The 17th Century

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timer Asked: Jan 26th, 2021

Question Description

Use the Century Report Template under Files. Fill out the report using The Making of the West. If you use outside sources, you must properly cite them. Use the Century Report Template under Files in Canvas. Research and answer the questions on the template. Each civ report can count up to 50 points. You may use outside sources, but make sure you provide in-text citations and a Works Cited. Make sure each entry is a paragraph of three or more complete sentences: be thorough.

MLA format, Times New Roman, 12 points, double-spaced.

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2 3 About the Cover Image The Fair, 1906 (tempera on board), Boris Mihajlovic Kustodiev The Russian painter Kustodiev was torn between two worlds: the traditional, as shown in this painting, and the modern. The peasantry, the people depicted here, continued to work the land in many countries in Europe right into the second half of the twentieth century. Kustodiev also painted modern scenes such as the Bolshevik Revolution. 4 SIXTH EDITION The Making of the West Peoples and Cultures 5 SIXTH EDITION The Making of the West Peoples and Cultures Lynn Hunt University of California, Los Angeles Thomas R. Martin College of the Holy Cross Barbara H. Rosenwein Loyola University Chicago Bonnie G. Smith Rutgers University 6 For Bedford/St. Martin’s Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Learning Humanities: Edwin Hill Senior Program Director for History: Michael Rosenberg Senior Program Manager for History: William J. Lombardo History Marketing Manager: Melissa Rodriguez Director of Content Development, Humanities: Jane Knetzger Senior Developmental Editor: Leah R. Strauss Senior Content Project Manager: Kendra LeFleur Senior Workflow Project Supervisor: Jennifer Wetzel Production Coordinator: Brianna Lester Editorial Assistant: Belinda Huang Media Project Manager: Michelle Camisa Project Management: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Editorial Services: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Cartographer: Mapping Specialists, Ltd. Photo Editor: Jennifer MacMillan Photo Researcher: Bruce Carson Permissions Editor: Kalina Ingham Design Director, Content Management: Diana Blume Text Design: Lisa Buckley Cover Design: William Boardman Cover Art: The Fair, 1906 (oil on canvas), Kustodiev, Boris Mihajlovic (1878– 1927)/Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia/Bridgeman Images Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Bedford/St. Martin’s All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 23 22 21 20 19 18 7 For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 ISBN: 978-1-319-22215-4 (mobi) Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages A-1–A-2, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover. 8 Preface: Why This Book This Way We are delighted to present the sixth edition of The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. With this edition, The Making of the West combines the best of the print and digital platforms while staying true to the fundamental approach that has made this book a popular choice for both instructors and students. New for this edition, the primary source features that have made this book so useful are now available in both the print and digital editions. We continue to link the history of the West to wider developments in the world. We continue to offer a synthetic approach to history — from military to gender — that integrates different approaches rather than privileging one or two. And we continue to believe that students benefit from a solid chronological framework when they are trying to understand events of the past. This new edition is priced affordably, to save students money and keep the overall course budget manageable. Bedford’s learning platform, known as LaunchPad, is loaded with the full-color ebook plus LearningCurve, an adaptive learning tool; the popular Sources of The Making of the West documents collection; additional primary sources; a wealth of assessment tools; chapter summative quizzes; and more. Helping Instructors Teach with Digital Resources We are pleased to offer The Making of the West in LaunchPad, Macmillan’s premier learning platform that offers an intuitive, interactive e-book and course space. Free when packaged with a bound text or available at a low price when used alone, LaunchPad is ready to use as is, or it can be edited and customized with your own material and assigned right away. Developed with extensive feedback from history instructors and students, LaunchPad for The Making of the West includes the complete narrative of the print book, the companion reader Sources of The Making of the West by Katharine Lualdi, and LearningCurve adaptive quizzing that is designed to get students to read before they come to class. With new source-based questions in the test bank and in LearningCurve and the ability to sort test bank questions by chapter learning objectives, instructors now have more ways to test students on their understanding of sources and narrative in the book. 9 With LearningCurve, students move through questions based on the narrative text at their own pace and accumulate points as they go in a gamelike fashion. Feedback for incorrect responses explains why the answer is incorrect and directs students back to the text to review. The end result is a better understanding of the key elements of the text. Quizzes in LaunchPad that have been designed for the features such as “Contrasting Views” (which compares two primary sources) and the “Mapping the West” maps will enable instructors to check their students’ comprehension of assigned exercises. NEW! Skill-Building Features in Both Print and Digital Whether you find the print book, the LaunchPad digital platform, or some combination of the two most suitable for your course, your students will have access to features that are crucial to student learning. The following three features appear in each chapter of the book, whether print or digital, and provide a solid introduction to historical argument and critical thinking. In LaunchPad, there is an autograded multiple-choice quiz for the primary source features. Primary Source Analysis gives students a more direct experience of the past through original voices. Whether it is an excerpt from an anonymous Sophist’s handbook of the late fifth century B.C.E. (Chapter 3), twelfthcentury letters between two anonymous lovers (Chapter 11), Marie de Sévigné’s description of the French court (Chapter 16), a popular Turkish poem expressing nationalism (Chapter 24), or an account of an Austrian family left penniless by the Depression (Chapter 26), primary documents offer windows into the thoughts and actions of the past. Each document is introduced by a headnote and followed by Questions to Consider. Contrasting Views compares two or more conflicting primary sources focused on a central event, person, or development — such as the Roman attitudes toward Cleopatra (Chapter 4), the Mongols (Chapter 12), the consumer revolution of the eighteenth century (Chapter 17), and decolonization in Africa (Chapter 27) — enabling students to understand history from a variety of contemporaneous perspectives. Each document pairing is introduced with a headnote and is followed by Questions to Consider. NEW! Terms of History, now in every chapter, looks not only at the origin of 10 a term — such as democracy (Chapter 3), barbarian (Chapter 7), gothic (Chapter 11), revolution (Chapter 19), and globalization (Chapter 29) — but also at the changing meaning of the term over time, which further underscores historical skill building. About The Making of the West Even with all the exciting digital alternatives now available, our primary goal remains the same: to demonstrate that the history of the West is the story of an ongoing process, not a finished result with one fixed meaning. There is not one Western people or culture that has existed from the beginning until now. Instead, the history of the West includes many different peoples and cultures. To convey these ideas, we have written a sustained story of the West’s development in a broad, global context that reveals the cross-cultural interactions fundamental to the shaping of Western politics, societies, cultures, and economies. To highlight the importance of this broad notion of the West, the first chapter opens with a section on the origins and contested meaning of the term Western civilization. New Coverage and Current Scholarship As always, we have also incorporated the latest scholarly findings throughout the book so that students and instructors have a text on which they can confidently rely, including updated Suggested References at the end of each chapter. In the sixth edition, we have included new and updated discussions of topics such as the agency of women in ancient Greece, the structures of Islamic societies in the Middle Ages, the growth of the European slave trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and a host of new developments in the past few years. The final chapter now includes a discussion of the economic, technological, and cultural changes since the downturn of 2008 that have shaped the rise of populism, including rising immigration, the increasingly interventionist policies of Russia, and the unraveling of the “Arab Spring” with the catastrophe of the Syrian civil war and the continuing threat of ISIS. Chronological Framework We know from our own teaching that introductory students need a solid chronological framework, one with enough familiar benchmarks to make the 11 material easy to grasp. Each chapter is organized around the main events, people, and themes of a period in which the West significantly changed; thus, students learn about political and military events and social and cultural developments as they unfolded. This chronological integration also makes it possible for students to see the interconnections among varieties of historical experience — between politics and cultures, between public events and private experiences, between wars and diplomacy and everyday life. For teachers, our chronological approach ensures a balanced account and provides the opportunity to present themes within their greater context. But perhaps best of all, this approach provides a text that reveals history as a process that is constantly alive, subject to pressures, and able to surprise us. An Expanded Vision of the West Cultural borrowing between the peoples of Europe and their neighbors has characterized Western civilization from the beginning. Thus, we have insisted on an expanded vision of the West that includes the United States and fully incorporates Scandinavia, eastern Europe, and the Ottoman Empire. Now this vision encompasses an even wider global context than before, as Latin America, Africa, China, Japan, and India also come into the story. We have been able to offer sustained treatment of crucial topics such as Islam and to provide a more thorough examination of globalization than any competing text. Study of Western history provides essential background to today’s events, from debates over immigration to conflicts in the Middle East. Instructors have found this synthesis essential for helping students understand the West amid today’s globalization. Study Aids to Support Active Reading and Learning We know from our own teaching that students need all the help they can get to absorb and make sense of information, to think analytically, and to understand that history itself is often debated and constantly revised. With these goals in mind, we retained the class-tested learning and teaching aids that worked well in the previous editions, but we have also done more to help students distill the central story of each age. 12 Focused Reading Each chapter begins with a vivid anecdote that draws readers into the atmosphere of the period and introduces the chapter’s main themes, accompanied by a full-page illustration. The Chapter Focus poses an overarching question at the start of the narrative to help guide students’ reading. Strategically placed at the end of each major section, a Review Question helps students assimilate core points in digestible increments. Key Terms and names that appear in boldface in the text have been updated to concentrate on likely test items; these terms are defined in the Glossary of Key Terms and People at the end of the book. To make the reading as meaningful as possible to students, each chapter now includes a new pointed question, What Would You Do? It encourages the students to think about how they might have reacted to a crisis in the past and would have made choices with immense consequences. It is our hope that such questions will help bring history to life. Reviewing the Chapter At the end of each chapter, the Conclusion further reinforces the central developments covered in the chapter. The Chapter Review begins by asking students to revisit the key terms, identifying each and explaining its significance. Review Questions are also presented again so that students can revisit the chapter’s core points. Making Connections questions then follow and prompt students to think across the sections of a given chapter. A chronology of Important Events enables students to see the sequence and overlap of important events in a given period and asks students a guiding question that links two or more events in the chapter. Finally, a list of author-selected and updated Suggested References directs students to print and online resources for further investigation. Geographic Literacy The map program of The Making of the West has been praised by reviewers for its comprehensiveness. In each chapter, we offer three types of maps, each with a distinct role in conveying information to students. Up to five full-size maps show major developments, up to four “spot” maps — small maps positioned within the discussion right where students need them — serve as immediate locators, and a Mapping the West summary map at the end of each chapter 13 provides a snapshot of the West at the close of a transformative period and helps students visualize the West’s changing contours over time. In this edition, we have carefully considered each of the existing maps, simplifying them where possible to better highlight essential information, and clarifying and updating borders and labels where needed. Images and Illustrations We have integrated art as fully as possible into the narrative. Over 240 images and illustrations were carefully chosen to reflect this edition’s broad topical coverage and geographic inclusion, reinforce the text, and show the varieties of visual sources from which historians build their narratives and interpretations. All artifacts, illustrations, paintings, and photographs are contemporaneous with the chapter; there are no anachronistic illustrations. The captions for the maps and art help students learn how to read visuals, and we have frequently included specific questions or suggestions for comparisons that might be developed. Acknowledgments In the vital process of revision, the authors have benefited from repeated critical readings by many talented scholars and teachers. Our sincere thanks go to the following instructors, whose comments often challenged us to rethink or justify our interpretations and who always provided a check on accuracy down to the smallest detail: David S. Bachrach, University of New Hampshire; Robert Bond, Mira Costa College; Curtis Bostick, Southern Utah University; Trevor Corless, Cégep Heritage College; Michael Frassetto, University of Delaware; William L. Grose, Wytheville Community College; Joanne Klein, Boise State University; Rosemary Moore, University of Iowa; Lisa Payne Ossian, Des Moines Area Community College; Svanur Petursson, Rutgers University, Newark; David Pizzo, Murray State University; Allison E. Stein, Pellissippi State Community College; Kathryn Steinhaus, Seminole State College; Erin W. Stone, University of West Florida; Sarah L. Sullivan, McHenry County College; Nancy Vavra, University of Colorado at Boulder; and Mirna Zakic, Ohio University, Main Campus. Many colleagues, friends, and family members have made contributions to this work. They know how grateful we are. We also wish to acknowledge and thank the publishing team at Bedford/St. Martin’s who did so much to bring this revised edition to completion: editorial director Edwin Hill; publisher for history 14 Michael Rosenberg; program manager for history Bill Lombardo; developmental editor Leah Strauss; media editor Tess Fletcher; editorial assistant Belinda Huang; marketing manager Melissa Rodriguez; content production manager Kendra LeFleur; project manager, Andrea Stefanowicz; art researcher Bruce Carson; and cover designer Billy Boardman. Our students’ questions and concerns have shaped much of this work, and we welcome all our readers’ suggestions, queries, and criticisms. Please contact us at our respective institutions or via history@macmillanhighered.com. Lynn Hunt Thomas Martin Barbara Rosenwein Bonnie Smith 15 Versions and Supplements Adopters of The Making of the West and their students have access to abundant print and digital resources and tools, including documents, assessment and presentation materials, the acclaimed Bedford Series in History and Culture volumes, and much more. The LaunchPad course space for The Making of the West provides access to the narrative as well as a wealth of primary sources and other features, along with assignment and assessment opportunities at the ready. Achieve Read & Practice supplies adaptive quizzing and our mobile, accessible Value Edition e-book, in one easy-to-use, affordable product. See the following text for more information, visit the book’s catalog site at macmillanlearning.com, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative. Get the Right Version for Your Class To accommodate different course lengths and course budgets, The Making of the West is available in several different formats to best suit your course needs. The comprehensive The Making of the West includes a full-color art program and a robust set of features. The Making of the West Value Edition offers a trade-sized two-color option with the unabridged narrative and selected art and maps at a steep discount. The Value Edition is also offered at the lowest price point in loose-leaf format, and these versions are available as e-books. To get the best value of all, package a new print book with LaunchPad or Achieve Read & Practice at no additional charge to get the best that each format offers. LaunchPad users get a print version for easy portability with an interactive ebook for the full-feature text and course space, along with LearningCurve and loads of additional assignment and assessment options; Achieve Read & Practice users get a print version with a mobile, interactive Value Edition e-book plus LearningCurve adaptive quizzing in one exceptionally affordable, easy-to-use product. Combined Volume (Chapters 1–29): available in paperback, Value, loose-leaf, and e-book formats and in LaunchPad and Achieve Read & Practice Volume 1: To 1750 (Chapters 1–17): available in paperback, Value, loose-leaf, e-book formats and in LaunchPad and Achieve Read & Practice Volume 2: Since 1500 (Chapters 14–29): available in paperback, Value, loose16 leaf, and e-book formats and in LaunchPad and Achieve Read & Practice As noted in the following text, any of these volumes can be packaged with additional titles for a discount. To get ISBNs for discount packages, visit macmillanlearning.com or contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s representative. 17 Assign LaunchPad — An Assessment-Ready Interactive E-book and Course Space Available for discount purchase on its own or for packaging with new books at no additional charge, LaunchPad is a breakthrough solution for history courses. Intuitive and easy to use for students and instructors alike, LaunchPad is ready to use as is and can be edited, ...
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