Present Program Evaluation

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timer Asked: Feb 2nd, 2021

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I need a PowerPoint presentation that should include all aspects of the program evaluation, including the policy brief. would present to stakeholders in a video I will record. The powerPoint should last as long as I can make the video for 10-15 minutes. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Thanks foryour help.

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RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) David G Medina Ortiz Grand Canyon University January 20, 2021 1 RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 2 INTRODUCTION The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program is a state project developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It was initiated in 1999 and is the only CDC project that prevents chronic diseases among minority individuals. This plan aims to minimize racial and ethnic health disparities that affect minority groups. The REACH program targets minority groups, including African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. The rate at which minority groups such as Hispanics are facing health challenges is higher compared to the white population. For example, in 2011-2014, the diabetes prevalence rate among Hispanics was 18%, while in whites; it was 9.6% (Liao et al., 2014). It enables the Center for Disease Control to provide federal investments to prevent chronic illnesses and risk factors to diseases. Therefore, the program not only focuses on preventing chronic conditions but also improving healthy behaviors among racial and ethnic groups. For example, REACH increases fruit and vegetable consumption and reduces smoking prevalence within the population. The health issue focused on is chronic illnesses, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and heart disease. Multiple complex factors contribute to the health disparities faced by these groups. Therefore, the REACH program formed partnerships to unite members of the community towards achieving its objective. It minimizes healthcare barriers brought about by inequalities based on race, education, income, and other social factors. The REACH program funds both governmental and non-government organizations within the local and state health units. The program has initiated various past projects such as REACH 2010 and 2014, REACH minority, REACH demonstration, and national network plans (Schroth and Helfer, 2018). Purpose statement The REACH program will specifically target minority groups of African-Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics because these are the most affected and vulnerable groups and RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 3 constantly face health challenges. This program will enable the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide federal investments for the prevention of chronic illnesses as well as risk factors to diseases. As such, the program will focus on both prevention of chronic diseases and improving behaviors among the target groups in order to deal with risk factors to diseases. Specifically, the program will focus on the prevention of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and heart diseases as well as their risk factors. The program will seek to form partnerships with members of the community towards achievement of the objective. In this way, healthcare barriers brought by inequalities based on race, ethnicity, education, income levels, and other social factors will be targeted for minimization. A researchable question that will guide program evaluation. The researchable question to address in REACH program evaluation is how the change will be measured over time? This question will enhance the assessment by first identifying whether the program's objectives are concise and quantifiable. The evaluation will help all stakeholders and beneficiaries involved to interpret and follow the results. The staff, partners, and funders can utilize an open management tool to track the programs' achievements annually. The progress will be monitored over time, based on the measures identified. Also, the change over time must be adequately measured to provide accountability for the program's operations. The policymakers and the general public will be interested in an account of the resources spent and good stewardship towards the minority groups. The change over time can be measured through an evaluation of accessible data sources. Feasible data collection mechanisms should be developed, such as legislative-based tracking sources, electronic health records ad surveys conducted among the targeted racial and ethnic groups. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 4 Why the program needs to be evaluated. The significance of evaluating the REACH program is to determine improvement areas (Ma et al., 2019). The efficiency of the program's policies and efforts will be established over time through evaluation. The program's intended outcomes and impacts will be assessed to determine progress in achieving its overall objectives. The review will also indicate the effectiveness of the program's goal to promote quality of life and reduce the prevalence of chronic illnesses among minority groups. Another essence of conducting the evaluation is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the program. There are gaps within the plan that may hinder its success. Therefore, indicating these flaws will foster change and develop a more effective program for the affected population. Scope of the program This program will be limited to the minority groups in the society- African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans because they form the most affected and vulnerable group when it comes to health inequalities. The idea is to focus on two main areas- prevention of diseases and reduction of risk factors to the diseases through behavior change. Moreover, it is important to note that the specific diseases are chronic, lifestyle-related illness that have high prevalence among the target communities and remain a health challenge to individuals and families. The relevant stakeholders and beneficiaries of the program Stakeholders include those individuals who can affect or be impacted by the REACH program's policies and objectives. It is essential to identify the stakeholders involved with this program since they influence its operations. Therefore, this plan's key stakeholders include the Center for Disease Control and the state agencies funding the program. The beneficiaries of the program are also considered stakeholders since they influence the success of the plan. They entail suppliers, institutions, and staff who will implement the program. The role of stakeholders RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 5 is crucial to provide support for the success of the program. Without their involvement, the evaluation of the plan can be sabotaged, criticized, or ignored. Other stakeholders include awardees responsible for planning and managing culturally appropriate strategies to promote health behaviors among minority groups (Schroth and Helfer, 2018). These beneficiaries' role is to empower community members to identify the needs and opportunities affecting the target population. Other beneficiaries included in the program are universities, tribal organizations, and local health units that develop evidence-based practices in declining racial health disparities. The REACH program aims at preventing the prevalence of chronic diseases among racial and ethnic groups. It also aims to improve healthy behaviors within this population by increasing vegetable consumption and minimizing smoking habits. However, an evaluation needs to be conducted to identify any gaps and weaknesses in the program. Stakeholders and beneficiaries of RECAH include the Center for Disease Control, tribal organizations, the community, and the state agencies. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 6 RESEARCH METHODS Programs are developed to assist in addressing various problems identified within a given society. A research design must be identified to evaluate a developed program to effectively address an identified problem. The research design identified describes the method(s) and purposes of evaluation. Additionally, the research design identifies particular techniques that the evaluator can use to collect and analyze data relevant to the developed program's efficiency. The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program is a project developed in 1999 by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to prevent chronic diseases among the vulnerable and minority societies. This program’s key aim is to minimize health and racial disparities that affect minority groups in the United States. The minority groups, in this case, refer to the African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans (Brooks et al., 2016). In view of the above literature, this paper seeks to provide a systematic REACH program evaluation using qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. Brief Description of REACH Program and the Identified Problem As well explained in the section above, the REACH program targets the minority group in the United States, including Hispanics, African Americans, and Asian Americans. These minority groups are stereotyped and segregated economically and socially, especially by their white counterparts. Such disparities, according to a study conducted by Kosoko-Lasaki et al. (2019), have had far-reaching implications on their health outcomes. For instance, this study suggests that from 2011-2014, diabetic cases in Hispanics was at 18% compared to 9.6% in whites. Prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes among the minority group prompted the Center for Disease Control and Prevention to offer federal investments to avert chronic illnesses and risk factors to diseases among this population by creating the REACH program (CDC, RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 7 2018). It is important to note that this program not only focuses on preventing chronic health conditions among minorities but also improving their healthy behaviors (Kosoko-Lasaki et al., 2019). For instance, this program considerably improved behaviors presented by the minority population by significantly enhancing fruit and vegetable consumption while at the same time reducing smoking prevalence within these minority populations. Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and heart disease receive extensive attention through the REACH program. Many factors propagate the social and health disparities experienced by Hispanics, Asian Americans, and African Americans. Hence, the REACH program formed partnerships to unite community members towards achieving its objective. REACH program has over the recent past assisted in mitigating healthcare resulting from inequalities based on race, income, education, and other social factors (CDC, 2018). In a different study, Liao et al., (2016) reported that this program finances both non-government and governmental organizations within the local and state health units. Some of the programs initiated by the REACH program, according to CDC (2018), include REACH 2010 and 2014, REACH demonstration, REACH minority, and national network plans. According to this study, the programs mentioned above have considerably minimized health and social disparities among the minority groups in the US. Evaluation Question The research question to guide REACH program evaluation is how the change will be measured over time? This research question is important because it will amplify whether the REACH program's objectives are concise and quantifiable. With the precise guide of this research question, the presented evaluation results will be of great help to beneficiaries of the program as well as its shareholders. As such, it will be easier for partners, staff, and funders to RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 8 use an open management tool to track the successes of this program yearly. Through evaluation, the REACH program shall be monitored frequently concerning the identified measures. Furthermore, change over time will be adequately assessed to offer accountability of the program's functions. Most important to note is the fact that the change over time can be measured through an evaluation of accessible data sources. Such data sources have been explained in the sections below. Empirical data collection methods to be used in the evaluation have been explained in this literature. Data Collection Techniques Data collection methods in a research are determined by the research methodology used. To evaluate this program's success and possible improvements to be made to the REACH program, the evaluation of this program will be done using qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. Data collection will be done through surveys and semi-structured interviews conducted among the targeted racial and ethnic groups, secondary data from electronic and manual health records, and legislative-based tracking sources. The evaluator will seek permission from the selected hospitals before accessing and scrutinizing patient health records stored electronically and manually. Before granting permission, the selected hospitals' management will have to seek patients' consent before their stored information is scrutinized. The targeted patients' records, in this case, are those of individuals from minority groups who have been victims of diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, and obesity from 2010 to June 2020. After obtaining patients’ consent for their data to be used in the evaluation, the hospital management will inquire how data will be used and the usefulness of the REACH program evaluation results. The evaluator will have to assure management from selected hospitals that the patients' privacy and confidentiality will be upheld. After satisfactorily RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 9 doing all this, permission will be granted and all the ethical guidelines governing the use of patients’ secondary information will be adhered to. Such secondary data will provide rich insights concerning the success stories of the REACH program and where the program needs to be improved. Legislative-based tracking sources concerning the REACH program will also be utilized in the study. Fortunate enough, the sources are available on government websites and different academic websites such as Google Scholar. Before utilizing these sources, the evaluator will seek permission from various publishers and authors to mitigate breaching copyrights. Such online sources will provide reviewed literature that presents adequate information concerning the change over time regarding the REACH program’s efficiency. Lastly, targeted individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups in the US will be interviewed. Because of movement restriction as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the evaluator will schedule online semi-structured interviews with participants who will have satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria to be included in the present evaluation. Such interviews will last for 60-90 minutes to give participants ample time to provide their suggestions on how the REACH program has helped them overcome health disparities as well as their general feeling towards the efficiency of the REACH program. It should be noted that these online semi-structured interviews will be done via Zoom. The meeting link will be sent to each evaluation participant before the actual scheduled interview time. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 10 Qualitative Methods According to Yin (2015), investigators utilize qualitative research methodology to obtain detailed information about a given phenomenon being investigated based on the experiences and perceptions that the participants have towards it. As such, the evaluator will use this research methodology to understand experiences and perceptions of the participants towards how the REACH program has successfully achieved its objectives such as minimizing social and health disparities as well as improving the health of individuals from minority groups such as the Hispanics, Black Americans, and Asian Americans. A qualitative research methodology is considered suitable for exploring and investigating the practical experiences that participants have concerning a given phenomenon. Therefore, to effectively present participants' empirical views, thoughts, and experiences in evaluating the REACH program, I deem a qualitative research methodology as the most appropriate. Additionally, investigators utilize qualitative research methodologies to address research questions, including what, how, and why. In line with this, participants in the current study will prevent their thoughts on how and why they feel that the REACH program has realized most of its objectives or not. In a recent qualitative study, Timbie et al. (2020) reported that most Asian Americans and African Americas presented that the REACH program has enabled them to improve their health outcomes. This study’s participants reported that they have so far received ample favors in terms of social aid, hospital bill payments, advice on medical adherence, medical check-ups from social workers working with the REACH program, as well as financial support to their families and their marginalized population. This qualitative study concluded that the REACH program has successfully achieved its objectives of mitigating health disparities and enhancing people's lives from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. In view of this, it can be justified that this program has had far-reaching positive effects on blacks and Asians in the United States as it has RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 11 realized positive health outcomes of most chronic conditions in patients from marginalized neighborhoods (Timbie et al., 2020). This clearly signifies the change over time, thus answering this evaluation's research question. Quantitative Methodology Investigators use quantitative research methodology when the aim and purpose of the study are to measure the relationship between variables using numbers (Brannen, 2017). To measure change over time of the REACH program's efficiency, the evaluator needs to present empirical data in numeric form. Variables in this evaluation include positive health outcomes among the minority groups, objectives of the REACH program, and the successes of this program. As such, the evaluator may present percentages of individuals who report having received ample support from this program, which improved their health and vice versa. Percentages and numerals of success instances of the REACH program's use can also be presented quantitatively. Several quantitative studies have been conducted to investigate how the change over time of the REACH program's use is measured. For instance, according to a survey conducted by Liao et al. (2016), 68% of the interviewed diabetic African Americans recounted the REACH program had significantly improved their health outcomes. This group praised the concerns made by the REACH program in contextualizing concerns of their lives. In a different qualitative study, Petersen et al. (2019) interviewed 85 college students from minority groups who were affected by diabetes and hypertension. 49 out of the 85 students reported having been significantly improved their medical conditions as a result of the REACH program intervention. In view of the reviewed literature, it is evident that the REACH program has realized success in achieving its goals. However, according to CDC (2018), the REACH program should aim to reach further to RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH) 12 other marginalized places to cover many victims of health and social disparities, especially in the United States. Why Qualitative Method may be better for Evaluation This evaluation aims to present how to change over time of the use of the REACH program can be measured. In layman's language, this research design paper seeks to evaluate the REACH program's success in achieving its objectives. As such, qua ...
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