timer Asked: May 3rd, 2020

Question Description

The variable is Attitudes/Stereotypes

Here you want to describe how you will measure your variables. This is how you are operationally defining the variables you selected at the beginning of the semester. At a minimum, you should select one established/previously published questionnaire to measure each of your variables (feel free to use the measures you selected in the Survey ARA). As discussed, there are multiple ways that one variable can be measured. If you would like to include additional measures of your variable that is okay! Any special equipment or materials you will use to assess behavior, if applicable, would be listed under the Apparatus subheading. For instance, if you plan to hook subjects up to an EEG and videotape conversations, those machines would be described in an apparatus section. That said, most students will only have questionnaires in this section and thus only need a Materials/Measures subheading. For questionnaires, you will want to include the citation for the original authors/developers of the measure, information regarding the total number of items, any pertinent formatting or organizational structure (how were questions presented and answered), perhaps include a sample item or two, and the reliability of the measure. Each variable that is included in the proposal needs to be measured and included in this section.

If you want to develop your own questionnaire in addition to the previously established measures you are including, you will want to describe the new measure in detail including detailed information regarding your literature search, review of other similar surveys, and how you conducted a content analysis to arrive at the final pool of items. You will also want to include information regarding the total number of items, any pertinent formatting or organizational structure, and add a statement that the full version is available in the Appendix. You will need to actually include the survey you developed – simply stating, ‘I developed a questionnaire’ to measure your variable will not suffice. I would recommend using previously established questionnaires/surveys to assess your variables (again, the Survey ARA will help).

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Method Critique Read and answer the following questions based on the article posted in Canvas (Murphy et al. 2005). Murphy, J. G., McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., & Barnett, N. P. (2005). Drink and be merry? Gender, life satisfaction, and alcohol consumption among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 184-191. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.19.2.184 You will need to read the full article to answer some of the questions (it is a short article). 10 points possible • Responses will be graded based on clarity, completeness, and accuracy. Your writing should be formal and grammatically correct. Direct quotes should be avoided. Participants/Procedures 1. Given the goals of the study, is the percentage of females appropriate? Why or why not? (1/2 point) The greater percentage of women is due to enrollment patterns in the courses. The main focus of the study was to detect the risky behaviors of college students and the relationship to regular alcohol use. Participants were 353 college students 78.2% Females (Murphy,McDevitt-Murphy& Barnett,2005). The large percentage of women causes the variables and outcomes to be skewed in relation to the men. Thus the variables for the females typically turned out lower when compared to the men, because of the larger average pool. The life satisfaction variable to be skewedcausing the males to have lower LS variables and higher alcoholic beverages/consumption per week. Since there are less males participating in the study, larger stats or outliers will normally cause the study’s data to be skewed and not as consistent. 2. What is your evaluation of the ethnic composition of the participants? (1/2 point) The ethnic composition of the participants lacked diversity, therefore causing some variables and outcomes to be more distorted. 3. For the purpose if this study, is it important to know if the participants were members of fraternities or sororities? Why or why not/ was it explained/justified in the article? (1/2 point) I think that it is important to know if the participants were members of fraternities/sororities because typically being apart of a group such as a fraternity/sorority can certainly shape a persons outlook. In addtition your association with a group may also shape the way others perspective of you. For example, fraternities/sororities are often negatively associated with consistant alcohol consumption. According to the study both male and female fraternity members reported slightly higher levels of alcohol cosumption/heavy drinking per week compared to other men and women, Although there was not a huge difference, overall sorority members reported greater total alcoholic beveages. 4.How were participants recruited? Is it possible that this type of recruitment strategy biased or limited the generalization of the findings? Explain. (1 point) Participants were recruited from a large public University with the incentive of extra credit in communications and psychology upon completion. I think that it is possibe that this type of recruitment strategy can be biased or limit the generalization of the findings. Firstly, extra credit was offered to students taking pyschology and communication courses which limited participants. Secondly, according to the study the majority of the students enrolled in the course were women due to enrollement patterns. The study acknowleges the possibilty that the lack of male participants could have impated the results. 5. Overall, what is you assessment of the participants in this study? Is this sample appropriate given the goals of the study? (2 points) The study was aimed at researching the negative risky behaviors of students as it relates to alcohol consumption. However, the data collected was askew/biased. The percentage of female participants versus male was uneven which caused some biases. Secondly, the participant pool lacked diversity since students were from only 2 courses. Thus, the sample should be repeated with a bigger, more diverse sample of college students (Murphy,McDevitt-Murphy& Barnett,2005). 6. What was the design of the study (e.g. experimental, quasi-experimental, survey, observational, etc.)? (1/2 point) The study was survey research and correlational research. 7. Given this design, were there any threats to internal validity and how did the authors control for or ignore those threats? (1 point) Given the design, there were some threats to internal validity such as stereotypes and measurements. For instance,surveying the amount of alcohol consumption by ethnicity and gender there lies a threat of discrimination. As a attempt to maintain a level of consistency the study accounted for another varible called Rutgers alcohol problem index (Murphy, et al.,2005). On the other hand when the study ignored the threat of possible life satisfaction variable differences amid the racial opposite participants. For instance, standards of living may be different between races which could also cause variances in alcohol consumption and life satisfaction. Measures 8. Were the measures used appropriate for the goals of the study? Discuss the appropriateness of all three measures using terminology from the textbook. (2 points) I do not think the measures used in the study were appropiate in terms of achieving the goals of the study. The goal of the study was to access the risky behavior of students as it relates to there alcohol consumption. Yet, students were actually measured based on life statisfaction versus there behavior in association to alcohol consumption.The measurement was correct in terms of analyzing the measure of alcohol consumption. It is important to evaluate the average amount of drinks a participant consumed and whether or not they were frequent/heavy drinkers when analyzing outliers. When measuring alcohol related problems the measure was appropiate but not the most effective. For example, the study could have aimed towards the regularity and number of alcoholic beverages drank when comparing to the number of alcohol related problems within that month time frame. Finally, the measurement of life satisfaction was appropiate. However, as it relates to the goal of the study, the life satisfaction could have focused more on the behavior of the participants. The study surveyed the students on a scale and compared the amount of alcohol consumed. The study could have compared participants life satisfaction to alcohol related problems and then alcohol consumption. Conclusion 9. What is your overall conclusion regarding the methods of the authors? Support your answer using information from above and within the article. (2 points) Overall, the focus of the study was to understand the risky behaviors of students in connection to alcohol consumption. The methods used in the study failed to accomplish the goal of the study. The study surveyed the students on a scale and compared the amount of alcohol consumed. Instead the study could have compared participants life satisfaction to alcohol related problems and then alcohol consumption. Even Though, the author measured alcohol related risk the author did not go in depth with the different levels of risk associated with each problem, and rate of recurrence rather than life satisfaction. This association would offer more understanding of the risky behaviors of the participants as it correlates to alchohol consumption. ...
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