ReWording Procedures

Anonymous
timer Asked: Feb 2nd, 2021

Question Description

Reword (in your own words) the procedures that are attached to this question. Please make sure to keep data and numbers in the rewording process. Should be in a similar format to the format below that includes procedures in different rows. Ignore the running account and observations.

ProcedureRunning AccountObservations
Obtain an experiment kit from the stockroom.

In a reaction tube, place 2 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid. Add a boiling stone and connect the reaction tube to the gas collection assembly as shown in Fig. 4.1.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: PART A A1. Dehydration of 2-Butanol Obtain an experiment kit from the stockroom. In a reaction tube, place 2 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid. Add a boiling stone and connect the reaction tube to the gas collection assembly as shown in Fig. 4.1. Assemble the gas collection apparatus shown in figure 4.1 before the reactants are mixed. To position the gas collection tube, carry out the following steps: 1. Fit the collection tube with a septum stopper in one end. 2. Fill the collection tube with water. ​What is the purpose of the water? 3. Insert the end of the Teflon tubing that is coming out from the top of the septa into the collection tube all the way up to reach the stopper. 4. Place your index finger over the open end of the tube and invert it (water should have remained in the tube). 5. Place the tube, with the open end down, into a 250-mL beaker approximately half full with water. 6. Remove your finger (the column of water should remain in the tube.) 7. Connect the other end of the Teflon tubing to the reaction tube as shown in figure 4.1. After the assembly is complete, use a syringe to add 0.2 mL of 2-butanol to the reaction tube and heat the mixture in a preheated heating block. Don't assume things aren't hot. Hover your hand near the object in question to feel for heat radiating from it just like you would a pan on the stove if you weren't sure whether it was hot or not. Generation of gaseous product can be observed by watching the rapid decrease of the water level in the collection tube. ​Keep heating until no more bubbles escape from the bottom of the collection tube. Remove the Teflon tubing from the gas collection tube, and then from the beaker, before removing the reaction tube from the heat, ​all the while ensuring your collection tube stays below the beaker’s water level. ​Why is it important that the collection tube stays below the water level? Use this sequence of steps in shutting down the reaction to prevent water from being sucked back into the hot reaction tube while it is cooling down. Label the beaker containing the collection tube kept in the water and submit it to your TA for the gas chromatographic analysis. Cool heating blocks between reactions. Don't place a reaction set up on a hot block as it may cause a fire. The butenes have been determined to elute from the non-polar column (SE30) the GC is equipped with in the following order: 1-butene, trans-2-butene, and cis-2-butene. ​If you did not know the order of elution for the gases, how could you determine it experimentally? ​Determine the relative amount (% composition) of the three components of gas products, assuming that the amount of each substance in the gaseous mixture is proportional to the area under its corresponding GC peak. The report provided from the GC instrument should provide relative integration values for each peak. If the values are missing, you can estimate the integration values by assuming that these areas are equal to the peak height (mm) x the peak widths at a half-height (mm). A2. Dehydration of 1-Butanol Repeat the procedure for part A1 using 1-butanol instead of 2-butanol. Be sure to read chemical labels carefully and keep track of which alcohol you are adding! Turn the hot plate off when finished and let it and heating block cool to room temperature (at least 15 minutes) before putting them away. PART B B1. Dehydrobromination of 1-Bromobutane Obtain an experimental kit from the stockroom. Assemble the gas collection apparatus shown in figure 4 before the reactants are mixed. To position the gas collection tube, carry out the following steps: 1. Fit the collection tube with a septum stopper in one end. 2. Fill the collection tube with water. What is the purpose of the water? 3. Insert the end of the Teflon tubing that is coming out from the top of the septa into the collection tube all the way up to reach the stopper. 4. Place your index finger over the open end of the tube and invert it (water should have remained in the tube). 5. Place the tube, with the open end down, into a 250-mL beaker approximately half full with water. 6. Remove your finger (the column of water should remain in the tube.) 7. Connect the other end of the Teflon tubing to the reaction flask as shown in figure 4. In a 10 mL round-bottom flask equipped with a water-cooling condenser place 5 mL of 1M potassium t-butoxide (or 575 mg of potassium t-butoxide powder and 5 mL of t-butanol) using a pipette. Do not expose the potassium t-butoxide to air for too long as this may produce some unexpected results when analyzing the composition of products from the reaction. ​Why would exposing potassium t-butoxide to air cause problems? Add a boiling stone to the flask, and connect the condenser to the gas collection assembly as shown in Fig. 4. Assemble the gas collection apparatus shown in Fig. 4 before the reactants are mixed. After the assembly is complete, use a syringe to add 0.5 mL of 1-bromobutane to the reaction flask and heat the mixture in a preheated heating block. Don't assume things aren't hot. Hover your hand near the object in question to feel for heat radiating from it just like you would a pan on the stove if you weren't sure whether it was hot or not Generation of gaseous product can be observed by watching the rapid decrease of the water level in the collection tube. ​Keep heating until no more bubbles escape from the bottom of the collection tube. Remove the Teflon tubing from the gas collection tube, and then from the beaker, before removing the reaction tube from the heat, ​all the while ensuring your collection tube stays below the beaker’s water level. Use this sequence of steps in shutting down the reaction to prevent water from being sucked back into the hot reaction tube while it is cooling down. Label the beaker containing the collection tube kept in the water and submit it for the gas chromatographic analysis. Cool heating blocks between reactions. Don't place a reaction set up on a hot block as it may cause a fire. B2. Dehydrobromination of 2-Bromobutane Repeat the procedure for part ​B1 using 2-bromobutane instead of 1-bromobutane. Be sure to read chemical labels carefully and keep track of which alkyl halide you are adding! Turn the hot plate off when finished and let it and the heating block cool to room temperature (at least 15 minutes) before putting them away. The butenes have been determined to elute from the non-polar column (SE30) the GC is equipped with in the following order: 1-butene, trans-2-butene, and cis-2-butene. ​If you did not know the order of elution for the gases, how could you determine it experimentally? ​Determine the relative amount (% composition) of the three components of gas products, assuming that the amount of each substance in the gaseous mixture is proportional to the area under its corresponding GC peak. The report provided from the GC instrument should provide relative integration values for each peak. If the values are missing, you can estimate the integration values by assuming that these areas are equal to the peak height (mm) x the peak widths at a half-height (mm). ...
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