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ANRS, Chapter 1
1. This chapter focuses on a reformulation of race after 1945. Comment on the reasons, why
“Mischlingskinder” or “Black Occupation Children” became the subject of social policies on race.
2. Post-war Germany saw a liberalization of abortion policies. Comment on the racial implications
of these policies.
3. Heide Fehrenbach argues that the focus on Afro-American paternity was a deliberate act. What
were the reasons for this narrow focus? What role did the American Society for Christian-Jewish
Cooperation play in the German debate about race? What role did social sciences such
anthropology and psychology, and “Prejudice studies” play in the formulation of social and
educational policies in Germany in the 1950s?
4. The adoption of “Brown Babies” by African Americans (initiated by Mabel Grammar) turned out
to be problematic. Why?
5. By the late 1960 the integration of Black Germans into mainstream society had been considered
a success. What are some examples of this alleged success? What are some examples of the
continuous racism particularly when considering the intersection of gender and race?
6. Despite the rhetoric of successful integration, the focus on “difference and its perceived social
disruptions” continued and was interpreted as “Xenophobia,” the hatred of foreigners. What
impact did this shift in focus have on debates about race?
Reflect on what you consider to be the most significant learning aspect(s) of this chapter. How does
this reading help you to understand (more deeply) the concepts of race, and racialization and their
importance for notions of national, social and cultural identities? How does the debate about race in
post-war Germany compare and contrast to what you know/have learned about race and racism in
your own country?