimated 7 percent in 2001, and the volume continues to rise. Most of these messages are fraudulent or deceptive in one or more respects. (3) The receipt of unsolicited commercial electronic mail may result in costs to recipients who cannot refuse to accept such mail and who incur costs for the storage of such mail, or for the time spent accessing, reviewing, and discarding such mail, or for both. (4) The receipt of a large number of unwanted messages also decreases the convenience of electronic mail and creates a risk that wanted electronic mail messages, both commercial and noncommercial, will be lost, overlooked, or discarded amidst the larger volume of unwanted messages, thus reducing the reliability and usefulness of electronic mail to the recipient. (5) Some commercial electronic mail contains material that many recipients may consider vulgar or pornographic in nature. (6) The growth in unsolicited commercial electronic mail imposes significant monetary costs on providers of Internet access services, businesses, and educational and nonprofit institutions that carry and receive such mail, as there is a finite volume of mail that such providers, businesses, and VerDate 11-MAY-2000 15:26 Dec 24, 2003 Jkt 029139 PO 00187 Frm 00001 Fmt 6580 Sfmt 6581 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL187.108 SUEP PsN: PUBL187 117 STAT. 2700 PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 institutions can handle without further investment in infrastructure. (7) Many senders of unsolicited commercial electronic mail purposefully disguise the source of such mail. (8) Many senders of unsolicited commercial electronic mail purposefully include misleading information in the messages’ subject lines in order to induce the recipients to view the messages. (9) While some senders of commercial electronic mail messages provide simple and reliable ways for recipients to reject (or ‘‘opt-out’’ of) receipt of commercial electronic mail from such senders in the future, other senders provide no such ‘‘opt-out’’ mechanism, or refuse to honor the requests of recipients not to receive electronic mail from such senders in the future, or both. (10) Many senders of bulk unsolicited commercial electronic mail use computer programs to gather large numbers of electronic mail addresses on an automated basis from Internet websites or online services where users must post their addresses in order to make full use of the website or service. (11) Many States have enacted legislation intended to regulate or reduce unsolicited commercial electronic mail, but these statutes impose different standards and requirements. As a result, they do not appear to have been successful in addressing the problems associated with unsolicited commercial electronic mail, in part because, since an electronic mail address does not specify a geographic location, it can be extremely difficult for law-abiding businesses to know with which of these disparate statutes they are required to comply. (12) The problems associated with the rapid growth and abuse of unsolicited commercial electronic mail cannot be solved by Federal legislation alone. The development and adoption of technological approaches and the pursuit of cooperative efforts with other countries will be necessary as well. (b) CONGRESSIONAL DETERMINATION OF PUBLIC POLICY.—On the basis of the findings in subsection (a), the Congress determines that— (1) there is a substantial government interest in regulation of commercial electronic mail on a nationwide basis; (2) senders of commercial electronic mail should not mislead recipients as to the source or content of such mail; and (3) recipients of commercial electronic mail have a right to decline to receive additional commercial electronic mail from the same source. 15 USC 7702. SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS. In this Act: (1) AFFIRMATIVE CONSENT.—The term ‘‘affirmative consent’’, when used with respect to a commercial electronic mail message, means that— (A) the recipient expressly consented to receive the message, either in response to a clear and conspicuous request for such consent or at the recipient’s own initiative; and (B) if the message is from a party other than the party to which the recipient communicated such consent, the recipient was given clear and conspicuous notice at VerDate 11-MAY-2000 15:26 Dec 24, 2003 Jkt 029139 PO 00187 Frm 00002 Fmt 6580 Sfmt 6581 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL187.108 SUEP PsN: PUBL187 PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 117 STAT. 2701 the time the consent was communicated that the recipient’s electronic mail address could be transferred to such other party for the purpose of initiating commercial electronic mail messages. (2) COMMERCIAL ELECTRONIC MAIL MESSAGE.— (A) IN GENERAL.—The term ‘‘commercial electronic mail message’’ means any electronic mail message the primary purpose of which is the commercial advertisement or promotion of a commercial product or service (including content on an Internet website operated for a commercial purpose). (B) TRANSACTIONAL OR RELATIONSHIP MESSAGES.—The term ‘‘commercial electronic mail message’’ does not include a transactional or relationship message. (C) REGULATIONS REGARDING PRIMARY PURPOSE.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Commission shall issue regulations pursuant to section 13 defining the relevant criteria to facilitate the determination of the primary purpose of an electronic mail message. (D) REFERENCE TO COMPANY OR WEBSITE.—The inclusion of a reference to a commercial entity or a link to the website of a commercial entity in an electronic mail message does not, by itself, cause such message to be treated as a commercial electronic mail message for purposes of this Act if the contents or circumstances of the message indicate a primary purpose other than commercial advertisement or promotion of a commercial product or service. (3) COMMISSION.—The term ‘‘Commission’’ means the Federal Trade Commission. (4) DOMAIN NAME.—The term ‘‘domain name’’ means any alphanumeric designation which is registered with or assigned by any domain name registrar, domain name registry, or other domain name registration authority as part of an electronic address on the Internet. (5) ELECTRONIC MAIL ADDRESS.—The term ‘‘electronic mail address’’ means a destination, commonly expressed as a string of characters, consisting of a unique user name or mailbox (commonly referred to as the ‘‘local part’’) and a reference to an Internet domain (commonly referred to as the ‘‘domain part’’), whether or not displayed, to which an electronic mail message can be sent or delivered. (6) ELECTRONIC MAIL MESSAGE.—The term ‘‘electronic mail message’’ means a message sent to a unique electronic mail address. (7) FTC ACT.—The term ‘‘FTC Act’’ means the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.). (8) HEADER INFORMATION.—The term ‘‘header information’’ means the source, destination, and routing information attached to an electronic mail message, including the originating domain name and originating electronic mail address, and any other information that appears in the line identifying, or purporting to identify, a person initiating the message. (9) INITIATE.—The term ‘‘initiate’’, when used with respect to a commercial electronic mail message, means to originate or transmit such message or to procure the origination or VerDate 11-MAY-2000 15:26 Dec 24, 2003 Jkt 029139 PO 00187 Frm 00003 Fmt 6580 Sfmt 6581 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL187.108 Deadline. SUEP PsN: PUBL187 117 STAT. 2702 PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 transmission of such message, but shall not include actions that constitute routine conveyance of such message. For purposes of this paragraph, more than one person may be considered to have initiated a message. (10) INTERNET.—The term ‘‘Internet’’ has the meaning given that term in the Internet Tax Freedom Act (47 U.S.C. 151 nt). (11) INTERNET ACCESS SERVICE.—The term ‘‘Internet access service’’ has the meaning given that term in section 231(e)(4) of the Communications Act of 1934 (47 U.S.C. 231(e)(4)). (12) PROCURE.—The term ‘‘procure’’, when used with respect to the initiation of a commercial electronic mail message, means intentionally to pay or provide other consideration to, or induce, another person to initiate such a message on one’s behalf. (13) PROTECTED COMPUTER.—The term ‘‘protected computer’’ has the meaning given that term in section 1030(e)(2)(B) of title 18, United States Code. (14) RECIPIENT.—The term ‘‘recipient’’, when used with respect to a commercial electronic mail message, means an authorized user of the electronic mail address to which the message was sent or delivered. If a recipient of a commercial electronic mail message has one or more electronic mail addresses in addition to the address to which the message was sent or delivered, the recipient shall be treated as a separate recipient with respect to each such address. If an electronic mail address is reassigned to a new user, the new user shall not be treated as a recipient of any commercial electronic mail message sent or delivered to that address before it was reassigned. (15) ROUTINE CONVEYANCE.—The term ‘‘routine conveyance’’ means the transmission, routing, relaying, handling, or storing, through an automatic technical process, of an electronic mail message for which another person has identified the recipients or provided the recipient addresses. (16) SENDER.— (A) IN GENERAL.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term ‘‘sender’’, when used with respect to a commercial electronic mail message, means a person who initiates such a message and whose product, service, or Internet web site is advertised or promoted by the message. (B) SEPARATE LINES OF BUSINESS OR DIVISIONS.—If an entity operates through separate lines of business or divisions and holds itself out to the recipient throughout the message as that particular line of business or division rather than as the entity of which such line of business or division is a part, then the line of business or the division shall be treated as the sender of such message for purposes of this Act. (17) TRANSACTIONAL OR RELATIONSHIP MESSAGE.— (A) IN GENERAL.—The term ‘‘transactional or relationship message’’ means an electronic mail message the primary purpose of which is— (i) to facilitate, complete, or confirm a commercial transaction that the recipient has previously agreed to enter into with the sender; VerDate 11-MAY-2000 15:26 Dec 24, 2003 Jkt 029139 PO 00187 Frm 00004 Fmt 6580 Sfmt 6581 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL187.108 SUEP PsN: PUBL187 PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 117 STAT. 2703 (ii) to provide warranty information, product recall information, or safety or security information with respect to a commercial product or service used or purchased by the recipient; (iii) to provide— (I) notification concerning a change in the terms or features of; (II) notification of a change in the recipient’s standing or status with respect to; or (III) at regular periodic intervals, account balance information or other type of account statement with respect to, a subscription, membership, account, loan, or comparable ongoing commercial relationship involving the ongoing purchase or use by the recipient of products or services offered by the sender; (iv) to provide information directly related to an employment relationship or related benefit plan in which the recipient is currently involved, participating, or enrolled; or (v) to deliver goods or services, including product updates or upgrades, that the recipient is entitled to receive under the terms of a transaction that the recipient has previously agreed to enter into with the sender. (B) MODIFICATION OF DEFINITION.—The Commission by regulation pursuant to section 13 may modify the definition in subparagraph (A) to expand or contract the categories of messages that are treated as transactional or relationship messages for purposes of this Act to the extent that such modification is necessary to accommodate changes in electronic mail technology or practices and accomplish the purposes of this Act. SEC. 4. PROHIBITION AGAINST PREDATORY AND ABUSIVE COMMERCIAL E-MAIL. 15 USC 7703. (a) OFFENSE.— (1) IN GENERAL.—Chapter 47 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new section: ‘‘§ 1037. Fraud and related activity in connection with electronic mail ‘‘(a) IN GENERAL.—Whoever, in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, knowingly— ‘‘(1) accesses a protected computer without authorization, and intentionally initiates the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from or through such computer, ‘‘(2) uses a protected computer to relay or retransmit multiple commercial electronic mail messages, with the intent to deceive or mislead recipients, or any Internet access service, as to the origin of such messages, ‘‘(3) materially falsifies header information in multiple commercial electronic mail messages and intentionally initiates the transmission of such messages, ‘‘(4) registers, using information that materially falsifies the identity of the actual registrant, for five or more electronic VerDate 11-MAY-2000 15:26 Dec 24, 2003 Jkt 029139 PO 00187 Frm 00005 Fmt 6580 Sfmt 6581 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL187.108 SUEP PsN: PUBL187 117 STAT. 2704 Courts. VerDate 11-MAY-2000 15:26 Dec 24, 2003 PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 mail accounts or online user accounts or two or more domain names, and intentionally initiates the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from any combination of such accounts or domain names, or ‘‘(5) falsely represents oneself to be the registrant or the legitimate successor in interest to the registrant of 5 or more Internet Protocol addresses, and intentionally initiates the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages from such addresses, or conspires to do so, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b). ‘‘(b) PENALTIES.—The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) is— ‘‘(1) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, if— ‘‘(A) the offense is committed in furtherance of any felony under the laws of the United States or of any State; or ‘‘(B) the defendant has previously been convicted under this section or section 1030, or under the law of any State for conduct involving the transmission of multiple commercial electronic mail messages or unauthorized access to a computer system; ‘‘(2) a fine under this title, imprisonment for not more than 3 years, or both, if— ‘‘(A) the offense is an offense under subsection (a)(1); ‘‘(B) the offense is an offense under subsection (a)(4) and involved 20 or more falsified electronic mail or online user account registrations, or 10 or more falsified domain name registrations; ‘‘(C) the volume of electronic mail messages transmitted in furtherance of the offense exceeded 2,500 during any 24-hour period, 25,000 during any 30-day period, or 250,000 during any 1-year period; ‘‘(D) the offense caused loss to one or more persons aggregating $5,000 or more in value during any 1-year period; ‘‘(E) as a result of the offense any individual committing the offense obtained anything of value aggregating $5,000 or more during any 1-year period; or ‘‘(F) the offense was undertaken by the defendant in concert with three or more other persons with respect to whom the defendant occupied a position of organizer or leader; and ‘‘(3) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both, in any other case. ‘‘(c) FORFEITURE.— ‘‘(1) IN GENERAL.—The court, in imposing sentence on a person who is convicted of an offense under this section, shall order that the defendant forfeit to the United States— ‘‘(A) any property, real or personal, constituting or traceable to gross proceeds obtained from such offense; and ‘‘(B) any equipment, software, or other technology used or intended to be used to commit or to facilitate the commission of such offense. Jkt 029139 PO 00187 Frm 00006 Fmt 6580 Sfmt 6581 E:\PUBLAW\PUBL187.108 SUEP PsN: PUBL187 PUBLIC LAW 108–187—DEC. 16, 2003 117 STAT. 2705 ‘‘(2) PROCEDURES.—The procedures set forth in section 413 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 853), other than subsection (d) of that section, and in Rule 32.2 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, shall apply to all stages of a criminal forfeiture proceeding under this section. ‘‘(d) DEFINITIONS.—In this section: ‘‘(1) LOSS.—The term ‘loss’ has the meaning given that term in section 1030(e) of this title. ‘‘(2) MATERIALLY.—For purposes of paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (a), header information or registration information is materially falsified if it is altered or concealed in a manner that would impair the ability of a recipient of the message, an Internet access service processing the message on behalf of a recipient, a person alleging a violation of this section, or a law enforcement agency to identify, locate, or respond to a person who initiated the electronic mail message or to investigate the alleged violation. ‘‘(3) MULTIPLE.—The term ‘multiple’ means more than 100 electronic mail messages during a 24-hour period, more than 1,000 electronic mail messages during a 30-day period, or more than 10,000 electronic mail messages during a 1-year period. ‘‘(4) OTHER TERMS.—Any other term has the meaning given that term by section 3 of the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003.’’. (2) CONFORMING AMENDMENT.—The chapter analysis for chapter 47 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following: Applicability. ‘‘Sec. ‘‘1037. Fraud and related activity in connection with electronic mail.’’. (b) UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION.— (1) DIRECTIVE.—Pursuant to its authority under section 994(p) of title 28, United States Code, and in accordance with this section, the United States Sentencing Commission shall review and, as appropriate, amend the sentencing guidelines and policy statements to provide appropriate penalties for violations of section 1037 of title 18, United States Code, as added by this section, and other of ...
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