timer Asked: Apr 29th, 2020

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Hi I need help with a 7-15 page International Management assignment. I can give you 10 days to do it and I will provide the textbooks and certain articles for your convenience to answer the questions. I will provide you with necessary articles and textbooks to answer the questions! Please help me out. This is the topic:


1. Global industrialization is a major force affecting the world. What does Prof. Parag Khanna forecast as important future economic trends during the 21st century. (Please use the book, "The Future is Asian" by Parag Khanna) Please integrate in your response what you consider to be the three most important cultural insights from Chapters 5, 6, and 7 in the textbook authored by Professor Luthans. (can be found in file attached called international management.pdf)

2. Businesses can pursue four alternative strategies. Please apply these strategies to the value chain (attached file: Value Chain.png) as described by Prof. Porter to the marketing and production operations of MTV (refer to file attached: mtv.pdf), soy bean (refer to file attached: the foley company (soybean).pdf), harvesters and Zara (Will attach later because I can't upload anymore files at the moment because it only allows me to upload 5).

3. Prof. Rivoli mentions that Michael Schellenberger, named by Time magazine in 2008 as a Hero of the Environment, began his career as an anti-globalization activist targeting Nike’s alleged sweatshop practices (you can refer t o the travels of a t-shirt file, and another nike article I will upload later on), but now believes that global economic growth can help solve our environmental challenges. In the context of Prof. Rivoli’s book and the Wall Street Journal article of April 22, 2014 (nike article), how would you explain the shift in his approach? How does the last sentence of Prof. Rivoli, “The future isn’t perfect, but it is brighter than it used to be” apply to Zara?

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e1ffirs02 Date: Jan 19, 2009 Time: 1:3 pm e1ffirs02 Date: Jan 19, 2009 Time: 1:3 pm International Praise for Travels of a T-Shirt, 2nd Edition “This charming, intelligent narrative debunks myths on both sides of the globalization debate. Mixing historical perspective with current events, the book highlights that it’s not market forces but avoiding them that creates winners in world trade … a rich tapestry of globalization past and present that focuses on real people to rip fabrications on all sides of the debate … a great read.” —Asia Times “Don’t miss this unusual book on economics.” —The Hindu “ … thought-provoking … Regardless of your stance on global economics, you will find a lot to agree with and a lot to think about in Travels of a T-Shirt.” —The China Daily e1ffirs02 Date: Jan 19, 2009 Time: 1:3 pm ffirst Date: Jan 22, 2009 Time: 3:10 pm the TRAVELS of a T-SHIRT in the GLOBAL ECONOMY SECOND EDITION An Economist Examines The Markets, Power, and Politics of World Trade Pietra Rivoli John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ffirst Date: Jan 22, 2009 Time: 3:10 pm Copyright © 2009 by Pietra Rivoli. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Rivoli, Pietra. The travels of a t-shirt in the global economy: an economist examines the markets, power, and politics of world trade/Pietra Rivoli. – 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-470-28716-3 (pbk.) 1. T-shirt industry. 2. International trade. 3. Free trade. 4. International economic relations. I. Title. HD9969.S6R58 2009 382 .45687115–dc22 2008054905 Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ffirst Date: Jan 22, 2009 Time: 3:10 pm For Dennis, Annalisa, and Denny ffirst Date: Jan 22, 2009 Time: 3:10 pm ftoc Date: Jan 21, 2009 Time: 5:55 pm CONTENTS PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION PROLOGUE PART I KING COTTON 1 How America Has Dominated the Global Cotton Industry for 200 Years 2 The History of American Cotton 3 Back at the Reinsch Farm 4 All God’s Dangers Ain’t the Subsidies ix xvii 1 3 9 24 49 PART II MADE IN CHINA 5 Cotton Comes to China 6 The Long Race to the Bottom 7 Sisters in Time 8 The Unwitting Conspiracy 75 77 92 105 120 PART III TROUBLE AT THE BORDER 9 Returning to America 10 Dogs Snarling Together 11 Perverse Effects and Unintended Consequences of T-Shirt Trade Policy 12 45 Years of “Temporary” Protectionism End in 2009—Now What? 141 143 156 MY T-SHIRT FINALLY ENCOUNTERS A FREE MARKET 13 Where T-shirts Go after the Salvation Army Bin 213 215 PART IV 171 196 vii ftoc Date: Jan 21, 2009 viii Time: 5:55 pm CONTENTS 14 How Small Entrepreneurs Clothe East Africa with Old American T-Shirts 15 Mitumba: Friend or Foe to Africa? CONCLUSION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX 227 239 253 262 264 283 305 fpref Date: Jan 21, 2009 Time: 5:47 pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION How Student Protests Sent a Business Professor around the World On a cold day in February 1999 I watched a crowd of about 100 students gather on the steps of Healy Hall, the Gothic centerpiece of the Georgetown University campus. The students were raucous and passionate, and campus police milled about on the edge of the crowd, just in case. As speaker after speaker took the microphone, the crowd cheered almost every sentence. The crowd had a moral certitude, a unity of purpose, and while looking at a maze of astonishing complexity, saw with perfect clarity only the black and white, the good and evil. Corporations, globalization, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) were the bad guys, ruthlessly crushing the dignity and livelihood of workers around the world. A short time later, more than 50,000 like-minded activists had joined the students at the annual meeting of the WTO in Seattle, and by the 2002 IMF-World Bank meeting, the crowd had swelled to 100,000. Anti-globalization activists stymied meetings of the bad guys in Quebec, Canada, and Genoa, Italy, as well. At the 2003 WTO meeting in Cancun, the activists were joined by representatives from a newly energized group of developing countries, and world trade talks broke down across a bitter rich-poor divide. Anti-globalization activists came from college campuses and labor unions, religious organizations and shuttered textile mills, human rights groups and African cotton farms. Lumped together, the activists were named the globalization “backlash.” At first, the backlash took the establishment by surprise. Even the left-leaning Washington Post, surveying the carnage in Seattle, seemed bewildered. “What Was That About?” they asked on the editorial page the next day. From the offices on the high floors of the IMF building, the crowd below was a ragtag bunch of well-intentioned but ill-informed obstructionists, squarely blocking the only path to prosperity. According to conventional economic wisdom, globalization and free trade offered ix fpref Date: Jan 21, 2009 x Time: 5:47 pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION salvation rather than destruction to the world’s poor and oppressed. How could the backlash be so confused? The backlash seemed to quiet by about 2005. “Phew,” the business establishment seemed to say, “Glad that’s over with.” But a closer look reveals that nothing was really over with, and that, in fact, the reverse had happened. While some of the craziest slogans (“Capitalism is Death”) had faded away, the backlash was not gone, but had gone mainstream. Surveys showed that Americans were markedly less supportive of trade and globalization in 2008 than they had been at the beginning of the decade: while 78 percent of Americans surveyed had a positive view of international trade in 2002, by 2008, only 53 percent were broadly supportive. Americans were also less supportive of trade than citizens of virtually every other industrialized country.1 In Washington, Congress responded to this popular discontent by stymieing further trade liberalization, and the 2008 presidential candidates responded with sound bites strangely similar to those of the 1999 protestors. By 2008, the WTO talks that had been stalled by protestors in Seattle and Cancun were still stalled—after nearly eight years of mostly fruitless negotiations. While the negotiations had been difficult in the best of times, the severe economic downturn that began in late 2008 left little hope for the revival of the trade tasks. B ack at Georgetown in 1999, I watched a young woman seize the microphone. “Who made your T-shirt?” she asked the crowd. “Was it a child in Vietnam, chained to a sewing machine without food or water? Or a young girl from India earning 18 cents per hour and allowed to visit the bathroom only twice per day? Did you know that she lives 12 to a room? That she shares her bed and has only gruel to eat? That she is forced to work 90 hours each week, without overtime pay? Did you know that she has no right to speak out, no right to unionize? That she lives not only in poverty, but also in filth and sickness, all in the name of Nike’s profits?” I did not know all this. And I wondered about the young woman at the microphone: How did she know? During the next several years, I traveled the world to investigate. I not only found out who made my T-shirt, but I also followed its life over thousands of miles and across three continents. The result of this investigation was the first edition of Travels of a T-Shirt, published in 2005. The book fpref Date: Jan 21, 2009 Time: 5:47 pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xi was—and is—a story about globalization and about the people, politics, and markets that created my cotton T-shirt. It is fair to ask what the biography of a simple product can contribute to current debates over global trade. In general, stories are out of style today in business and economics research. Little of consequence can be learned from stories, the argument goes, because they offer us only “anecdotal” data. According to today’s accepted methodological wisdom, what really happened at a place and time—the story, the anecdote—might be entertaining but it is intellectually empty: Stories do not allow us to formulate a theory, to test a theory, or to generalize. As a result, researchers today have more data, faster computers, and better statistical methods, but fewer and fewer personal observations. The story, of course, has a more esteemed role in other disciplines. Richard Rhodes, in his Pulitzer Prize-winning book, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, peels back, layer by layer, the invention of the atomic bomb. In the process, he illuminates the intellectual progress of a community of geniuses at work. Laurel Ulrich, in A Midwife’s Tale, uses the diary of a seemingly unremarkable woman to construct a story of a life in the woods of Maine 200 years ago, revealing the economy, social structure, and physical life of a place in a manner not otherwise possible. And in Enterprising Elites, historian Robert Dalzell gives us the stories of America’s first industrialists and the world they built in nineteenth-century New England, thereby revealing the process of industrialization. So, the story, whether of a person or a thing, can not only reveal a life but illuminate the bigger world that formed the life. This is my objective for the story of my T-shirt. “Does the world really need another book about globalization?” Jagdish Bhagwati asked in the introduction to his 2004 book on the topic. Well, certainly the world does not need another tome either defending or criticizing globalization and trade as abstract concepts, as the cases on both sides have been made eloquently and well.2 I wrote Travels of a T-Shirt not to defend a position but to tell a story. And though economic and political lessons emerge from my T-shirt’s story, the lessons are not the starting point. In other words, I tell the T-shirt’s story not to convey morals but to discover them, and simply to see where the story leads. I brought to the first edition of Travels of a T-Shirt my own biases, and I surely harbor them still. Because I have spent my career teaching in a business school, and no doubt because of my academic background in finance and economics, I know that I share with my colleagues the somewhat off-putting tendency to believe that if everyone understood what we fpref Date: Jan 21, 2009 xii Time: 5:47 pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION understood—if they “got it”—they wouldn’t argue so much. More than 200 years after Adam Smith advanced his case for free trade in The Wealth of Nations, we are still trying to make sure that our students, fellow citizens, and colleagues in the English department “get it,” because we are sure that once they understand, everyone will agree with us. When I happened by the protests at Georgetown and listened to the T-shirt diatribe, my first thought was that the young woman, however well-intentioned and impassioned, just didn’t “get it.” She needed a book—maybe Travels of a T-Shirt—to explain things. But after following my T-shirt around the world, and after nearly a decade spent talking to farmers, workers, labor activists, politicians, and businesspeople, my biases aren’t quite so biased anymore. T rade and globalization debates have long been polarized on the virtues versus evils of competitive markets. Economists in general argue that international market competition creates a tide of wealth that (at least eventually) will lift all boats, while critics worry about the effects of unrelenting market forces, especially on workers and the environment. Free trade in apparel, in particular, critics worry, leads only to a downward spiral of wages, working conditions, and environmental degradation that ends somewhere in the depths of a Charles Dickens novel. My T-shirt’s life suggests, however, that the importance of markets might be overstated by both globalizers and critics. While my T-shirt’s life story is certainly influenced by competitive economic markets, the key events in the T-shirt’s life are less about competitive markets than they are about politics, history, and creative maneuvers to avoid markets. Even those who laud the effects of highly competitive markets are loathe to experience them personally, so the winners at various stages of my T-shirt’s life are adept not so much at competing in markets but at avoiding them. The effects of these avoidance maneuvers can be more damaging for the poor and powerless than market competition itself. In short, my T-shirt’s story turned out to be less about markets than I would have predicted, and more about the historical and political webs of intrigue in which the markets are embedded. In peeling the onion of my T-shirt’s life—especially as it relates to current debates—I kept being led back to history and politics. Many once-poor countries (e.g., Taiwan or Japan) have become rich due to globalization, and many still-poor countries (e.g., China or India) are nowhere near as poor as they once were. The poorest countries in the fpref Date: Jan 21, 2009 Time: 5:47 pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xiii world, however, largely in Africa, have yet to benefit from globalization in any sustained way, and even in rapidly growing countries such as China, many are left behind. My T-shirt’s life is a story of the wealth-enhancing possibilities of globalization in some settings but a “can’t win” trap in others, a trap where power imbalances and poorly functioning politics and markets seem to doom the economic future. My T-shirt’s story also reveals that the opposing sides of the globalization debate are co-conspirators, however unwitting, in improving the human condition. Economist Karl Polanyi observed, in an earlier version of today’s debate, his famed “double movement,” in which market forces on the one hand were met by demands for social protection on the other.3 Polanyi was pessimistic about the prospects for reconciling the opposite sides. Later writers—perhaps most artfully Peter Dougherty—have argued instead that “Economics is part of a larger civilizing project,” in which markets depend for their very survival on various forms of the backlash.4 My T-shirt’s story comes down on Dougherty’s side: Neither the market nor the backlash alone presents much hope for the world’s poor who farm cotton or stitch T-shirts together, but in the unintentional conspiracy between the two sides there is promise. The trade skeptics need the corporations, the corporations need the skeptics, but most of all, the Asian sweatshop worker and African cotton farmer need them both. T he second edition of Travels of a T-Shirt is very much the product of reader reactions to the first. During the past several years I have had the opportunity to speak with fellow academics, students, businesspeople, and policymakers around the United States and the world about the myriad issues raised by the biography of this simple product. My basic conviction that the biographical approach can illuminate complex economic and political issues in a unique way has only been strengthened by these many conversations, and the second edition of Travels of a T-Shirt remains loyal to this conviction. While the biographical facts of my T-shirt’s life are unchanged, as is the approach I have taken, my many conversations with readers have also illuminated a number of ways in which the story of my T-shirt can evolve to continue to engage a variety of debates. First, much has happened in the world of international trade since the book’s publication in 2005. While the major lessons of my T-shirt’s fpref Date: Jan 21, 2009 xiv Time: 5:47 pm PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION life are unchanged, or perhaps even strengthened, much has evolved in the manner in which the relevant industries operate, in the competitive dynamics, and in political developments related to trade and globalization. I hope in this edition to provide an update of this changing landscape and to answer the many questions I have received from readers regarding what has happened in the world of my T-shirt since 2004. Second, during the 2005 to 2008 period I have also made return trips—often multiple trips—to most of the locations in my T-shirt’s life story, and I have continued to learn from these visits as well as from my continuing correspondence with the many people involved in each stage of the T-shirt’s life. I hope in this edition that the reader can learn as well from these visits and continuing correspondence. I have also benefited tremendously from the hundreds of e-mails and many conversations that have helped me to sharpen the arguments, review new research and evidence, and expand on several topics that have been of special interest to readers. The third change was born in 2006–2007. I was visiting many colleges and universities during that period, and at Wellesley College and University of Iowa, at Colby College, and at UC Santa Barbara and at Texas Tech—in other words, at universities across the geographical and political landscape—readers were interested in the environmental implications of my T-shirt’s life story. During the same period, the book was also being released in translation, so I found myself in Tokyo, Vienna, and Milan as well. Again, around the world readers wanted to talk about environmental sustainability. Indeed, by 2008, it seemed inconceivable that a book about globalization would fail to address the related environmental issues. Of course, an entirely new book could be written to tell the environmental story of my T-shirt’s life. I make no claims that I have written such a book. I have, however, illuminated a ...
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