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Why We Study Statistics In Architecture School?
What do Architects do with Statistics?
Creating iconic buildings that stand the test of time will require that we, as future
architects, learn to integrate a broad range of knowledge on building use, materials,
construction methods and client industry trends. Due to technology advances what can be
accomplished and our ability to examine building performance is increasing. Because of
this, our ability to use and evaluate statistics will be a central component of our ability
become the recognized and respected architects we dream of being.
Architects use statistics during the pre-design
(Yaglewad, 2020), design and post-occupancy
phase of design (Davis, 2015). Data is collected
and evaluated statistically in the pre-design
phase to determine building space needs
(Vangelatos, 2018). This type of data is often
presented and evaluated using descriptive
statistics, (Figure 2). While it is relatively
straight forward to collect data on current space
needs, due to the significant cost of constructing
buildings, we are also responsible for collecting
the relevant data to analyze and predict space
needs over the useful life of our projects.
Figure 1: Histogram Presentation Data from a User
Satisfaction Survey Question on Auditory Privacy
Source: Chilton and Baldry, 1997, p. 192
During the design phase we are responsible for making decisions of appropriate materials
Figure 2: Modeling of the energy use of building mass options
Source: Turner, n.d.
systems in order for projects to meet current regulations for things such as energy and
water use (Yaglewad, 2020). Additionally, we are
Figure 3: Scatterplat demonstrating the relationship of
often required to go beyond this to meet standards
outdoor air temperature to energy consumption for heating.
Source: Foster, Tramba, and MacDonald
like the LEEDS Sustainable Buildings Certification and
Zero Net Energy (Carbonnier, 2020.). Our ability to
understand and evaluate statistical presentation of
test data is critical to our success in this phase. Figure
2 represents test data from research on residential
energy use for heating based on outdoor air
temperature. The linear regression analysis, indicates
there is a correlation between the two. These types of analysis can be used in the design
phase to improve the performance of buildings under design while making the best
possible investments in building elements.
During the post-construction phase our projects are being evaluated in ways that were
until recently not feasible. Certifications such as LEED
s are moving to using data to determine if our projects succeed in meeting the standards,
we design them for (Davis, 2015, para. 10). In addition, clients are moving toward
performance-based contracts, that hold back part of our design fees until the spaces we
create have been measured and evaluated to meet the standards they are designed for
(Davis, 2015, para. 11).
Why is Statistics An Important Element of Our Education?
In this section you will use the data provided, from the National Association of Colleges and
Employers to discuss why you believe that probability and statistics are import to your
career goals and
Carbonnier, E. (2020, April 5) Zero net energy design strategies: Creating a new normal.
Retrieved from https://hmcarchitects.com/news/zero-net-energy-designstrategies-creating-a-new-normal-2020-04-03/
Chilton, J. J. & Baldry, D. (1997). The effects of integrated workplace strategies on
commercial office space. Facilities, 15(7/8), 187-194. doi:
Davis, D. (2015, April 23). How big data is transforming architecture.: The phenomenon
presents hug opportunities for the built environment and the firms that design it.
Architect. Retrieved from https://www.architectmagazine.com/technology/howbig-data-is-transforming-architecture_o
Foster, S. C., Tramba, A. V., & MacDonald, L. J. (2007). ecoMOD: Analyzing energy efficiency
in affordable housing. Paper presented at the 2007 IEEE Systems and Information
Engineering Design Symposium.
Turner, B. (n.d.) Reconciling design energy models with real world results. Retrieved from
Vangelatos, G. (2018, October 12). How architects help increase patient satisfaction in
healthcare through building design.
Yaglewad, S. (2020, May 19). How is statistics used in architecture? What After College.
Retrieved from https://whataftercollege.com/data-science/statistics-used-inarchitecture/#:~:text=How%20is%20Statistics%20used%20in%20Architecture%3
Architects use statistics to evaluate data on user building needs and predict future space
needs, building use patterns, building component performance and user satisfaction with
completed projects. While some data comes from interviews and surveys, technology
advances have made it possible to monitor building use patterns and building component
performance in ways that have been difficult to accomplish in the past (. ). Having
knowledge fo the possible applications of statistics and an ability to use them to improve
our projects is critical to our future as clients are starting to use performance-based
contracts, where part of the design fee is withheld until it is proven that the building
designed achieves agreed on performance standards (Davis, 2015, para. 11). Davis (2015)
goes on to predict that this type having data demonstrating your buildings perform will
become important for getting future design projects.
Data for all of these elements, except building use patterns and building component
performance are collected using surveys, for which descriptive statistics become a useful
tool for presenting outcomes. Building use patterns until recently were collected through
recording observations; however, recent advances in monitoring technologies have made it
possible to monitor building use more continuously and at a lower cost.
“In architecture, data about energy usage, plumbing, employee efficiency, user experience is
important” Yaglewad para. 1
“data enables building owners to measure and improve their facilities’ performance
quantitatively. Many are already doing this –albeit in a limited sense –with tier HVAC systems.
But what we are seeing from innovative building owners is the use of data to conduct holistic
assessment of their performance” Davis, 2015, para. 10.
for evaluating the satisfaction and use patterns of buildings (Yaglewad, DATE, para. 1), and
are expanding into routinely evaluate the performance of buildings using data
collected within existing building systems. In the recent past the need to take
expensive measurement devices into buildings to measure many the performance of
buildings and building systems meant that these evaluations expensive and thus
were often not used. However, the recent increase use of embedded data collection
within building systems have made data collection routine, and the building
performance evaluation is now becoming a part of some building certification
systems, such as LEEDS and is also being used to determine design firm
compensation in contracts.
Assignment ** if some links for the references don’t work. They will be fixed upon working on this
Audience and Purpose Audience Ch. Markel & Selber.pdf
pages 86 - 96, 106 -110, and
112 - 113) by Markel & Selber, from Technical Communication 12th ed. This reading is
assigned for you to get a foundation on writing for a specific audience with a specific
purpose, it will provide input on how to think about this to focus your writing appropriately.
How to make a visually awesome handout. (Links to an external site.) by Chris
Clark. Part of connecting with an audience is creating something they will want to look
at. This resource does two things, 1) it provides brief recommendations for how to make a
document appealing and, 2) it links to a brief YouTube video on how to complete an
attractive handout Three-Minute Handout Makeover. (Links to an external site.)
Everyday Statistics, with Eddie Davila: Storytelling with Data (Links to an external
site.)(2:41) This short video is helpful for thinking about how you will present the data you
are given to work with for this handout. It can be accessed through the same dropdown
menu as Canvas and the library on my.usf by clicking on LinkedIn Learning and searching
on the title.
For this assignment, you will be creating a two-page handout that can be given to freshmen in your
field to persuade them that developing skills to interpret and use probability and statistics will be an
important part of their professional future. The document will have two elements, first, what are
probability and statistics used for in your field, and second, a review of provided data to use as
evidence that this knowledge is more important than they think for getting started in their profession.
This document will use a minimum of 6 sources, some of which may be taken from the Electrical
and computer Engineering references below, however, at least two much be credible
sources you find on your own. As part of this assignment, you will be expected to present this in a
way that is visually appealing to fellow college students, tells a story, is appropriately formal for a
college document, and is grammatically correct.
Electrical Engineering references
An Application of Physics-Based Statistics in Electrical Engineering
by W. Perry Wheles Jr. & T.
Why Software and Electrical Engineers Can Benefit from Studying Applied Statistics (Links to an
external site.) this webpage on the MIchigan Tech website describes applied statistics within the
fields of software design and electrical engineering.
Computer Engineering References
The Role of Statistics In Computer Science (Links to an external site.). This Michigan Tech
webpage discusses what computer scientists do with statistics and applications of statistics in
The Role of Statistical Methods in Computer Science and Bioinformatics.
by Irina Arhipova. While
this paper is about education it does a nice job of explaining the interconnection computer science
statistics and bioinformatics. (Links to an external site.)
How Much Of Machine Learning Is Computer Science Vs. Statistics? (Links to an external
site.) by Michael Hochster (Links to an external site.), PhD in Statistics from Stanford; Director of
Research at Pandora from Forbes online. This brief answer to a question does a nice job of
explaining the different approach computer scientists and statisticians have toward statistics.
The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry by Gerald J. Hahn, and Necip Doganaksoy. In this
ebook available through the USF library Chapter 13.5 addresses security and statistics and 13.6 and
13.7 address issues involving computers and information science. Remember to access this type
of material you MUST enter the USF library through my.usf.edu and you may need to use the
USF VPN if you are off campus.
The Roles of Statistics and Planning Tools in IT Project Management by Hanan Potash
10 Statistical Concepts You Should Know for Data Science Interviews (Links to an external site.) by
Terence Shin on Medium, Towards Data Science. DO NOT use this as a required source BUT I
recommend that you look at this brief article written by a young professional. It really indicates how
important probability and statistics are in your field and helps you prepare to get a job.
The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry by Gerald J. Hahn, and Necip Doganaksoy. This
ebook available through the USF library in Chapter 13.3 addresses statistics in the semiconductor
industry, and in 13.4 addresses the communication industry. Remember to access this type of
material you MUST enter the USF library through my.usf.edu and you may need to use the
USF VPN if you are off campus.
Deliverable: A two-page handout (it may be 8.5" x 11" or 8.5" x 14") for freshmen in your field to
present the role of probability and statistics in your field and its importance in them being careerready.
Completing the Assignment
Complete Research. Complete research on the use of probability and statistics in your field. I have
provided some resources to get you started in the probability and statistics in your field page,
you may use as many of these sources as you wish but must find two additional sources of your
own. ********* My field for this assignment is Electrical and computer Engineering. above is some of
the references listed on the reference page.
Connecting to the USF Library from off-campus. (Links to an external site.) Connecting to the
library from off-campus requires a few specific steps that allow the library to see you as a student
and allow you full access to USF library resources. If you do not complete these steps you may not
be able to access the material you should have access to. Please review the hyperlinked library
Review Input Information. You will have input information for two elements of the hand out you are
The Use of Statistics in Your Field. Be sure that you have enough information to complete this
section. Each field will vary in the use of statistics but some of the things that can be addressed
include phases of the work were statistics are used, the purpose of using statistics in your field, what
type of input into the work of your field statistics provides, and ways the applications of statistical
methods of findings are changing because of technology developments. Where it is possible
includes references to probability and statistics terms from your textbook's first two chapters in
italics. Consider if any of the graphics from your source documents will help your explanation.
Evidence of the Value of Probability and Statistics in Starting your Career. Review the data
provided in the two articles linked below and determine first, what the data suggests, and second,
how this can be used as part of persuading freshman in your field that probability and statistics will
be important as they start their career. Determine what aspects of the data support the "story you
are telling" in your handout and how to best present it so the freshman look at it and understand how
the data supports what you are saying.
The Four Career Competencies Employers Value Most (Links to an external site.)by NACE Staff
Are College Graduates "Career Ready"? (Links to an external site.) by NACE Staff
Use this article - Career Readiness Defined (Links to an external site.)- to be clear on what the
data represents and which competency/competencies this class addresses
Compose Content. You will complete a two-page document to introduce incoming freshmen in your
field to the importance of probability and statistics to your field. For this, you will complete research
which may start with sources identified on the page the importance of probability and statistics to
your field, a page that contains sources for each department in the College of Engineering. You
must identify a minimum of additional two sources not already on the list. Your content will include 5
APA cited sources at a minimum. When creating engaging material having relevant graphics makes
your document easier to look at, include at least two relevant images. Your images must be labeled
APA in-text citation formatting (Links to an external site.)
APA reference list formatting (Links to an external site.)This section provides a description of
each element of a reference list item after which are examples of different types of sources
reference list formats.
Create a Document. After working out the content you will create a handout that will fit on two sides
of one 8.5" x 11" page. This document must be appealing to fellow undergraduates, something they
would like to pick up and read, which is best done through the introduction of color (limited) and
relevant visuals (visuals should not be more than 30% of your document). It must also be easy to
digest, which is best done through a strong organization with clearly identified sections and section
Proofreading, revising, and editing. Professional documents must be readable, clear, well
organized, and concise. They must also be free of errors. Two approaches will help you with this.
First, read your work out loud to yourself after having stepped away from it for some time. This will
help you catch wording errors or omissions and poorly constructed sentences. Second, use
advanced grammar software to check for grammar, punctuation, or other writing errors. I
recommend the base paid platform of Grammarly, however, there are others available as well.
Plagiarism and inappropriate paraphrasing are not permitted on any work completed at
USF and will have professional consequences after you leave USF. In this course, the first instance
of either of these will result in a zero on the assignment AND completion of a required assignment
on the definition, consequences, and avoidance of plagiarism and inappropriate paraphrasing. Any
discovered second instance of plagiarism or inappropriate paraphrasing (even if caught at the same
time as the first) will result in failure of the course. If you are unclear on what either of these is review
the content on the plagiarism page.
Assignment Submittal and Grading
Assignment Submittal. This assignment is uploaded to Canvas as a pdf. Why a pdf? While not
perfect, pdf is the best format for transferring material that is formatted to others in a way that retains
your formatting. (Additionally, some other formats may not be readable at all by your grader and
would result in a zero on the assignment.) Check your work once it is uploaded to make sure 1)
it was uploaded to Canvas; 2) you uploaded the correct material.
Assignment Grading. There are three areas of concern on the grading
1. You have completed sufficient research to present the required material.
2. You have written the document in a way that is appealing and understandable to your
assigned audience, professional in tone, concise, and correct.
3. Your document is well organized and visually appealing.
Several other elements of your work if poorly done will result in points loss. (No points are awarded
for these elements as you are expected to be able to accomplish these)
Your document is incomplete
Your document demonstrated that the proofreading, revision, and editing step was not
Excessive use of quotes.