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11 February 2020
Rhetorical Analysis Essay of Winder's Article
In the article "The Top 10 Cybersecurity Stories Of 2019—A Window onto the 2020
Threatscape," Davey Winder indicates the significant threats in cybersecurity. The article
discusses the top ten cybersecurity threats stories that have been experienced in the world
recently and has caught the eye of the government. Davey Winder elaborates on the numbers of
people that have been affected, the impact of the security breaches, and potential risks. He also
demonstrates the severity of the issue in the future if not addressed. He emphasizes the cyber
vulnerabilities of smartphone users by focusing on the threats in the big technology companies,
iPhone, Galaxy, Note, Google, Windows 10, and Samsung. Davey Winder as well draws
attention to cybersecurity threats in sensitive areas, the Military Department, and a state. This
essay finds that Davey Winder effectively uses logos, ethos, and pathos to appeal to the
audience; he specifically relies on anecdotes to convince the reader, along with the logical and
threatening tone, to emphasize on the severity of cybersecurity threats.
Davey Winder set the tone of his article from the beginning of his article. He begins by
stating that the year 2019 has been a year full of cybersecurity issues, and it's likely to continue
in 2020. This creates fear in the audience since it demonstrates it is a severe problem that is not
ending soon. In the first paragraph, he elaborates that by mid-2019, “Hardly surprising, then, that
the first six months of 2019 alone saw data breaches expose more than 4 billion records” and
scary cyberattack cases like collection 1. Davey Winder goes on to say that, but these are barely
in the top ten cybersecurity risks. This is a threatening message showing that cybersecurity risk is
Throughout the article, Winder uses anecdotes logos, and pathos. In the second
paragraph, the author narrate the story of the google camera app, and the hundreds of million
users who faced the risk of their photos, video, and conversation being accessed with the third
party. He also narrated the stories of Galaxy and Note users’ security threats, Windows 10 users’
vulnerabilities, and cyber-attack at New Orleans, and the theft of Google Gmail information.
In addition to anecdotes, the author also effectively applies ethos to appeal to the users.
At the beginning of the article, the author employs ethos to establishing credibility. He indicates
he found it hard to write the story about top CISOs (Chief information security officer) selfmedicating and using alcohol to deal with stress due to their job associated with cybersecurity.
He also talks about mental health cybersecurity warnings, a sad issue since it involves people's
Davey Winder (2019) also uses strong logos; he uses statistics throughout the paper. The
author indicates the number of users that were affected by cybersecurity attacks along with the
dates of incidence. For instance, in the story about Google App Camera cybersecurity risks, he
indicates that 1.4 million users were affected by the threat. Davey Winder points out that on
October 2, the government issued a warning, and 23 government agencies were affected in New
Orleans. Logos has been used in the article with numerous statistics as evidence of his claims
The author appeals to pathos everywhere in the paper. He uses phrases that create a
picture of the seriousness of the problem, thus causing sadness. Davey Winder (2019)
illuminates that billions and millions of users are at risk, scary figures. He also talks with surety
that problem is not ending soon since he will be writing similar stories in 2019
Davey Winder effectively uses persuasion techniques, ethos, logos, and pathos, along
with language and tone, to appeal to the readers. He uses real stories of people that have been
affected, the risks of cyber-attacks, and the implication of those vulnerabilities. The article too
applied ethos to evoke emotions for the audience to understand and relate to the issue. Logo has
been employed everywhere in his article with numerous figures to convince reader. As for ethos,
the author is a master in creating a great picture of the issue, and promoting the feeling sadness,
The article is discussing the subject of cybersecurity threats that undermine the safety of
the data in the computers.
The audience of the author is the users and producers of technology devices,
smartphones, computers, and software. This includes phone manufacturers and the
The occasion that promoted the development of the article is huge cases of people losing
data and having their personal information accessed.
The purpose of the article is to draw attention to the dangers the users of technology face
and rally the government and manufacturers to identify solutions to prevent such issues.
It also to warn the users to be careful.
I am examining the news article "The Top 10 Cybersecurity Stories Of 2019—A Window onto
the 2020 Threats cape is the one been" by Winder. The URL for the paper is
1. The author's primary goal is creating awareness on the cybersecurity threats that all techsavvy, the public, and government ignore and yet they are at risk of facing them. He
wishes to promote the privacy of people's information on the computer, and the internet
from being accessed with people whose intention is to manipulate them for their
advantage or destroy their lives.
2. Ethos- Is the content that appeals to the audience's ethical responsibility. The article uses
ethos, such as the stories of cybersecurity mental health warnings and self-medication.
Also, the author's indication that he found one story hard to write appeals to ethos.
3. Pathos-It is the elements that elicit emotions such as sadness and pity. Winder is an
expert in telling a story in a way that creates an imagery picture of the dangers we are
facing in the world of technology. He talks about devasting stories of cybersecurity
dangers. The entire article is full of illustrations of people that were affected by the cyber
4. Logos- Throughout the article, the author uses statistics as proof for top cybersecurity
threats that we face and must weary off. In each story, he indicates the number of people
at risk of cybersecurity dangers. He also mentions the timeline when indicating his claims
5. Evidence- The author refers to government sites and agencies such as NSA for reference.
6. Techniques- Winder utilizes the threatening, and logical tone, and anecdote language.
Winder, D. The Top 10 Cybersecurity Stories Of 2019—A Window onto the 2020 Threats cape
is the one been. The Forbes, 27 December, 2019. Retrieved from:
5 March 2020
The author of the article is Irene Couzigou and is affiliated with the University of
Aberdeen. The author is a senior lecturer in law in law school. Their academic discipline is in
law since she is a senior lecturer in law and also has published various articles related to law and
other related fields.
The journal was published in an international review of law computers and technology
and was published in 2018. The topics discussed in the issue are the prevention of international
harm to cyberspace, requirements of the obligation to prevent harmful global cyber operations,
knowledge of the cyber operation, and the scope of the obligation to prevent the destructive
operations (Couzigou 39). The discourse community of the article is government agencies, law
students, computers, and technology agencies, among other potential audience who may be
addressed by the article. The article may also target the general population to enlighten the
society on issues to do with technology and the harm that may be caused by the cyberspace.
The author is responding to the academic debate about the increased cases of
cybersecurity matters. There have been increased issues about cyberspace where the security of
different governments has been threatened through data loss. Therefore, the article is based on
the ongoing debate about how countries can secure their cyberspace. The article provides various
requirements that can be utilized and what a government needs to do to ensure that they prevent
such activities. That is evident in the article, where it states that once a state learns of a cyber
operation that is likely to get in through its land and that will impact another state rights by
causing serious consequences, it must prevent the operation (Couzigou 50).
The purpose of the article is to show the responsibility that must be played by a state
whenever a harmful international cyber operation has to be conducted. The article has the
purpose of enlightening on how states have failed to prevent cyber operations from happening
and what they can do to overcome such menace. The author was trying to present ways in which
the governments can be responsible for providing the security of their states through preventing
the cyberspace threats. The authors are offering an argument based on the idea that there is an
increased reliance on technology. The technology as well is being faced by failure in network
and information systems. There are also increased chances of the people who are responsible for
compromising the systems, making them fail.
The author wants the government to engage in scrutinizing the harmful international
operations that may be undertaken by another state, and that may harm their state as well as other
states. The author also wants the country to put the necessary measures to prevent such harmful
operations from taking place to secure the information and data of the state. The author has the
belief that a state has the obligation of protecting other states and itself through securing its
territories. The country can only prevent illegal activities from happening within its boundaries
the use of cyberspace (Couzigou 54). Therefore, the government, as the audience as the
responsibility of protecting its territory from harm.
There are areas of research that can be identified as gaps in the topic of securing
cyberspace. Areas that need further research are the areas that should be given priority for action
in improving cybersecurity. There is also a need to research the risks that are attributed to
preventing international cyberspace operations. It is necessary to understand the fate of
preventing those operations from taking place and how such risks will affect the performance of
the particular state (Couzigou 42). Therefore, such areas require serious consideration and
research conducted to ensure a better understanding of the topic. Research on the gap will
increase the knowledge available about the issue and also bring a call for actions to implement
the findings in such research.
The rhetoric appeals are used by the author to persuade the government to take action to
prevent international harmful cyber operations. The pathos is where the government is convinced
of the harm attributed to such global cyber operations. The logos provide proof about what the
author is trying to put across about the issue of international cyber operations. The author
provides examples of countries that have been affected to show proof of the harm caused by
international cyber operations. An example provided is the Nicaragua case, where ICJ held that
Nicaragua had the responsibility of protecting its territory (Couzigou 42). The territory of
Nicaragua should not have been used as a trafficking way for arms for terror activities.
The research has been organized into four chapters that discuss various issues that are of
interest in the research. The article begins with an introduction, which is essential in every
research. The second heading is the execution of the duty to restrain international harm to
cyberspace. The third heading for the study is the requirements for the execution of the
commitment to prevent harmful international cyber operations. The third heading is subdivided
into subheadings. The subheadings are current or constructive knowledge of the cyber operation,
contradiction with the rights of another state, and prospective severe or present harm. The fourth
heading is on the scope and content of the obligation to prevent harmful international cyber
operations. There are subheadings in the fourth heading, which are; a duty act and a duty of
result and a commitment of conduct. The last heading is the conclusion section of the article. The
articles make use of humanities organizations that provides claims that have supporting ideas
about the topic. There are no illustrations, charts, and graphs in the article.
The author makes use of strong verbs in his article and does not use passive voice.
Failure to make use of the first-person tone makes the article to be persuasive and to attract the
strong attention of the reader since it does not make it as a personal opinion. The author has
narrowed down their argument to avoid generalization in heading two page 8. The article argues
that a state must exercise due diligence in not allowing its territory or cyberinfrastructure to be
utilized for cyber operations that affect the rights of other states (Couzigou 45). Some words
used in the article pose a challenge in understanding but seems to be a specialized language in
the discipline of cyberspace and technology. The possible words are national airspace,
archipelagic waters, sui generis, and a corollary of the rights, among other words.
The parenthetical documentation style is familiar in that the author makes use of the
Harvard format of citations. There are no instances where the parenthetical citations are used to
cite another scholar. Citing another scholar means that the information has been obtained from
Couzigou, Irène. "Securing cyber space: the obligation of States to prevent harmful international
cyber operations." International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 32.1 (2018):
1. Give more of a lead into the conversation. Readers need a bit more context before your jump into you analysis.
2. Journal article
3. So how is this a rhetorical appeal?
Adding to ethos, logos, or pathos? What effect does this have on how the reader will view the author's
4. So, They don't cite any other articles? Only their own research? That is odd. I would check the References section
5. Use headline caps for titles