timer Asked: Apr 30th, 2020

Question Description

It's an easy thing and shouldn't take long time.

1. go to the cdm process (steps)

2. Go through each step and find how Cayla uses each of those.

Ex: evoked set—her top of mind brands are Starbucks and Dunkin. Say if she is brand aware or not

3. For each there’s more than just the step, there’s info under it, use those terms and BOLD that word when you talk about it

4. Find quotes or examples from the interview to back up your points

Unformatted Attachment Preview

CDM PROCESS (steps) Pre-purchase: 1. STIMULUS → motivation. Impetus to act On/ Off switch (ex: buying bed pillows) • Off: passive consumers: the consumer uses a product but is not shopping for it (ex. you are an earring consumer, but you are not actually shopping for them) • On: active consumers: when you start gathering info, first, informally, and then, formally. We go passive to active. Actively buys and goes to the store, and look for commercials… (ex. you have a wedding and you go and buy earrings) Experiences • • • Novices: never purchase before. They don’t know anything. Little or no knowledge Amateurs: some knowledge Experts: not book learned, just have a lot of experience Context of buying • • • Replace Upgrade New purchase 2. EVOKED SET → They are on “top of your mind” Brands that come to mind with no effort VERY strong brand awareness (it does not mean that you have used it to know it) Relatively small set May include positive or negative perceptions “Prime real estate” for firms: that’s why there’s so much reminder advertising 3. INFORMAL INFORMATION SEARCH → “radar” It is not planned, it just happens It is not systematic Reference groups & opinion leaders are influential: - Membership reference group (people we are like) - Ideal reference group (people we want to be like) - Negative reference group (people we do not want to be like) Start seeing and thinking about things when you are exposed to them (ex: when you are pregnant, the only thing you see is pregnant people) Purchase: 4. CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT → what really matters. You put a box around a problem: you have to make it manageable to choose a criterion Features customers wants in the purchase Criteria are no equally important: • • • Determinant criteria: the “must has”, non-negations. That’s really what drives decisions. Not willing to give up. People typically have 2-4. (ex. the hotel must be have a pool) Secondary criteria: compromised criteria. We are willing to negotiate within reason (ex. I want all included hotel as long as its cost is between this range) Tertiary criteria: minimal impact. Sacrificial (ex. there is a sleeping sofa instead of a bed). 5. FORMAL INFORMATION SEARCH (“shopping”) → comparing. It is systematic It is planned Sometimes is long and sometimes is short: it depends on how much the buyer cares Occurs: pre-purchase, during purchase, and post-purchase May involve physical activity (ex. going to the store) or just mental activity (ex. reading reviews) 6. CHOICE SET (consideration set): “short list”, typically with 3-4 items. Most likely choices If I cannot get those items list that is failure To fix this the customer could loop back to defining its criteria (4); he could continue shopping (5) This is for efficiency purposes 7. DEPTH EVALUATION: close look, high effort information search This is systematic and rational Peripheral processing: low involvements and superficial evaluation. Very shallow Central processing: pros and cons evaluation. More time and energy - Elaboration: bringing more info, go deeper. Compare previous and other products - Counter-arguing: debating pros and cons (in your mind or with someone else) 8. SELECTION → the choice outcome It is to pick a product If failure you can look back to other process and repeat it. 9. PURCHASE → how (cash, credit card, coupon) 10. POST-PURCHASE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS → what we do after the purchase Usually, after buying you use the product as intended, and you can be satisfied or not. Determine level of satisfaction: - Satisfying/satisfied: exceeding expectations Satisficing/satisficed: meeting minimal standards Neutral: no opinion (yet) Dissatisfaction Behaviors: • • • • Recommend: when you are at the supermarket and you recommend something to someone that is looking at a product you like (recommend) Reviews: online reviews in Amazon Web site traffic Features Post purchase SHOPPING: I already buy it buy I continue my shopping search, to make sure I got the best deal because people are particularly prices sensitive. Buyer’s REMORSE: regrets after the purchase, remorse. Especially in very expense purchases. People usually don’t do anything about it, just get over it (ex. buying a house) Post purchase RATIONALIZATION: all the reasons why you bought something to justify you purchase (to you and others). Reasons to prove yourself that you did good buying that product. This is one of the questions why you don’t ask the question “why?” when interviewing about a product purchase. Laith: Hey, how are you? Cayla: I’m grest. How are you? Laith: I’m good, thank you. So, did you have your coffee this morning? Cayla: No. I don’t drink coffee in the morning usually. Laith: Oh, do you drink a lot of coffee usually? Cayla: Not really. I’m more of a tea person. Laith: A tea person, uhm okay. So you said you don’t drink coffee often, what makes you drink coffee over tea? Cayla: If I’m craving it, or other people around me drinking coffee, if I’m tired and have a lot of work. Laith: Would you say that you rather have coffee when you’re with people ve when you’re alone? Cayla: Yeah. Laith: Could you talk more about that? Cayla: Well, it’s usually when you’re sitting alone and someone text you “hey, do you wanna grab a cub of coffee?” and that’s usually one of the times I drink coffee. I think it’s more of a social outing. Laith: Uhm okay, make sense. So how many times a week do you think you drink coffee? Cayla: I’d say 3-4 times a week. Laith: Do you usually make your coffee or go buy it? Cayla: It’s either it’s made for me or I go buy it. Laith: So, what do you mean by it’s made for you? Cayla: When I go see a family member or something. When you’re sitting with people and they ask you if you’d like a cup of coffee. Laith: Does your family drink more coffee? Cayla: Yeah definitely. Laith: Do you think they’re more of an influence on you? when you go over? Are they like “do you want coffee?” and you have to have coffee? Cayla: It’s definitely an after-meal drink when I go to my family. Like you eat then have a cup of coffee. Laith: What are the other influences that you drink coffee from? Cayla: Well, I recently moved, and my roommate is a huge coffee drinker, she makes a big pot of coffee every morning and I sometimes crave coffee from the smell of it. So I’ve been definitely drinking more coffee lately. Laith: Okay, so whenever you go and you're going to buy coffee, like when you go out and stuff, what's your favorite place to go get coffee? Cayla: I love little coffee shops. So if we're going to get coffee and there's a local coffee shop, I'd definitely prefer that over Starbucks. But if I'm just on the road and getting sleepy, then I'll just go to whatever has the quickest. I am not opposed to picking up some 7-Eleven coffee. Laith: What do you like about the little coffee shops? Cayla: There's the atmosphere. They're calming. You can do some work in them. Usually when I go to coffee shops it's to do schoolwork. Laith: Make sense. I’m the same way a lot of times. You think price comes into factor at all? Cayla: I think with how rarely I drink coffee; price isn't a huge factor. I'm definitely not going to pay six or $7 for a cup, but I don't drink it on the regular. It's not a huge issue for me. Laith: Okay, that makes sense then. So, would you say that convenience is a big factor for you? So, if you're on the go and you said, "Oh I want coffee," and Starbucks is right there. Would you rather go to Starbucks or go a little further to another place? Cayla: I guess it would really depend of how busy I am, why I'm getting coffee at that time, but I'm definitely not opposed to using convenient locations, I guess. Laith: Okay. Okay. So, you said price really isn't a factor. So, if you were just on the road and you wanted to get a coffee because you were tired, and 7-Eleven was right there but Starbucks was just two more minutes down the road. Would you go to the 7-Eleven instead the Starbucks? Cayla: No, I'd probably go to the Starbucks because the quality of the coffee would be better. Laith: Okay. So quality, is that a big deal to you? Would you rather pay more for better quality? Cayla: Depends. if I'm already in the 7-Eleven getting gas or something and I want some coffee, I'm just going to pick it up. I'm not even going to search my phone to see if there's another location around. But if I just want coffee and it's between 7-Eleven and Starbucks, I'm going to lean towards the better coffee. Laith: Yeah, no, I agree. So, do you have a preference for any kind of coffee that you get? Cayla: Not really. I don't like very strong coffee. I prefer sweet and with a lot of milk. So like cappuccinos, Frappuccino, fun things. If they make it sound like a dessert, I'm sold. Laith: Okay. No, I agree. So, let's say that a place sold a black coffee and you could get milk or half and half and stuff in it for a lower price than you could to get a specialty coffee, like one of those dessert coffees. Would you rather pay the lower price and get the coffee or get the dessert coffee for a little higher price? Cayla: Probably dessert coffee. If I'm out, I'm already planning on spending some money and if I want to enjoy my outing, I'm going to go for the better coffee. Laith: So, price isn’t really a big factor since you don’t drink it that often, right? Cayla: Yeah, I rarely even buy coffee. Cayla: indulgence. Laith: Yeah, exactly. Laith: What is your thought process when you’re buying coffee? Cayla: Uhm, I guess finding coming to the conclusion of buying coffee, then figure out where I would get coffee from. Like on campus in school, do I want to just walk across campus and grab something there or do I want to go someplace a little bit cheaper and better. How much time do I have to get the coffee? Uhm, what type of coffee do I want, just a regular coffee with milk or do I want something with a little bit more flavor. Laith: What is your thought process when you’re buying coffee? Cayla: Uhm, I guess finding coming to the conclusion of buying coffee, then figure out where I would get coffee from. Like on campus in school, do I want to just walk across campus and grab something there or do I want to go someplace a little bit cheaper and better. How much time do I have to get the coffee? Uhm, what type of coffee do I want, just a regular coffee with milk or do I want something with a little bit more flavor. Laith: Okay, okay. Laith: What is your ethnicity? Cayla: I am Puerto Rican. Laith: Uhm, does that has to do anything with coffee? Cayla: Uhm, yeah culturally the history of the island that I’m from used to grow coffee, and I know definitely when I go visit the island, coffee is more of an everyday drink, people would drink it with breakfast, lunch, and dinner. So, I definitely think they have a certain coffee brand just sold in the island, I know my family order those coffee for special occasions and whatnot. Laith: Yeah, I understand. So, you’re saying that coffee is more prominent? That’s why your family drink it more than you do? Cayla: I have no idea, but it could possibly be a factor to why they drink it more maybe their family before them drink it more or something. Definitely like our generation, I see a lot of us not drinking a lot of coffee, or just not liking coffee. But in the older generation they did. Laith: Okay, that’s interesting. So, you’re telling me that it’s a social think and it’s more of a family thing? Those are the only times you drink it, or when you want more energy. Right? Cayla: Yeah, I would agree with that. I would definitely drink coffee if my family are making it, but I definitely drink way less than them, even if they’re serving me a cup, I’ll only drink half of it. But yeah, I definitely think coffee drinking is contributed to family influence. Laith: Okay, which of these things matter to you when you whenever you’re getting coffee, the place, the coffee, the price, or the convivence? Cayla: That definitely depends on why I’m drinking coffee. If I’m tired and just wanted a little pick me up, the convenience of it is definitely a big factor. If I’m going to study for two hours with my friends, then the place is a huge factor. If I’m craving something sweet or whatnot quality of what they make and the coolness of what they have is a factor. Laith: Okay, so you’re probably telling me that price is the least convenient factor. ...
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