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DQ5 Propose if Libya’s revolution was or was not the impetus for the attacks on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi. Provide two (2) specific reasons to support your rationale. Analyze the underlying effect that both the powers of transnational roles on state sovereignty and the Westphalia system had on the civil unrest within Syria. Provide two (2) specific examples to support your rationale. Examine which system - uni-polar, bipolar, or multi-polar - would be the most stable if the U.S. sought to maintain peace and regulate nuclear proliferation through world dominance. Provide two (2) specific examples to support your rationale. Recommend at least two (2) strategies that any country could use in the effort to reduce the risk of war and armed conflict. Provide specific examples to support your rationale. Reading: International Organizations and Transnational Actors This week we will begin by examining the various types of international organizations, focusing on the United Nations and the European Union. This includes transnational actors, including transnational corporations and transnational advocacy networks, concluding with a discussion of whether the increase in these various actors has led to the end of the Westphalian state system. International governmental organizations (IGOs) are generally defined as organizations that have memberships of three or more nation-states. Today, there are thousands of these organizations, including the United Nations, the European Union, and the World Trade Organization. Much like a nation-state, the EU is made up of executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The European Commission acts as the executive branch, while the Council acts as the legislature. The European Parliament is also part of the legislative arm of the organization. The Parliament is the only EU institution whose members are elected directly by the citizens. The European Court of Justice acts as the judicial branch, hearing cases over the meaning of a particular law or handling disputes among EU institutions. In addition to IGOs, there are also transnational actors, which are actors whose activities cut across state boundaries. There are thousands and thousands of transnational actors, including transnational corporations and international nongovernmental organizations. Transnational corporations, or TNCs, are companies whose production and sales operations span more than a single country. In an era of globalization, their numbers are increasing rapidly, as even relatively small firms seek international suppliers and markets. International nongovernmental organizations, or INGOs, include a wide range of nongovernmental, nonbusiness organizations that operate across state boundaries. They are distinguished from IGOs in that their members are individuals, not states. Included in this category are groups such as the International Olympic Committee and the International Committee of the Red Cross. Transnational advocacy networks, or TANs, are an important subset of INGOs. These are groups that work on specific issues, which can range from helping to solve some world problem to spreading a particular belief system, to promoting the study of a particular subject. Examples are Human Rights Watch and Greenpeace. There are many more types of transnational actors and international organizations. As their numbers increase, it has led some scholars to argue that the Westphalian state system is dead. Others argue, however, that states still retain considerable control. They further contend that if transnational activities have increased and if international organizations have gained more authority, then it is because states have found it in their interest to allow this. DQ10 examine the concept of world democracy, and debate whether or not you believe that this concept is achievable. Justify your rationale. Examine one (1) country with which you are familiar (other than the U.S.), and predict the significant manner in which that country will affect international politics in the coming decade. Justify your response. Reading: Power and Purpose in a Changing World What will international politics will look like in the decade ahead? The contemporary era has been defined by change with the collapse of communism, the terrorist attacks of 2001, and new concerns, like terrorism, the environment, and globalization. Power and purpose are evolving too. China is contemplating great power status. Europe is rethinking integration. Right now, there are several sources of change, including terrorism, globalization, the erosion of American power, gaps in wealth, the spread of democracy, and the erosion of the power of the sovereign state. These new challenges require careful judgment about what is fundamentally new and what represents continuity. Terrorism has changed international politics in a few ways. It has blurred the lines between international and domestic security, and it has led to questions about human rights and international law. Globalization has undermined several of the fundamental assumptions of the international system. Today, there is increased economic activity across states and a reduction in barriers to trade, as well as a race to the top as firms and workers compete around the world. The erosion of U.S. power has led to many questions. Some are fearful about the erosion of U.S. power because they wonder if another hegemon might be worse, and they wonder if it will make it more difficult to solve common problems.

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