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timer Asked: Apr 30th, 2020

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I need help with a project, I need help only with discussion and Kaizen Events. I will upload everything. Do only Kaizen Events 6 which is (Kaizen event 6: Combining inspection and rework, β†’ also adding inspection to stations (visuals of how it should product should look)

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Cover page 1.0 Introduction (Kam) 2.0 Discussion (Meshal) In order to meet a customer demand, the demand first has to be determined. In the lab, the team observed the customer orders that there are 73 clocks per order that needed to be met within the simulated timeframe 15 minutes for the lab. To calculate the Takt time, we calculated the available time and demand which we found that the available time is 1 Shift will take 15 minutes or 900 seconds and 900 second divided by 73 clocks that will be equal to 12.3 seconds. Calculation of Takt Time shown below. π‘‡π‘Žπ‘˜π‘‘ π‘‡π‘–π‘šπ‘’ = π·π‘’π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ π‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘’ π‘‡π‘Žπ‘˜π‘‘ π‘‡π‘–π‘šπ‘’ = 𝑁𝑒𝑑 π‘Žπ‘£π‘Žπ‘–π‘™π‘Žπ‘π‘™π‘’ π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’ π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿ 𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑 π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’ π‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘œπ‘‘ 900 π‘ π‘’π‘π‘œπ‘›π‘‘π‘  = πΆπ‘’π‘ π‘‘π‘œπ‘šπ‘’π‘Ÿ π·π‘’π‘šπ‘Žπ‘›π‘‘ π‘“π‘œπ‘Ÿ π‘‘β„Žπ‘’ π‘ π‘Žπ‘šπ‘’ π‘‘π‘–π‘šπ‘’ π‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘–π‘œπ‘‘ 73 π‘π‘™π‘œπ‘π‘˜π‘  = 12.3 π‘†π‘’π‘π‘œπ‘›π‘‘π‘  From the customer orders it was observed that 60% of the black clocks and 40% of the blue clocks. With that said we reduced the batch size to 2 blue clocks and 3 black clocks which still favors the 60% black. From here we used the takt time and new adjusted numbers with the batch size to find our pitch for load levels. Once calculated the blue clocks came to ~24s while black clocks were ~36s. Since the blue clocks had the shorter time, their pitch of 24s was used when creating the production sequence table as seen in Table 1. The table clearly labels that 2 blue clocks need to be made every 24s while 3 black clocks can be made every 36s which will achieve our load levels. In addition to this table, a heijunka box should be made to act as a mailbox for production to allow an efficient kanban process to occur. It should be also noted that the daily production information should be the only information running through this box. Along with this, if production were to ever change, a new pitch should be made for each product which is simply taking the new batch for each clock and multiplying it by the current takt time. Table 1. Production Sequence Table 0 24s 48s 60s 84s 108s 132s 156s Blue (2 clocks) X X Black (3 clocks) X X X X X X X X X X X X 3.0 Kaizen events Paragraph of brief kaizen events and then when 3.1 Kaizen event 1 - Bin Organizer *photo/figure of bin* A bin with a specific layout for each clock piece (e.g. nut, washer, clock hands, clock face, etc.) is a good replacement for the current system in which every part will be placed in the same bin and likely mixed together. This design of a bin organizer would insure that the operator at the kitting station can visually identify what parts are missing or what parts are placed in excess. The kitting station operator would also, in turn, be given a much more simple and consistent task since they no longer need to personally separate each part in the single bin to identify what is missing. This would mainly improve the excess of motion in the system, as it would reduce the motion of the kitting station operator during their designated task. It would also minimize the amount of operators looking for parts later in the factory process. Adding an organized bin will decrease the total amount of defective clocks as the bin would present a better visual separation of each part, increasing the precision of each other station and the consistency in providing the necessary parts being provided. The three main parties involved are the operators, the floor manager, and the lean engineer. It directly affects the operators as they have a slightly altered task in placing the parts in specific sections of a bin rather than just combining them all into one. As for the floor manager, they will be responsible for the physical application of the bins whether it be the purchasing process or the instruction of the operators with the new change. Lastly, for the lean engineer’s involvement, they must develop the idea in the beginning. They will also design the proper layout of the bin for ease of use and decide where the bins must be placed. Once the bins are fabricated, there will be a standard put in place, of where each specific part should be placed. 3.2 Kaizen event 2 - Template for Assembly of Clock Face For this kaizen event, a faceplate template was created to poka-yoke the face assembly station. The reason for this poka-yoke device in FIGURE#, is to eliminate the defects regarding the face assembly station. With this new tool, the workers have to place the face plate onto the device, which is also mistake proofed so they do not put it on the wrong orientation, then the colors of what quadrant will show through the opening for each quadrant and show the correct color. This, in theory, should completely eliminate any defects in the clocks in regards to the face assembly portion. This solution is also a low cost solution and very simple which are two key components in poka-yoke. The lean engineers or management can be tasked with making this device for the workers while it is clear that the workers will be the only ones using it. Along with this, the timeframe to implement this is as soon as possible. Since this device does not interrupt production or cause/require any downtime, it can be made at the earliest convenience. Little to no training is required as well because the concept of color coding the parts for the worker is simple. The main course of action required will be creating a visual SOP that mimics the process of what the worker will have to do to use the device. From gathering the face and quadrants, to placing the face down, followed by the quadrats, and moving to the next face. Once the SOP is made as well as the device itself, it will be ready to go live for the worker’s. 3.3 Kaizen event 3 - Add supermarket before clock assembly and after kitting with Kanban system. (pocket guide book helps answer 5w+h, just need to be applied to our lab) (Kam) A supermarket can be added before the clock assembly station because of the large cycle time difference between the back assembly and clock assembly station. This large difference was causing a large WIP number in the clock assembly station overwhelming the workers with many kits at one time. This large number of kits also made it confusing for workers to follow the FIFO rule. Along with a supermarket, a Kanban is necessary in order to ensure stations before the supermarket have a pull of information to make more partially assembled clocks to fill the supermarket when inventory levels start running low. This kaizen event should involve the operators, who will use the supermarket to receive kits into their workstation, as well as the material handler who will supply the supermarket from the back assembly station. The material handler will also remain involved in the kanban system, pulling kanban cards when stock levels run low and sending them to the kitting station to trigger the production of more assembly kits. Figure 1. Poka-yoke device for Face Assembly 3.4 Kaizen event 4 - Implementation of a Lighting System in Each Supermarket to Indicate Inventory Status A lighting system can be implemented at each supermarket to assist the material handler. The light would present the status of inventory at each supermarket in three different levels. The green light would represent the inventory is sufficiently stocked, no need for any additional production. A yellow light would indicate that the inventory is running low, each supermarket could specifically define what this yellow light represents (0 parts < actual # of parts left < X # of parts left to trigger the yellow signal.) Lastly, the red light would indicate that there is no stock left on hand at this supermarket and a restock is needed as soon as possible. Two major wastes in the process would be reduced using this lighting system, those being waiting and excess motion. Waiting would be reduced since the material handler would be able to eliminate the process of restocking a supermarket inefficiently by no longer having to manually observe stock levels of each supermarket. They will be provided with an updated SOP, including the task of monitoring the lighting systems at each supermarket to immediately have an accurate idea of the parts on hand. Likewise, motion would be minimized for the material handler as they no longer need to routinely check each stock level, instead just checking the status of the lighting system. The material handler being an operator, the implementation of this system affects operators of the factory and also the floor manager. The floor manager will be entirely responsible for the purchasing and the installation processes. At the same company, the lean engineer could define each of the supermarket’s inventory levels before indicating a yellow light. They must inform the floor manager of this set value, who will also inform the material handler, to ensure the system could be sufficiently implemented. 3.5 Kaizen event 5 - poka-yoke Sop (start) Person 1β†’ assembly clock β†’ place in stand Person 2β†’ takes standβ†’ tightens screws β†’quick visual inspect (done) 3.6 Kaizen event 6 - Combining Inspection and Rework stations, Distributing the Inspection Process Among Every Station 3.7 Kaizen event 7 - U-Shaped Layout Transforming to a U-shaped assembly line system, implementing lean manufacturing, and justin-time philosophies assert that U-shaped assembly systems offer several benefits. One improvement U-shaped layouts offer compared to straight-line layouts includes an increase in labor productivity. Our goal at hand is to reduce the unnecessary movement from the line operators in order to improve productivity. With assistance from the supervisors and manager, the correct layout can be designed and implemented for the operators to utilize. For the most success, the workers need to have high skills to operate several different machines or tasks. Another factor to consider is that workers will work standing up and walking because they need to operate at different locations and be continuously moving to be most efficient. With the current flow, there was too much waste creating with the motion of workers along with the transportation of equipment. Before the material handler was forced to navigate through the crowded stations bringing material to and from stations. It was also noted some operations could possibly be combined and or assisted when there was no work present at another station. If we take a look at the face and back assemblies, the task to complete is very short compared to clock assembly along with being much easier to do. In the updated U-shape flow, these stations are placed side by side and the workers will be trained to operate both of them to speed up the process. This also places both of these workers within 5ft of the clock assembly allowing help to be received if there were to be a bottleneck present. The goal of a U-shape flow is not to just keep shipping and receiving on the same side but to allow allocation of help internally where it is needed. This is why cross training comes into play to make sure all workers can be efficient in the U-shape cells. This is where management and SOPs enter to ensure the proper training is allocated and workers are notified when they should assist another station rather than work on their assemblies. This can be in the form of a sound cue to notify when a station is becoming backed up, or a visual cue on a board which notifies the stations are behind schedule and need to pick up the pace and find the bottleneck in the system. 4.0 Deliverables (Kara &Chance) Process Calculated Cycle Time Range Estimated Cycle Time Current State Map Future State Map Kitting 7.67 3.0 < 𝑑 < 4.5 Face Assembly 10.74 4.0 < 𝑑 < 7.0 Back Assembly 6.39 0.5 < 𝑑 < 2.5 Clock Assembly 18.83 5.0 < 𝑑 < 8.0 Hand Assembly 7.55 3.0 < 𝑑 < 5.0 Inspection 6.11 6<𝑑<7 Rework 7.99 4.5 < 𝑑 <6 Daily Demand Supermarket Inventory (20%*Daily demand) Minutes in Inventory (total) 73 clocks 9 black, 6 blue 184.5 seconds ~3.08 minutes Table of current cycle times, collected and calculated by the team from Project 1. From the bar chart it can be determined by the team what process steps must be adjusted for the future state map. Table of adjusted ranges of process times for future state map. Times were estimated based on Current cycle times after Kaizen events are carried out and also the placement of supermarkets. 5.0 Conclusion (Kam) 6.0 Teamwork For this project the team learned to come together to create a future state map. Due to the restriction of working from home, the team hosted meetings using Microsoft Teams. A total of 7 meets were held that ranged from 30-45 minutes. The first few meetings the team brainstormed changes to be made to the current state map. Changes were documented and displayed as kaizen bursts on the corrected current state map, as seen in deliverables. Ideas documented by using Microsoft OneNote, and were accessible to the entire team after meetings. After picking seven kaizen events that were going to be implemented, the team then brainstormed 5w+1h for each kaizen event. Writing sections were then divided up to group members. When the writing of the paper was started the team still came together for meetings using Microsoft Teams meetings, to assure the track of the project and answer questions a team member might have had. The following is the breakdown of writing sections: 1.0 Introduction: Kamil 2.0 Discussion: Meshal, Chance? 3.0 Kaizen Events: - 3.1: bin organizerβ†’ Jake - 3.2: template for assembly of clock face β†’ Chance, Kara (visual) - 3.3: 2xSupermarkets β†’ Kamil - 3.4: Kanban lights β†’ Jake - 3.5: Clock assembly station β†’ Jake - 3.6: Combination of rework & inspection station β†’ Meshal - 3.7: u-shape layoutβ†’ Brad, Kara (visual) 4.0 Deliverables: - VSM Corrections, Future state map, tablesβ†’ Kara - Bar Charts β†’ Chance Conclusion: Kamil Teamwork: Kara 1. Kaizen event: a. Why? (downtime β†’ 8waste for why) b. What? c. Where? d. When? e. Who? operators/ supervisors/ managers (and team) lean engineers/managers f. How? SOP per Kaizen event Kaizen event 1: Bin organizer g. Why? β†’ causes waste of motion downstream (looking for parts) β†’ defects in to much material or not enough material (quality assurance) h. What? β†’ Bins are being changed out, and replaced with bins with dividers/ spacers i. Where? β†’ Kitting station j. When? β†’ (will decide later) k. Who? β†’ operators- doing it β†’ management- going to implement β†’ lean engineers- β€˜idea’ develop l. How? β†’ create standard of how the material should be placed in the bin (shows locations for parts) Kaizen event 2: create a template for assembly of colored diamond parts a. Why? β†’ reduce defects of misplaced colors β†’ excess motion: looking in the bins for colors b. What? β†’ creating poka-yoke visual for workers consistency c. Where? β†’ face assembly d. When? β†’ TBD e. Who? β†’ operators- doing it β†’ lean engineers- develop visual f. How? β†’ creating SOP for station (picture of visual or templet) Templet on the table of a picture of the colors (face) Kaizen event 3: installing supermarket for the clock assembly and kitting a. Why? β†’inventory lot of WIP in station, burden with excess bins b. What? β†’ creating a supermarket with a kanban systemβ†’ flow of information and products/material c. Where? β†’ before clock assembly d. when? e. Who? β†’ operators (material handler/supermarket’s station operator) β†’ floor manager (implementation) β†’ lean engineer (select most effective locations) f. How? β†’ face assembly and back assembly become parallel processes feeding product into the supermarket β†’ clock assembly pulls products from supermarket and gives information to face and back assembly when WIP is running low Kaizen Event 4: Lighting system to indicate when supermarket is low for downstream processes a. Why? β†’ Without a visual cue the material handler will not know when to refill stations (waiting in the process) β†’ Motion (material handler won’t need to check stations unnecessarily to make sure inventory is stocked) b. What? β†’ A stop light kind a light will notify material handler whether inventory is full (green), running low (yellow), or empty (red) c. Who? β†’ Operators β†’ floor manager d. When? e. Where? β†’ Clock assembly’s supermarket β†’ Kitting station’s supermarket f. How? β†’ SOP change: material handler now is responsible for monitoring and ensuring each supermarket is sufficiently supplied Kaizen event 5:add a tool to assist assembly station β†’ Adjusting each station’s specific SOP β†’ could do tool to have clocks to be able to stand up in g. Why? β†’ bottleneck for other stations, causing other stations to wait β†’ defects/ β†’ unused talents h. What? β†’ breaking up/ seperating tasks in station i. Who? β†’ operators β†’ floor manager j. When? k. Where? β†’ clock assembly, assembling components on clock l. How? β†’ updating SOP: 2 people at station, 1 placing clock parts together, 1 tightening to specification and performing extra inspection (refer to kaizen event 6) Kaizen event 6: Combining inspection and rework, β†’ also adding inspection to stations (visuals of how it should product should look) m. Why? β†’ Defects β†’ Extra-Processing n. What? β†’ inspection sections β†’ visual aid for workers to match o. Who? β†’ operators β†’ floor manager p. When? q. Where? β†’ inspection station β†’ rework station β†’ back assembly station β†’ clock assembly station β†’ hand assembly station r. How? β†’ updating SOP: each assembly station will have a visual aid, and be tasked with a quick inspection of each part Kaizen event 7: u-shape layout a. Why? β†’ Motion (reduce unnecessary movement) b. What? c. Who? β†’ operators β†’ floor manager d. When? e. Where? f. How? ...
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