# Math statistics help for 30 questions

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Please make the questions as original as possible I have to turn them in to turning in.com
1. For no plagiarism

1. How does Adam Smith's concept of the invisible hand explain why markets move toward equilibrium? Do market participants need to know about the invisible hand for it to function? Explain your answer

2.  Use the demand curve graph found at the following link to answer the questions that follow.

Demand Curve

• How would point A be represented as an ordered (x,y) pair?

• What does this D1 curve show?

• Does this D1 curve show a positive or negative correlation between price and quantity?

• Compute the slope of D1 between points A and C.

• What is the slope of D1 between points C and E? Why would you not have to calculate this answer?

• What is it called if we move from curve D1 to curve D2?

• How do you know that the slope of D2 is the same as the slope ofD1?

3. Use the demand curve graph found in the following link to answer the questions (same graph as used in previous question):

Demand Curve

• Using the midpoint method, calculate the the elasticity of demand between points A and C, C and E. and B and D.

• As quantity demanded moves from point A to point E does the elasticity of demand become unitary at some point? Why or why not?

4. What is the difference between a positive statement and a normative statement? Determine whether each of the following statements is positive or normative.

• The minimum wage creates unemployment among young and unskilled workers.

• The minimum wage ought to be abolished.

• If the price of a product in a market decreases, other things equal, quantity demanded will increase.

• A little bit of inflation is worse for society than a little bit of unemployment.

• There is a tradeoff between inflation and unemployment in the short run.

• If consumer income increases, other things equal, the demand for automobiles will increase.

• The U.S. income distribution is not equitable.

• U.S. workers deserve more liberal unemployment benefits.

• If interest rates increase, investment will decrease.

• If welfare benefits were reduced, the country would be better off.

5. Gary and Diane must prepare a presentation. As part of their presentation, they must do a series of calculations and prepare 50 PowerPoint slides. It would take Gary 10 hours to do the required calculation and 10 hours to prepare the slides. It would take Diane 12 hours to do the calculations and 20 hours to prepare the slides.

• How much time would it take the two to complete the project if they divide the calculations equally and the slides equally?

• How much time would it take the two to complete the project if they use comparative advantage and specialize in calculating or preparing slides?

• If Diane and Gary have the same opportunity cost of \$5 per hour, is there a better solution than for each to specialize in calculating or preparing slides?

6. Thoroughly describe the characteristics of each of the following market types. Give an example of a firm in each market type and explain how it meets the criteria for that market type.

• Perfect competition

• Monopoly

• Oligopoly

• Monopolistic competition

7. Use the graph found at the link below to answer the questions that follow. Your answer for each question should be a letter.

• The elastic section of the graph is represented by section ___.

• The inelastic section of the graph is represented by section ___.

• The unit elastic section of the graph is represented by section ___.

• The portion of the graph in which a decrease in price would cause total revenue to fall would be ___.

• The portion of the graph in which a decrease in price would cause total revenue to rise would be ___.

• The portion of the graph in which a decrease in price would not cause a change in total revenue would be ___.

• The section of the graph in which total revenue would be at a maximum would be ___.

• The section of the graph in which elasticity is greater than 1 is ___

• The section of the graph in which elasticity is equal to 1 is ___.

• The section of the graph in which elasticity is less than 1 is ___.

8. Use the graph found at the link below to answer the questions that follow.

1. What is the effect of a \$300 price ceiling on this market? Would this be a binding price ceiling?

2. What is the effect of a \$700 price floor on this market? Would this be a binding price floor?

3. Why would policymakers choose to impose a price ceiling or price floor on a market?

9. The government decides that eating ice cream is a socially desirable activity and passes a law giving consumers 50 cents for each ice cream cone they eat. What is likely to happen in the marketplace once this policy is in effect? What are consumers likely to do? How are suppliers likely to respond?

10.  Answer each of the following questions on supply and producer surplus.What is producer surplus, and how is it measured? What is the relationship between the cost to sellers and the supply curve? Other things equal, what happens to producer surplus when the price of a good rises?

11. Explain Arthur Lafferâ€™s theory of tax rates relative to tax revenue. What is the effect of a tax on the deadweight loss? Why is it sometimes difficult to predict what will happen when a tax rate is decreased or increased?

12. Describe both quotas and tariffs. How do they impact domestic prices and deadweight loss? How does an import quota differ from an equivalent tariff? What is best for a nation as a whole: a tariff, a quota, or free trade? Explain your answer

13. Although most economists agree that free trade is beneficial for a country, there are numerous arguments against free trade. Describe five of the arguments against free trade

14. Describe the Coase theorem, which suggests that efficient solutions to externalities can be arrived at through bargaining. Explain how this happens. Under what circumstances does bargaining fail to produce a solution?

15. Why do wild salmon populations face the threat of extinction while pet goldfish populations are in no such danger?

16. List the federal government's three most important sources of tax revenue. How do these differ from your state government's three most important sources of tax revenue and those of local government? Why do you think that these different government entities use different tax bases?

17. Examine the table at the following link, which shows what four consumers willing to pay for a haircut:

Consumer Willingness to Pay Table

The next link includes a table that shows what four businesses charge for a haircut:

Each business can produce no more than one haircut.

• In the most efficient world, which companies should cut hair and which customers should get a haircut? (Note: It might be less than 4.)

• How large is the maximum possible total surplus and what is the least possible surplus?

18.  At its current level of production, a profit-maximizing firm in a competitive market receives \$12.50 for each unit it produces and faces an average total cost of \$10. At the market price of \$12.50 per unit, the firm's marginal cost curve crosses the marginal revenue curve at an output level of 1000 units. What is the firm's current profit? What is likely to occur in this market, and why?

19.  Under what conditions should a firm shut down production in the short run? Under what conditions should a firm shut down in the long run? Explain the difference between the short and long run conditions.

20. Define and explain the relationship between total revenue, average revenue, and marginal revenue for a monopolist. What is monopoly profit? Should a monopolist produce quantities of product greater than that which would maximize profits?

21. Entry of firms in a monopolistically competitive industry is characterized by two "external" effects. What are these effects and how do they affect a monopolistically competitive firm. How are consumers and incumbent firms influenced by these externalities?

22. Does a monopolistic competitor produce more or less output as compared to an efficient level of production? Explain. What are the benefits and drawbacks of this? Should the government intervene to alter this?

23. In order to determine whether his time is being spent optimally, over the past year a commercial fisherman has recorded the information shown in table at the following link; he has recorded the hours he has spent per day fishing and the quantity of fish caught. What is the marginal product of fish per hour spent?

Fisherman's Table

The fisherman has a fixed cost of \$200 per day and variable costs of \$150 per hour (wages and fuel).

Fill in the information missing in the following table.

Table to Complete

The fish sell for for \$100 a ton. How many hours fishing per day he work in order to earn a maximum profit on his day's activity? And how much is that profit? Please show all of your calculations.

24. Describe the process by which the market for capital and the market for labor reach equilibrium. What happens to each if demand for the final product were to increase? Why?

25. Explain the concept of diminishing marginal utility. Since all goods are scarce, does diminishing marginal utility contradict the statement that individuals always want more of all goods?

26. Describe each of the four properties of indifference curves.

27. Describe and explain the budget constraint. How does a consumer maximize utility under a given budget constraint? How do consumers know if they are not maximizing utility?

28.  Explain what is meant by "asymmetric information." Identify and explain the two basic types of problems that arise when there is asymmetric information.

29. Explain the Condorcet Paradox, the failure of majority rule to produce transitive preferences for society. Explain Arrowâ€™s impossibility theorem. What does this say about society's choices?

30. When prices change, the income effect and substitution effect both contribute to the impact on quantities consumed. Explain how both affect a consumer's utility maximization.

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