Movers and Shakers in Education
Navigate through the virtual timeline to survey the significant people and events that have shaped our educational system in America.
Choose four people and/or events listed on the timeline to research.
Develop a summary of 750-1,000 words describing their impact on the evolution of American education.
Utilize your assigned Readings and the GCU e-Library to research and defend your rationale.
Copy and paste images of these events as supplements to the descriptions of the historical events. You may use images from the timeline or other images from the internet that are "copyright-free."
•Socrates/Socratic Method (470-399 BC) Socrates believed that the purpose of Education was to teach people how to reason and produce a society of “rational” citizens. The Socratic Method involves a dialectic questioning process that results in discovering a “logical” answer.
•Tomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Aquinas was the most profound philosopher of the Middle Ages. He produced a synthesis to reconcile faith and reason, and his scholasticism involved teaching faith and rational philosophy.
•Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) Erasmus was a Christian philosopher during the Renaissance who advocated that individuals should have a liberal(broad) education to develop the intellect and strong morals.
•John Calvin (1509-1564) Calvin was a Protestant reformer who advocated state-sponsored schools for the masses. Calvin’s primary purpose of universal literacy was to give citizens the ability to read the Bible, which paved the way to producing good citizens.
•The Massachusetts Law of 1642 (1642) This was a statute that directed town leaders to investigate the education system for its equity of application and viability of its curriculum.
•More general Diffusion of Knowledge Bill - Jefferson (1779)This plan Thomas Jefferson proposed to the Virginia legislature would have provided a system of state-supported schools for the masses, to ensure an educated citizenry.
•Monitorial Schools - Joseph Lancaster (1806) Lancaster brought this education system from England and introduced it in Pennsylvania. Monitorial schools involved a hierarchical system where a Master teacher taught “student teachers” who then taught the masses.
•Common School Movement (1830-1865) This was the paradigm that initiated a more universal application of state-sponsored compulsory education for the masses across America that eventually became the public school system that we have today.
•First American Comprehensive High School (1831) The first High school opened in Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1938, Philadelphia opened a high school that offered a 4-year track of courses.
•Creation of the State Board of Education - Horace (1837) Mann Horace Mann, sometimes referred to as the “Father of American education, was a leader of the Common School Movement and established the first state board of education in Massachusetts in 1837.
•Kalamazoo Case (1874) This decision by the Michigan Supreme Court gave the legislature the right to collect taxes for the support of secondary education.
•Committee of Ten (1892) The National Education Association established a group of esteemed educators to “standardize” the curriculum in schools to address the needs of a changing industrial society.
•Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) This Supreme Court decision “legalized” the separate but equal doctrine that allowed segregation of the races in the public school system. This decision was ultimately overturned in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.
•John Dewey (1916) Dewey was a Pragmatist and a prime mover in the progressive movement in Education. He advocated a “child-centered” curriculum that involved experiential learning. His legacy in Education has endured into the 21st century.
•Alvarez vs. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove (California) School District (1931) This court ruling was the first desegregation ruling regarding the education of Mexican-Americans.
•Brown v. Board of Education (1954, 1955) This watershed court case repealed the “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson. The court concluded that segregation implies inferiority. This marked the beginning of desegregation in the public school system in America.
•Sputnik/Science and Math Education Movement (1957) This movement was a reaction to the Cold War protocol which mandated that the U.S.S.R. must not advance faster than the U.S. This reaction initiated a move to ensure that curriculum in Math and Science was on the “cutting edge” to ensure a well-educated populace.
•Engel v. Vitale (1962) This watershed Supreme Court decision stated that prayer in the public school system was a violation of the First Amendment.
•The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) This legislation provided the Federal government the most involvement in public education in U.S. history and involved billions of dollars for funding public schools.
•Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) This was a landmark Supreme Court decision that protected the right to Freedom of Speech for students and teachers in the public school system.
•The Indian Education Act (1972) This legislation was the first move toward a self- determination of the curriculum for Native American students that would include education regarding their cultural heritage.
•Lau v. Nichols, (1974) This Supreme Court decision mandated special language programs to address the needs of non-English speaking children.
•Plyler v. Doe (1982) The Supreme court ruled that children of illegal aliens have a right to attend school in the district of their residence.
•A Nation at Risk Report (1983) This landmark report on the status of the American student launched a series of reforms that attempted to return to a focus on basic education skills and raise standards for teachers and students.
•New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985) The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that school officials may conduct “reasonable” searches of students without a warrant if it fits within the Court’s definition of “reasonable.”
•IDEA (1990) The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act outlines the protocols for the implementation of education services to those with disabilities.
•No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002) This act of Congress mandated various performance standards measured by standardized testing methods to assess the academic progress of the schools.
•The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (2009)This act of Congress provided 90 billion dollars in funding to U.S. public schools, some of which was designated for local school districts to pay personnel and building repairs.
•Common Core State Standards Initiative (2009) A movement within U.S. Academia to ensure that the schools systems implement a curriculum that will be relevant to meet the needs of the next generation of students
Becoming familiar with the protocols of the College of Education's Conceptual Framework is a critical part of the process of becoming an effective educator through GCU.
Using the Association of American Educators' four principles of ethical teachers located in the Module 6 topic materials and the Teacher Candidate Proficiencies in Conceptual Framework (pp. 12-20) compare and evaluate seven areas in which their purposes overlap.
Access the COE Framework and Ethical Dispositions Comparison Matrix.
Complete the matrix according to the instructions