help me on a question on natural Science

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Critical Inquiry 2.1 Engage in effective critical inquiry through a process of problem definition, evidence gathering, and evaluation. 2.1.1.

Definition – identify the problem and associated constraints; set the parameters of the inquiry.

2.1.2. Evidence – identify and gather sufficient relevant information of appropriate quality.

2.1.3. Evaluation – assess defined problem in the light of available evidence.

2.1.4. Discernment – distinguish fact from opinion.

help me on a question on natural Science

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Natural Sciences 1 Electricity Ramsay Khadeir, PhD James Stone, PhD Reminder To do well in this course, every week you must complete any: 1. 2. 3. Lecture activity Problem set Lab coursework CHECK Due Dates in Blackboard 2 Learning Objectives • Describe key electrical concepts • Understand conventions for drawing circuits • Differentiate series and parallel circuits KFSC – Bachelor of Security Sciences 3 Background Circuits Just like highways, metro systems, blood vessels, and plumbingCircuits are closed paths that allow things like electricity to flow 4 Electrical Circuits Electric charge • an amount of electrical energy Electric current • a flow of electrical charge, often a flow of electrons • conventional current is in the opposite direction to a flow of electrons Current flow in a circuit • a sustained current needs a complete circuit • also requires a stimulus to cause the charge to flow 5 Electrical charge and current • Two types of current: DC and AC. With direct current (DC), the flow of electrons is consistently in one direction around the circuit. • With alternating current (AC), the direction of electron flow continually reverses. • Electrons are negatively charged particles. They transfer energy as electricity. • Charge is a property of a body which experiences a force in an electric field. Charge is measured in coulombs (C). charge = current × time Q=Ixt charge (Q) is measured in coulombs (C) current (I) is measured in amps (A) time (t) is measured in seconds (s) 6 Concept Checks 1,2 1. What unit is current measured in? 2. What do AC and DC stand for? Active Current and Direct Current Alternating Current and Diverging Current Alternating Current and Direct Current Activating Current and Direct Current 7 Drawing Circuits 8 Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors Resistors provide resistance they oppose the flow of electricity measured in Ohms () Capacitors provide capacitance they store energy in an electric field measured in Farads (F) Inductors provide inductance they store energy in a magnetic field measured in Henry (H) 9 Ohms Law The current flowing in a conductor is directly proportional to the applied voltage V and inversely proportional to its resistance R V = IR I = V/R R = V/I 10 Concept Check 3,4 3. How much charge has moved if a current of 13A flows for 10 s? Q=Ixt Q = 13 x 10 Q = 130C 4. How much current flows when 10C passes down a wire in 2 s? Q=Ixt I=Q/t I = 10 / 2 I = 5A 11 Potential and resistance The current through a component depends on both the resistance and the potential difference across the component. Potential difference is called voltage, measured in (V) • • • potential difference (V) is measured in volts (V) energy (E) is measured in joules (J) charge (Q) is measured in coulombs (C) 12 Concept Checks 5,6 5. Which of these is true in a parallel circuit? • Voltage is constant across each component • Resistance is constant for each component • Current is constant for each component 6. Electrical potential difference also means which of these? • Current, Voltage, Charge, Amperes 13 Resistance When a charge moves through a potential difference, electrical work is done and energy transferred. The potential difference can be calculated using the equation: potential difference = current × resistance potential difference (V) is measured in volts (V) energy (E) is measured in joules (J) charge (Q) is measured in coulombs (C) 1V is the potential difference when 1 coulomb of charge transfers 1J of energy 14 Concept Check 7,8 7. What’s the potential difference if 2 C of charge moves 4 J of energy ? V=E/Q V=4/2 V=2 8. What’s the resistance if 12V moves a current of 2A through it? V=IxR 12 = 2 x R R=6 15 Kirchkoff’s Current Law At any instant the algebraic sum of the currents flowing into any junction in a circuit is zero… For example I1 – I2 – I3 = 0 I2 = I1 – I3 = 10 – 3 =7A 16 Kirchkoff’s Voltage Law The sum of the voltages around any loop in a circuit is zero E – V1 – V2 = 0 V1 = E – V2 = 12 – 7 = 5V 17 Power and Resistors Power dissipation, P, of a resistor is the product of the voltage across and the current passing through it: P = IV P = I2R P = V2/R CC9: What power is transmitted by a 5 A current through a 10 Ω resistor? 18 Resistors in Series and Parallel • Series R = R1 + R2 + R3 • Parallel 1 1 1 1    R R1 R2 R3 19 How much potential is lost across resistors? General case V  V2  (V1  V2 ) R2 R1  R2 20 Example V  V2  (V1  V2 )  10 R2 R1  R2 R2 R1  R2 300 200  300  6V  10 21 Concept Check 10 V  V2  (V1  V2 )  3  12 R2 R1  R2 500 1000  500  34  7V 22 ADVICE: KEEP IT SIMPLE 23 Background: Circuits Ammeters, Voltmeters, and a couple equations are almost all you need to fully analyze a circuit! P = IV V = IR But how do parts of a circuit interact with each other? 24 ...
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