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the research is about an insect called citerlla stainton. The research that i had has 3070 words with 4 references. I needed to be at least 3600 with 6 references.

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Running Head: PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton Student’s Name: Course Name: Professor’s Name: Date: 1 PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 2 Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton Introduction Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is commonly known as citrus leaf miner and is referred to as the moth from the Gracillariidae family. It was initially found in the year 1993 in Florida and recently it has been evident to distribute effectively in other areas like Australia, China, and Brazil, cost, Costa Rica and including other sections in the US. The wingspan in Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is researched to be 5mm. the larvae in Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is having a critical impact in the agricultural sector causing great damage to the crops. It greatly affects citrus species of plants comprising of citrus Limon, citrus maxima, citrus paradise, margarita, and Fortunella. This insect mine the leaves from the host plants hence affecting the overall growth and development of the plant species. The mine has a long epidermal corridor which has a well-marked Fras line and it is the mostly lower surface of leaves and greatly relies on developing plants. The citrus larvae are generally protected through the execution of the insecticides. The pupation of the larvae at the corridor is mainly found in the lower margin of the leave. The occurrence of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has a potential impact on the citrus plants and including ornamental plants. The impact of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has been effectively considered to be more influential in the plants in the nurseries, grafted plans, and young plants. The researchers have proved that Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton spread in the year 1993 in most regions of America along with some of the Mediterranean sea.in Greece region, the issue of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton was initially recorded in the year 1995 in Crete which rapidly spread in all citrus plants leading to a great impact in terms of the agricultural operation. To curb this, the nation incorporated chemical measures to control the insect which proved as being a challenge. Despite the incorporation of various measures in the control of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton, PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 3 it was evident that the mating rate was more rapid hence the measure implemented in control was not considered as being effective. Therefore the invasion of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in the nation has contributed greatly in terms of destruction of the agricultural sector. This has been evident in the citrus related crops which have greatly been affected. Distribution of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton After initially being discovered in Florida in the year 1993, the insect has been investigated to have distributed to other nations. The diverse spread of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton led to a great impact in terms of agricultural; production. The reduction in agricultural production in the nation affected by the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has evident to be affected in terms of the economy hence not capable to cater to the needs and wants of the citizens. In the year 1994, the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton was found in the regions of the Mediterranean Sea. It also spead in the regions of south and Central America and later reported in South Africa. The utilization of the maps indicated that the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton had invented in the regions of Brazil and Colombia. Most of the regions which were associated with Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton were mostly in the nations which had more species of the citrus plants. The widespread situation was evident in India and Calcutta and was generally known to have come from east Africa in Sudan after which they invented Yemen through southern Asia to India. Besides, Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton distributed to New Guinea along with the pacific island. It was distributed in Australia in the year 1940 after which it spreads across the continent, it occurred in South Africa including some of the parts located in West Africa. The statistical investigation has indicated that the insect distribution was more rapid and hence could distribute to occupy all-region in the nation upon introduction. In western hemispheres, the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton was found in Florida in serval nurseries contain PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 4 citrus trees and other regions in Miami-Dade county as well as collier counties. In the year 1994, the insect gets distributed itself to Louisiana, Texas, and Alabama. In 1995 Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton was commendably discovered in western Mexico, several Caribbean islands and in Central America. It introduced itself in California from Mexico after which it spread to Oahu spreading to Maui and kauri in the year 2001. The adults of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton was researched to be 4mm in terms of the length. It has silvery and white scales that have forewing with various markings in its body. The body and hind wings are white with fringe scales which extends from hindwing margin. While in rest, the wings of the moth are usually folded and appears to be tentatively small with smooth scaled head. In a minute, the larvae of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton have a length of 3mm with a translucent yellow color which is generally located in the leaf mine? The pupa in the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is generally protected in the leaf margin and adults are considered as being difficult in being notified. Therefore the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is considered as being too minute hence not easy to be seen. This factor contributed greatly in terms of distribution since it could spear effectively within a short period without being notices in the nation. Therefore before its invasion has been noticed, the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton result in mass destruction of the citrus in the nation which is considered a negative impact in the agricultural sector. Phyllocnistis Citrella Staintonis native in some of the locations like in Asia and Japan. Therefore the treatment measure being implemented in this nation be not effective in terms of ensuring that there has been prevention in terms of distribution. Therefore in consideration of this, the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has been leading to great destruction hence the nations have not been capable to establish effective measures to counter fight its development. The native characteristics of Phyllocnistis PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 5 Citrella Stainton are due to its size which can allow it to cause great destruction even before control measures have been implemented. Biology of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton Various researchers have reported biology related to Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. Some of the researchers involved in the provision of these biology concepts comprise of the clause, fletcher, Lattie, yunas, and Beattie. The legs of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton are generally found in the leaf mines which is done to ensure security. The eclosion of the eggs generally occurs within ten days after which the larvae considerably enters the leaf after which they start feeding themselves with the crop products. The larvae make serpentine on the young leaves resulting in the curling of the leaves which results in the serious injury of the crop. The leaf mines are central on the leaf surface except in the cases of heavy infection in the leaf surfaces. Every leaf in the crop contains one leaf mine but in heavy infection, two or even more leaf mines can be contained in one leaf until the time the leaf mine reaches the next stage. With similar leaf miners, the larvae are usually protected during the feeding cycle in the leaf surface. The larvae in the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton have four instars along with development which occurs between 5-20 days. The pupation occurs within mine in the special pupa located in leaf margin in curled leaf. Most of the development stages in the different stages of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton have been researched to most occur at the lower surface of the leaf. This is attributed to the motive that they aim at ensuring effective security and protection hence leading to considerate development without being notified. The development of a pupa occurs between 6-22 days. The adult thereby emerges at the dawn hence active in the morning which proves that most of the development activities in this case usually occur at night or dusk. The generation of the PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 6 Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton generally occurs every year which has been considered as the core reason for the increased spread of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in many nations. Therefore in the development of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton's security matter is enhanced through taking place in the culled leaf. In cases when there has been mass destruction, there is the availability of many species of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton which triggers them to be contained in large numbers in a singled leaf. The biological concepts associated with the development of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in the citrus crop explains why there has been mass development and invention in the nation. Since the reproduction usually occurs in the night and at dawn, it turns out as being a hard task in being recognized. Before they have been recognized the reproductive system is found to have taken place hence leading to the enormous growth. Therefore this has ensured that there is an increased spread of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton almost in every nation leading to great menace in the crops. Impacts of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton The Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has been researched to be the major pest associated with the destruction of citrus plants found mostly in young plants. Heavy infestation of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in the crop can result in growth hindrance on the crop hence leading to the productivity associated with the crops. Larvae have been feeding with the flowers in the citrus crops hence leading to a negative impact in terms of photosynthesis. This is associated with the reason that in cases when the leaf surface has been destructed the overall area where photosynthesis can take place is affected. Therefore the chief impact associated with the invasion of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in the citrus crops regards the issue of photosynthesis. They also contribute to exposing the crop to vulnerabilities like the harsh environmental condition especially during the dry season. Under the heavy pesticide regime, the issue of the Phyllocnistis Citrella PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 7 Stainton has been evident to increase their impact in the young crops hence leading to growth retardation. Even though there has been the introduction of the insecticides in the control of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton destruction, it has been evident that most of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton species are resistant to the chemical treatment and hence not easily treated. Before they have been notified, the development among the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton species has been researched to increase rapidly hence leading to mass destruction. The issue of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton destruction has been aligned with the economic degradation. This is attributed to the reason that in cases when a certain nation has been involved in the production process through the utilization of the citrus plants, the overall outcome is that they will be affected. The destruction of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in citrus plants has therefore been considered to be associated with the side effects from the economic perspective. The leaf damaged by the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has been associated with loss of international market operation as a result of the phytosanitary. The value of the leaves from the crops which have been affected by the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has been researched to be losing value hence cannot be exported for the production process. This is attributed to the motive that, the overall impact associated with larvae results in the destruction of the leaves hence leading to the loss of value. Besides, the leaves development have been affected since most of the photosynthetic process does occur in leaves hence in cases when the leaf surface have been affected the plants are not capable of making their food. Host plants of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton The Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has been considered as being common species in citrus plants along with Rutaceae. It is mostly incurred in the leaves of citrus plants comprising of the PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 8 lime, tangerine, orange, and lemon. Other Rutaceae hosts of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton include the following; Aegle marmelos, Atalantia sp, Murraya paniculata (L.), Poncirus trifoliate, and various native Rutaceae Damage of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton The larvae result in the formation of the serpentine on the leaves of the citrus plants and also in the fruits where most of the destruction has been evident to occur. The leaf mines are usually filled with frass lines which are regarded as being the characteristics involved in the separation of the citrus peel mine from the leaf miner. The larvae in the citrus leaf miner have been evident to infest mostly on the young crops and flushing foliage. The adults lay eggs on the lower and upper surface of leaves which are 1.27cm in terms of the length. In control of the invasion of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in the citrus crop, it turns out as being a challenge due to the size. The report from Australia has indicated that the infestation of 3 mines in every leaf occurs in the wetter condition. Therefore the climatic condition has an impact in the development and the rate of the increase in the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton this is associated with the reason that in cases when there has been a wetter condition in the region under consideration the larvae tend to reproduce more frequently hence leading to the increase in the number of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. Therefore the citrus plants located in cool climatic regions have been researched as being more vulnerable to the infection of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton hence contributing to the mass destruction of the citrus plans. There has been an increase in the cost expenses of ensuring that there has been effective protection of the nurseries containing citrus plants. This is attributed to the motive that the farmers have been spending extra funds in the process of controlling the increase and impacts of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton which result to the negative outcome in PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 9 term of the economic development there has been an issue of retarded growth hence the nurseries have not been growing rapidly as expected. Therefore, the main impact of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton infestation regards the increased expense involved in controlling their impact in the citrus crop. Prevention and control Due to the associated impacts of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton in the agricultural sector, various methods are incorporated to ensure that there is broad control of the invasion of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. This general comprise of the following; Cultural control; in these cases, there has been consideration of some plant which in cases when they have been planted they help in the prevention of the issue relating to Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. For since the plantation of the Ageratum conyzoides is in the plantation containing the citrus plants helps in the prevention of invasion of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. There has been the application of Chinese methods of controlling the issue of Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton through destruction and collecting of the fallen leaves which are considered to be affected. This is critical in ensuring that there has been a restriction of the growth of the citrus plants in cases when there has been an increased issue of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. Biological control; there has been the implementation of biological control in the process of controlling the impact of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. This comprised of the utilization of the parasitoid like Ageniniaspis citricola along with the cirrospilus quadristiatus. There have been other predators which have been evident to occur naturally who are considered as being the predators of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton hence leading to their control. Generally, the biological control of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is aimed at preventing the invasion of the PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 10 Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton through the introduction of the predators who can consume the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton incest hence leading to their destructions. Chemical control, several insecticides have been utilized in the process of controlling the issue of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton. They are aimed at ensuring that the mating power and capability have greatly been destructed hence leading to ensuring that there has been no destruction of the plants. However, the issue of using a chemical in the control of the insects has been researched to be associated with a negative impact in terms of environmental status. It is attributed to the motive that in cases when the insecticide interacts with the air they result in air pollution hence leading to the negative impact and other diseases among the people. The application of the insecticides in the control of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton is majorly applied in cases when the plants are young since they are considered as being in high infestation in the young plants. Mass trapping and monitoring; there has been the introduction of viable traps which are aimed at ensuring that they have been caught while interfering with a certain plant. In these cases, the trapping methods are generally applied in the situation with the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton have been in large number and hence they cannot be controlled in the utilization of the other methods. Mating disruption; since it has been evident that the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton has a high mating rate, it is essential to ensure that their mating rate has been obstructed. This is regarded as being an environmental friendly since no issue of releasing any chemical to the environment that the mating rate has been disrupted as the strategy in reducing their destruction. Therefore it can be recommended that some of the methods used in the control of the Phyllocnistis Citrella Stainton have a negative impact in terms of the existence of other species in the environment hence PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON 11 needs to be avoided. In other cases, other methods can be considered as being friendlier and hence needs to be perfectly implied. 12 PHYLLOCNISTIS CITRELLA STAINTON Reference Arshad, M., Ullah, M., Afzal, M., Iftikhar, Y., Khalid, S., Hussain, Z., ... & Foster, J. (2019). Evaluation of Synthetic Insecticides and Essential Oils for the Management of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 51(3), 1053-1058. Dahmane, M., & Chakali, G. (2020). Distribution pattern of developmental stages of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on the surface of citrus leaves. Polish Journal of Entomology, 89(1), 1-6. George, A., Kuttalam, S., & Rao, C. N. (2019). Evaluation of foliar vis-a-vis soil application of certain insecticides against Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton. Indian Journal of Entomology, 81(1), 105-107. Vaca, G. V., Michel, A. A., & Alcaide, F. J. P. (2019). Histology and histochemistry of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Grac ...
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