Read instructions below-nursing role W4

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timer Asked: Jan 22nd, 2021

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Select one question below (only 1 question)

Follow the 3 x 3 rule: minimum three paragraphs, with a minimum of three sentences each paragraph (125 words per paragraph minimum)

Format: APA format according to Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (6th ed.) 2009 ISBN: 978-1-4338-0561-5

Minimum of two references, not older than 2015.

I am a nursing student in Florida in case you need to know.

Thank you

Chapter 4: Competencies for Professional Nursing Practice. Attached book and PowerPoint.

1. You are assigned to care for Ms. C., an 81-year-old patient who was admitted today with symptoms of increasing shortness of breath over the last week. She is currently receiving oxygen through a nasal cannula at 3 L/min. You go into the room to assess her. You find that she is sitting up in bed at a 60-degree angle. She is restless and her respirations appear labored and rapid. Her skin is pale with circumoral cyanosis. You ask if she feels more short of breath. Because she is unable to catch her breath enough to speak, she nods her head yes. Which action should you take first? Why?

  • Listen to her breath sounds.
  • Ask when the shortness of breath started.
  • Increase her oxygen flow rate to 6 L/min.
  • Raise the head of the bed from 75 to 85 degrees
  • 2. What do all of the following scenarios have in common?

  • An elderly male becomes acutely confused and refuses to follow directions for his safety.
  • A teen comes into an urgent care setting requesting information about sexually transmitted infections.
  • A mother visits a school nurse and requests information about how the school handles sex education.
  • A team leader needs to rearrange assignments when one team member goes home sick.
  • Nursing staff in an intensive care unit need to develop an evacuation plan.
  • 3. You will be taking care of a patient in a nursing home for the first time. Your assignment is to care for an older man who has heart disease. In addition, he has five other medical problems and takes 20 medications. While developing a plan of care for this patient, you can identify 8 to 10 nursing problems. You have no previous experience with nursing homes, and most of what you have heard and read about them is negative. Will you find yourself dreading the clinical day and expecting a negative experience before you even begin?

    4. Think about a clinical experience that was troubling to you. Reflect on what bothered you about the experience. What could you have done differently? What were the reasons behind your actions? Try to create and clarify meaning or a new understanding of the particular situation.

    5. Beginning nursing students often tend to focus primarily on their routines, including to get their list of tasks done, including assessments, ordered treatments, daily care, and charting. What if an unexpected situation occurred during the day? Do you think you would be able to reason, plan, and take appropriate action—think critically?

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    Chapter 4 Competencies for Professional Nursing Practice Overview Competencies • American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Essentials • Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) • Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER) Initiative • Nurse of the Future (NOF): Nursing Core Competencies Figure 4-1 The Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies graphic. Reproduced from Massachusetts Department of Higher Education. (2016). Nurse of the future: Nursing core competencies: Registered nurse. Retrieved from http://www.mass.edu/nahi/documents/NOFRNCompetencies_updated_March2016.pdf Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competency Graphic • Illustrates, through use of broken lines, the reciprocal and continuous relationship between each competency and nursing knowledge, that the competencies may overlap and are not mutually exclusive, and that all competencies are of equal importance. • Nursing knowledge is placed as the core in the graphic to illustrate that nursing knowledge reflects the overarching art and science of professional nursing practice. NOF Core Competency Model (1 of 3) • Essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills (KAS), reflecting cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning domains, are specified for each competency. • The KAS identified in the model reflect the expectations for initial nursing practice following the completion of a prelicensure professional nursing education program. NOF Core Competency Model (2 of 3) • Human beings/patients: Recipients of nursing care or services; may be individuals, families, groups, communities, or populations • Environment: The atmosphere, milieu, or conditions in which one lives, works, or plays • Health: Experience, often expressed in terms of wellness and illness, that may occur in the presence or absence of disease or injury NOF Core Competency Model (3 of 3) • Nursing: The protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response; and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations The NOF Core Competencies • Patient-centered care • Communication • Professionalism • Teamwork and collaboration • Leadership • Safety • Systems-based practice • Quality improvement • Informatics and technology • Evidence-based practice Why Is Critical Thinking Important in Nursing Practice? • Essential to providing safe, competent, and skillful nursing care. • The inability of a nurse to set priorities and work safely, effectively, and efficiently may delay patient treatment in a critical situation and result in serious lifethreatening consequences. Thinking Like a Nurse • Clinical judgment • Clinical reasoning • Mindfulness Clinical Judgment (1 of 2) • Clinical judgments are more influenced by what nurses bring to the situation than the objective data about the situation at hand. • Sound clinical judgment rests to some degree on knowing the patient and his or her typical pattern of responses, as well as engagement with the patient and his or her concerns. Clinical Judgment (2 of 2) • Clinical judgments are influenced by the context in which the situation occurs and the culture of the nursing unit. • Nurses use a variety of reasoning patterns alone or in combination. • Reflection on practice is often triggered by a breakdown in clinical judgment and is critical for the development of clinical knowledge and improvement in clinical reasoning. Critical Thinking and Clinical Judgment in Nursing • Purposeful, informed, outcome-focused thinking • Carefully identifies key problems, issues, and risks • Based on principles of the nursing process, problem solving, and the scientific method • Applies logic, intuition, and creativity • Driven by patient, family, and community needs • Calls for strategies that make the most of human potential • Requires constant reevaluating Characteristics of Critical Thinking • • • • • • Rational and reasonable Involves conceptualization Requires reflection Includes cognitive skills and attitudes Involves creative thinking Requires knowledge Characteristics of a Critical Thinker (1 of 2) • • • • Flexible Bases judgments on facts and reasoning Doesn’t oversimplify Examines available evidence before drawing conclusions • Thinks for themselves • Remains open to the need for adjustment and adaptation throughout the inquiry Characteristics of a Critical Thinker (2 of 2) • Accepts change • Empathizes • Welcomes different views and values examining issues from every angle • Knows that it is important to explore and understand positions with which they disagree • Discovers and applies meaning to what they see, hear, and read Approaches to Developing Critical Thinking Skills • • • • Nursing process Concept mapping Journaling Group discussions Nursing Process • • • • • • Assessment Diagnosis Outcome identification Planning Implementation Evaluation Concept Mapping • Visual representation of the relationships among concepts and ideas • Useful for summarizing information, consolidating information from different sources, thinking through complex problems, and presenting information in a format that shows an overall structure of the subject Journaling • Allows you to view your own thinking, reasoning, and actions. • Helps create and clarify meaning and new understandings of experiences. • When you encounter a similar situation, you should be able to recall what you did or would do differently and your reasoning. Journaling Suggestions • What happened? • What was the • What are the facts? setting? • What feelings and • What were the senses surrounded important elements the event? of the event? • What did I do? • What preceded the • How and what did I event, and what feel about what I did? followed it? • What should I be aware of if the event recurs? Group Discussions • Cooperative learning occurs when groups work together to maximize learning. • Explore alternatives. – Different scenarios of “What if?”, “What else?”, and “What then?” • Arrive at conclusions. – Connect clinical events or decisions with information obtained in the classroom. The Pedagogy Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice, Fifth Edition drives comprehension through various strategies that meet the learning needs of students while also generating enthusiasm about the topic. This interactive approach addresses different learning styles, making this the ideal text to ensure mastery of key concepts. The pedagogical aids that appear in most chapters include the following: World Headquarters Jones & Bartlett Learning 5 Wall Street Burlington, MA 01803 978-443-5000 info@jblearning.com www.jblearning.com Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most bookstores and online booksellers. To contact Jones & Bartlett Learning directly, call 800-832-0034, fax 978-443-8000, or visit our website, www.jblearning.com. Substantial discounts on bulk quantities of Jones & Bartlett Learning publications are available to corporations, professional associations, and other qualified organizations. For details and specific discount information, contact the special sales department at Jones & Bartlett Learning via the above contact information or send an email to specialsales@jblearning.com. Copyright © 2020 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC, an Ascend Learning Company All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. The content, statements, views, and opinions herein are the sole expression of the respective authors and not that of Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement or recommendation by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC and such reference shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. All trademarks displayed are the trademarks of the parties noted herein. Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice, Fifth Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product. There may be images in this book that feature models; these models do not necessarily endorse, represent, or participate in the activities represented in the images. Any screenshots in this product are for educational and instructive purposes only. Any individuals and scenarios featured in the case studies throughout this product may be real or fictitious but are used for instructional purposes only. The authors, editor, and publisher have made every effort to provide accurate information. However, they are not responsible for errors, omissions, or for any outcomes related to the use of the contents of this book and take no responsibility for the use of the products and procedures described. Treatments and side effects described in this book may not be applicable to all people; likewise, some people may require a dose or experience a side effect that is not described herein. Drugs and medical devices are discussed that may have limited availability controlled by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use only in a research study or clinical trial. Research, clinical practice, and government regulations often change the accepted standard in this field. When consideration is being given to use of any drug in the clinical setting, the healthcare provider or reader is responsible for determining FDA status of the drug; reading the package insert; reviewing prescribing information for the most up-to-date recommendations on dose, precautions, and contraindications; and determining the appropriate usage for the product. This is especially important in the case of drugs that are new or seldom used. 16306-3 Production Credits VP, Executive Publisher: Amanda Martin Product Manager: Tina Chen Product Assistant: Anna-Maria Forger Product Specialist: Alex Schab Senior Marketing Manager: Jennifer Scherzay Product Fulfillment Manager: Wendy Kilborn Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Cover Design: Kristin E. Parker Rights & Media Specialist: John Rusk Media Development Editor: Troy Liston Cover Image: © James Kang/EyeEm/Getty Images Printing and Binding: LSC Communications Cover Printing: LSC Communications Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Masters, Kathleen, editor. Title: Role development in professional nursing practice / [edited by] Kathleen Masters. Description: Fifth edition. | Burlington, Massachusetts : Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018023086 | eISBN 9781284152920 Subjects: | MESH: Nursing--trends | Nursing--standards | Professional Practice | Nurse’s Role | Philosophy, Nursing Classification: LCC RT82 | NLM WY 16.1 | DDC 610.73--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018023086 6048 Printed in the United States of America 22 21 20 19 18 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Dedication This book is dedicated to my Heavenly Father and to my loving family: my husband, Eddie, and my two daughters, Rebecca and Rachel. Words cannot express my appreciation for their ongoing encouragement and support throughout my career. © James Kang/EyeEm/Getty Images CONTENTS Preface Contributors UNIT I: FOUNDATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE 1 A History of Health Care and Nursing Karen Saucier Lundy and Kathleen Masters Classical Era Middle Ages The Renaissance The Dark Period of Nursing The Industrial Revolution And Then There Was Nightingale . . . Continued Development of Professional Nursing in the United Kingdom The Development of Professional Nursing in Canada The Development of Professional Nursing in Australia Early Nursing Education and Organization in the United States The Evolution of Nursing in the United States: The First Century of Professional Nursing The New Century International Council of Nurses Conclusion References 2 Frameworks for Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Overview of Selected Nursing Theories Overview of Selected Nonnursing Theories Relationship of Theory to Professional Nursing Practice Conclusion References 3 Philosophy of Nursing Mary W. Stewart Philosophy Early Philosophy Paradigms Beliefs Values Developing a Personal Philosophy of Nursing Conclusion References 4 Competencies for Professional Nursing Practice Jill Rushing and Kathleen Masters Overview Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies Critical Thinking, Clinical Judgment, and Clinical Reasoning in Nursing Practice Conclusion References 5 Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role Kathleen Masters and Melanie Gilmore Professional Nursing Roles and Values The Socialization (or Formation) Process Facilitating the Transition to Professional Practice Conclusion References 6 Advancing and Managing Your Professional Nursing Career Mary Louise Coyne and Cynthia Chatham Nursing: A Job or a Career? Trends That Affect Nursing Career Decisions Showcasing Your Professional Self Mentoring Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Engagement Expectations for Your Performance Taking Care of Self Conclusion References 7 Social Context and the Future of Professional Nursing Mary W. Stewart, Katherine E. Nugent, and Kathleen Masters Nursing’s Social Contract with Society Public Image of Nursing The Gender Gap Changing Demographics and Cultural Competence Access to Health Care Societal Trends Trends in Nursing Conclusion References UNIT II PROFESSIONAL NURSING PRACTICE AND THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT CARE 8 Safety and Quality Improvement in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Patient Safety Quality Improvement in Health Care Quality Improvement Measurement and Process The Role of the Nurse in Quality Improvement Conclusion References 9 Evidence-Based Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Evidence-Based Practice: What Is It? Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice Promoting Evidence-Based Practice Searching for Evidence Evaluating the Evidence Implementation Models for Evidence-Based Practice Conclusion References 10 Patient Education and Patient-Centered Care in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Dimensions of Patient-Centered Care Communication as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care Patient Education as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care Conclusion References 11 Informatics in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters and Cathy K. Hughes Informatics: What Is It? The Effect of Legislation on Health Informatics Nursing Informatics Competencies Basic Computer Competencies Information Literacy Information Management Current and Future Trends Conclusion References 12 Leadership and Systems-Based Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters and Sharon Vincent Healthcare Delivery System Nursing Leadership in a Complex Healthcare System Nursing Models of Patient Care Roles of the Professional Nurse Conclusion References 13 Teamwork, Collaboration, and Communication in Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Masters Interprofessional Teams and Healthcare Quality and Safety Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Domains Interprofessional Team Performance and Communication Conclusion References 14 Ethics in Professional Nursing Practice Janie B. Butts and Karen L. Rich Ethics Ethical Theories and Approaches Professional Ethics and Codes Ethical Analysis and Decision Making in Nursing Relationships in Professional Practice Moral Rights and Autonomy Social Justice Death and End-of-Life Care Conclusion References 15 Law and Professional Nursing Practice Kathleen Driscoll and Kathleen Masters The Sources of Law Classification and Enforcement of the Law Nursing Scope and Standards Malpractice and Negligence Nursing Licensure Professional Accountability Conclusion References Appendix A Appendix B Glossary Index Provisions of Code of Ethics for Nurses The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses © James Kang/EyeEm/Getty Images PREFACE Although the process of professional development is a lifelong journey, it is a journey that begins in earnest during the time of initial academic preparation. The goal of this book is to provide nursing students with a road map to help guide them along their journey as professional nurses. This book is organized into two units. The chapters in the first unit focus on the foundational concepts that are essential to the development of the individual professional nurse. The chapters in Unit II address issues related to professional nursing practice and the management of patient care, specifically in the context of quality and safety. In the Fifth Edition, the chapter content is conceptualized, when applicable, around nursing competencies, professional standards, and recommendations from national groups, such as Institute of Medicine reports. All chapters have been updated, several chapters have been expanded, and two new chapters have been added in this edition. The chapters included in Unit I provide the student nurse with a basic foundation in such areas as nursing history, theory, philosophy, socialization into the nursing role, professional development, the social context of nursing, and professional nursing competencies. The social context of nursing chapter has been expanded to incorporate not only societal trends but also trends in nursing practice and education that are changing the future landscape of the profession. The chapters in Unit II are more directly related to patient care management and, as stated previously, are presented in the context of quality and safety. Chapter topics include the role of the nurse in patient safety and quality improvement, evidence-based nursing practice, the role of the nurse in patient education and patient-centered care, informatics in nursing practice, the role of the nurse related to teamwork and collaboration, systems-based practice and leadership, ethics in nursing practice, and the law as it relates to patient care and nursing. Unit II chapters have undergone revision, with a refocus of the content on recommended nursing and healthcare competencies as well as recommendations from faculty using the text in the classroom. The Fifth Edition incorporates the revised Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies: Registered Nurse throughout each chapter. The 10 essential competencies that are intended to guide nursing curricula and practice emanate from the central core of the model that represents nursing knowledge (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2016) and are based on the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice, National League for Nursing Council of Associate Degree Nursing competencies, Institute of Medicine recommendations, Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies, and American Nurses Association standards, as well as other professional organization standards and recommendations. The 10 competencies included in the model are patient-centered care, professionalism, informatics and technology, evidence-based practice, leadership, systems-based practice, safety, communication, teamwork and collaboration, and quality improvement. Essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) reflecting cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning domains are specified for each competency ...
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