There are ten questions. Each question is worth 35
points. Try not to use more than 15 sentences for an answer.
1. Define what retributive justice is. Then define what
procedural justice is. Then explain how Plato argues that procedural justice is
better than, and important then, retributive justice.
2. It is important to Plato to make sure that giving each
citizen what he or she is fairly owed is built into the Ideal City’s system of
social justice – why does the Ideal City accomplish this aim?
3. Explain four good reasons, according to Plato, why his
Aristocracy form of government provides more justice than the Democracy form of
4. Explain how Plato’s theory of the Divided Line with
its four parts corresponds to the Allegory of the Cave and its four key
5. Define what ‘dualism’ is. Then explain how Descartes
proves that he knows for certain that he is a thinking mind, better than he
knows that he has a body.
6. How does Descartes attempt to prove that a God must be
7. Explain why Kant believed that his Categorical
Imperative, if used by everyone, would create a “Kingdom of Ends” where all
humanity agrees on human rights.
8. Explain (with lots of details!) whether this maxim is
morally right according to the Categorical Imperative: “I should let my friend
help me cheat on this exam, so I can pass this class.”
9. Describe how John Stuart Mill uses his standard of
Utilitarianism to uphold the idea that there is a “best” culture that advances
human progress the most.
10. Define ‘cultural relativism’ and ‘cultural
imperialism’. Then explain how Cosmopolitanism attempts to create a compromise
between these two extreme positions.