For this written assignment,
you'll categorize the required study pieces from NAWM as to
form and comment on how each represents its form. The objective of this
assignment is to confirm your understanding of the characteristics of each of
the vocal forms and instrumental categories used during the sixteenth century.
a.Identify the form of selections
55–61, 63, and 64 from NAWM. For each selection, indicate how it
conforms to or deviates from the form you have identified.
1. Identify the category
for instrumental selections 66 (a, b, and c) and 70 from NAWM (see
pp. 141-142 of CHWM). For each instrumental selection, specify how
it fits its category, and cite any characteristics the composer includes to
make it unique.
1.4.Study and listen to NAWM 74(a–e),
excerpts from act 2 of Claudio Monteverdi’s opera L’Orfeo (1607).
How does Monteverdi use dissonance, rhythm, melodic contour, and other elements
to convey the meaning of the text and the feelings it reflects in Orfeo’s
recitative Tu se’ morta (NAWM 74d)?
Monteverdi uses particular musical forms and styles to convey the changing
dramatic situation and the feelings of the characters. What characteristics
make each of the following forms and styles appropriate in building and
expressing the drama of this scene?
·Orfeo, canzonetta (NAWM 74a)
·Messenger, Shepherd, and Orfeo,
recitative (NAWM 74c)
·Orfeo, recitative (NAWM 74d)
·Chorus, choral madrigal (NAWM
1.5.In her cantata Lagrime
mie (NAWM 77), Strozzi uses a variety of singing styles ranging
from recitative to aria to something between (arioso). Indicate the measure
numbers at which those changes in style occur and briefly describe the
character of each section. Why do you think Strozzi chose to use the singing
styles in this order? What about the structure of the text and its meaning may
have influenced her compositional choices?
2.How does Schütz use changes of
texture and style to depict the events and text of Saul, was verfolgst
du mich (NAWM 81)? What types of style and texture does he
3.Complete a list of the new
forms of vocal music described in Chapter 11. Briefly describe the
characteristics of each form and provide an example of each from NAWM.
what ways do Bach’s melodies in both the fugue and the prelude (NAWM 100) show the
influence of Italian violin style? Use the solo violin portions of Vivaldi’s
op. 3, no. 6, first movement (NAWM 96), for
1.7. The aria “Sì, sì ben mio”
from Scarlatti’s cantata Clori vezzosa, e bella (NAWM 92b)
follows da capo aria form. Give the primary harmonic areas for each of the
a. A section, opening ritornello (mm. 51–54)
b. A section, first vocal statement (mm. 54–59)
c. A section, middle ritornello (mm. 59–60)
d. A section, second vocal statement (mm. 60–73)
e. B section (mm. 74–87)
How does da capo aria form reflect the form of the text?
2.What characteristics of the
overture to Lully’s Armide (NAWM 85a) mark it as a
3.How does the musical setting of
Armide’s recitative “Enfin il est en ma puissance” (NAWM 85b) reflect
the dramatic situation and the emotional conflict Armide is feeling?
4.How was England’s musical
culture different from France’s in the Baroque period? What accounts for that
5.Describe the differences in the
function and character of music in Orthodox Lutheran services and Pietist
1.What was a sonata in
the sixteenth century? How was the term used in the seventeenth century?
2.What role did toccatas,
preludes, and chorale preludes play in the Protestant church?
3.Where and in what position was
Dietrich Buxtehude employed for most of his career? What types of music did he
compose for use in that position?
4.How does Buxtehude’s Praeludium
in E Major (NAWM 95) fit the definition of a late
seventeenth-century toccata or prelude given in CHWM, page 215?
What type of texture and figuration does it use? How does it fall into
Chooseone (1) of the following
topics (A, B, or C), and complete a paper of not less thansix (6), double-spaced
pages (minimum 1500–1800 words). Your final paper should be in essay style, not
presented as a list or in outline form. It should include citations of any
resources consulted (including your text materials). Please use an accepted
academic style manual (e.g., MLA, Chicago, APA, etc.) in preparing, styling,
and formatting your essay (see Writing Resources at the end of this document).Topic C. Keyboard Music
For each of the major historical periods covered in this course
(Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque), describe the important keyboard
instruments used by musicians and composers. Include in your essay:
1. A brief description of
2. The instrument’s role in
sacred or secular musical performances.
Description of the forms that used keyboard, identifying and
describing at leastthree(3) examples of each form from your
required reading and listening; for each example, name the composer and title
of the piece, and give a brief description of its historical significance.
audio examples are attached. For each music excerpt, identify its historical
period and provide at least one-half, double-spaced page (minimum 125–150
words) giving your reasons for your choice. You'll be judged on the logic
leading to your conclusion of period placement in addition to the period
placement itself. Include discussion of the musical characteristics of the
piece (see categories in Module 2), its style, use of instruments and/or
voices, form, etc. If you recognize the piece, identifying the title or composer
can be one of your reasons, but this information alone is neither sufficient
nor necessary for explaining your conclusions.
1The Enlightenment dramatically changed
many aspects of Western society in the Classic period as compared to that of
the preceding Baroque period. To confirm your understanding of these changes in
the arts, combine responses to the following four questions into an essay of
250–350 words. In your essay, please incorporate categories of musical style
such as melody, periodicity, musical rhetoric, harmony, Alberti bass, form,
emotional contrasts, and the notion of form and content.
·What distinguishes the new
classical styles (including galant and empfindsam) from Baroque
styles and from each other?
·What was the Enlightenment? How
did the wider cultural climate of the eighteenth century affect music?
·What distinguishes the aims of
Baroque artists from those of artists in the Classic period?
·What circumstances encouraged
the broadening audience for and interest in music, and what were some of the
Developments in vocal and instrumental music in the Classic
period are evidenced by the creation of new forms and genres. To confirm your
understanding of these, list specific characteristics of the following forms
and genres, identifying one example from NAWM for each:
2.Part 1: Haydn
To confirm your understanding of the structure of the symphony as standardized
by Haydn, complete the following questions, which analyze Haydn's Symphony no.
88 (NAWM 119).
1.In the exposition of the first
movement of Haydn’s Symphony no. 88 (NAWM 119a), how are the following
sections distinguished from one another? Mention these and other features you
find significant: harmonic stability or instability, key (when stable), use of
chromaticism, phrasing (clearly articulated or continuous and overlapping),
dynamics, orchestration, and melodic content.
a. First theme area
c. Second theme area
d. Closing theme
2.The recapitulation repeats
material from the exposition but with some changes. What is different in the
recapitulation in comparison to the exposition?
3.What happens in the development
in terms of harmony and key? How are orchestration and dynamics used in the
development? What ideas from the exposition are used in the development, where
do they appear, and how are they changed from the exposition?
4.Chart the form of the slow
movement of Haydn’s Symphony no. 88 (NAWM 119b), and give the key of
5.Chart the form of the third
movement (NAWM 119c). How does this relate to binary form? How is dance
style evident in this movement?
Part 2: Mozart
To confirm your understanding of some of the other formal developments during
the Classic period, complete the following questions, which explore
representative works by Mozart.
1.What is the form of the first
movement of Mozart’s Piano Sonata in F Major, K. 332 (NAWM 121)? Chart
the form and harmonic plan, indicating the major themes, sections, and points
of articulation with measure numbers.
2.Also for the Piano Sonata in F
Major, list the diverse musical styles used in the first movement. What
associations outside music does each of these styles carry? How do the changes
of style relate to the movement’s form? How do they highlight the harmonic plan
of the movement? Why do you think Mozart chose to use so many different styles?
How does knowing what those styles refer to affect your own understanding of
Mozart’s piano sonata?
3.In the first movement of
Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A Major (NAWM 122), which segments of the
opening orchestral ritornello return later in the work, and where does each
return? How is each segment varied on its return?
4.Compare Mozart’s melodic style,
as exemplified by the first movement of the Piano Concerto in A Major and the
first movement of the Piano Sonata in F Major with Haydn’s melodic style in
Symphony no. 88. What do they have in common? How are they different?
5.In a Classic period concerto,
what is a cadenza? Where does it fall in the form, and how is it prepared
6.What instrumentation does
Mozart use in his Symphony no. 41 (NAWM 123)? What role do the woodwinds
and brass play in the texture?
7.What is the form of the finale
of Mozart’s Symphony no. 41? Provide a large-scale diagram that gives measure
numbers for the main parts of the form as well as the harmonic areas. Also
indicate the measure numbers where Mozart includes fugato, stretto, or
imitation in each of the main parts of the form.
8.In what ways are Leporello’s
opening aria in Don Giovanni (NAWM 124) similar to Uberto’s aria from
Pergolesi’s La serva padrona(NAWM 107)? Why is this musical
style appropriate for Leporello?
9.In what ways does Donna Anna’s
singing style resemble the style of opera seria? Why is this musical style
appropriate for her character?
10.How does Mozart use music to
convey information about the actions and feelings of Don Giovanni and the
Answer the following questions concerning Ludwig van Beethoven:
1.How did Beethoven make a living
in Vienna? How was his situation different from that of Haydn’s and Mozart’s?
How did Beethoven’s situation affect his choices of genres and the number of
total works he composed?
2.In what ways is the first
movement of Beethoven’s Pathétique Sonata (NAWM 125)
like an expected sonata form? In what ways is it different? What are some of
the effects Beethoven uses to make this sonata form dramatic?
3.What are some features of the
first movement of Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony (NAWM 126)
that his audiences would have found unusual? According to the textbook
and NAWM, the principal theme is treated as a person in a drama,
struggling against other players and triumphing in the end. How does Beethoven
use changes in the principal motive (mm. 3–8) to convey struggle and triumph?
Answer the following questions about compositions studied in Chapter 19:
1.What is a song cycle? In
“Gretchen am Spinnrade” (NAWM 128), how does Schubert use the piano to
depict the scene and Gretchen’s actions? How do these same devices suggest
2.Diagram the form of the fifth
movement of Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique (NAWM 138).
What eighteenth-century form or forms do you see traces of in your
3.Where does the idée
fixe (shown in NAWM, p. 487) appear in the fifth movement?
Where does the Dies irae chant appear? How are these themes used and
transformed to fulfill the program (see NAWM, pp. 485–486)
4.What special instruments and
instrumental effects does Berlioz use, and how do they suit the program? What
other aspects of the music help to support the program?
5.What features of Eusebius,
Florestan, and Coquette (NAWM 132) are typical of
character pieces as described in the textbook, page 413? How does Schumann
distinguish between the characters Eusebius, Florestan, and Coquette musically?
How do these pieces intersect with the composer’s personal life and literary
6.How does Chopin embellish the
melodic line of his Nocturne in D-flat Major, op. 27, no. 2 (NAWM 135)?
How do his melodies resemble the style of Italian opera? How does Chopin use
chromaticism in the nocturne?
7.Aside from being composed in
the nineteenth century, how is Stephen Foster’s “Jeanie with the Light Brown
Hair” (NAWM 131) representative of Romanticism? In what setting was the
song originally performed? Why do you think people found this song so appealing
8.What events does
Gottschalk’s Souvenir de Porto Rico (NAWM 137) depict,
and how are they suggested in the music? What elements are used to suggest the
locale, the people, and their actions? Who was the intended audience, and why
do you think this piece appealed to its audience?
1. What are the
characteristics of grand opera?
2. Meyerbeer quoted the
Lutheran chorale Ein feste Burg (NAWM 46c) many times
in Les Huguenots prior to its statement in the conclusion of
act 2 (NAWM 147), although you do not have excerpts from all its
statements. Why is the use of this particular hymn appropriate dramatically for
the entire opera? Why is it appropriate for this scene in particular?
3. What is opéra
bouffe, when did it come into existence, and what social roles did it
4. What makes Carmen an
example of realism and exoticism? Refer to the scene in NAWM 152 specifically
to illustrate your points.
5. Diagram the form of the
scene from Il barbiere di Siviglia in NAWM 145,
including indications of instrumental and vocal sections, melodic and thematic
repetitions, and changes in tempo, style, and figuration. How do the changes of
style, tempo, and figuration help to convey what Rosina is saying and feeling?
What did audiences value in Rossini’s operatic style? Refer to specific aspects
of this scene from Il barbiere di Siviglia to illustrate your
6. Sketch the form of the
scena and duet from act 3 of Verdi’s La traviata (NAWM 150),
providing terms for each section. Describe the melodic styles of the Andante
section, “Parigi, o cara,” and the Allegro section, “Ah! Gran Dio!” Why do you
think Verdi used the melodic styles that he did? Do you think his choices were
effective? Explain your answer.
7. What distinguishing
characteristics of German Romantic opera plots in the early nineteenth century
are exemplified in Weber’s Der Freischütz as a whole and in
the Wolf’s Glen scene (NAWM 148) in particular?
8. What is melodrama? Where
and how is it used in the Wolf’s Glen scene of Der Freischütz? Why
do you think its use in this scene might be more effective than using
9. Look at the form diagram
of the conclusion to act 1 of Tristan und Isolde (NAWM, p.
787). How does Wagner use leitmotives to develop the plot in the conclusion
of act 1 (NAWM 149b)? How does the harmonic language used for the
sailors (e.g., at mm. 196–203), “Heil! König Marke Heil!”) differ from that
used for Tristan and Isolde after they have drunk the love potion? Why is this
contrast appropriate, and how does it heighten the drama?
1.What technical problem for the
player is the focus of Liszt’s étude Un sospiro (NAWM 136)?
How is it addressed at the outset? How does the texture change over the course
of the piece, to raise new problems for the performer?
2.What elements of or references
to past music does Brahms incorporate into the fourth movement of his Symphony
no. 4 in E minor (NAWM 155)? How did Brahms learn about this past music?
What composers influenced his musical style?
3.Who gave Tchaikovsky’s Sixth
Symphony the subtitle Pathétique? Why is this subtitle appropriate?
This subtitle was not used at the symphony’s premiere performance. Why do you
think it was used for the second performance of the work?
4.What did Dvořák suggest
composers native to the United States do to write “truly national music”? How
are his ideas reflected in his own New World Symphony?
5.What elements of Dvořák’s Slavonic
Dances (NAWM 161) are from Czech traditional music?
1.How does Richard Strauss
characterize Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in the themes of his Don
Quixote (NAWM 158)? What musical devices does he use to depict
2.Why is Boris Godunov an
example of Russian nationalism, whereas Bizet’s Carmen, which uses
musical elements associated with Spain, is an example of exoticism?
3.In what ways is the plot
of Madama Butterfly an example of exoticism as well as
realism? What exotic musical elements did Puccini incorporate in the excerpt
from act 1 in NAWM 151?
1.Describe the rhythm of
Scriabin’s Vers la flamme, op. 72 (NAWM 170). Does it
suggest a strong forward motion or a static hovering? How is the effect
2. In Arnold Schoenberg’s Nacht (NAWM
172a), how is the opening motive (E–G–E-flat) used during the course of the
piece? Where does it not appear in some form? How does Schoenberg create a
sense of unity and form, without tonality, inEnthauptung (NAWM
3.What do the Prelude (NAWM
173a) and Menuet and Trio (NAWM 173b) from Schoenberg’s Piano
Suite, op. 25, have in common with Baroque pieces in the same genres?
(See NAWM 88 and 97)
4.In act 3, scene 3, of Wozzeck (NAWM
174b), where does Berg imitate a polka? A folk song? How does he suggest
these types of tonal music, despite using an atonal language?
5.What is Klangfarbenmelodie?
In what way does the first movement of Anton Webern’s Symphony, op. 21 (NAWM
175), illustrate the concept of Klangfarbenmelodie?
6.In his Rite of Spring (NAWM
176), how does Stravinsky create the effect of building intensity toward
the end of each excerpt? What makes the melodies beginning at measures 43, 89,
and 119 of Danse des adolescentes (NAWM 176a) sound
like folk tunes?
7.What elements of
Stravinsky’s Symphony of Psalms, first movement (NAWM 177),
recall past music? What past style period does Stravinsky deliberately avoid?
8.What elements drawn from east
European folk music does Bartók use in the third movement of Music for
Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (NAWM 179)?
9.What experimental elements does
Charles Ives use in General William Booth Enters into Heaven (NAWM
180)? Describe them, indicating passages by measure number. Which different
musical styles does Ives use or allude to in this song? How does he use
contrasts of style and changes of figuration in the piano to distinguish each
phrase or section from the previous one?
1.In the second movement of Hindemith’s Symphony
Mathis der Maler (NAWM 187), where do consonant harmonies
(triads or open fifths) appear from measure 1 through measure 16? How does
Hindemith move between those consonances? Based on your answers, how does
Hindemith’s method of “harmonic fluctuation” create a sense of harmonic
conflict and resolution in a neotonal context?
2.In what ways does the text of
the fourth movement of Prokofiev’s cantata Alexander Nevsky (NAWM
188) exemplify the ideals of socialist realism?
1. What is ragtime? From
what traditions did it derive? How is Scott Joplin’s Maple Leaf Rag (NAWM
164) typical of the style? Compare the performances of Maple Leaf
Rag by Scott Joplin and Jelly Roll Morton (NRAWM 164a, b). How
do they differ? In what ways is Joplin’s performance typical of the ragtime
tradition, and Morton’s typical of early jazz?
2. Refer to the standard
twelve-bar blues form shown in the textbook, page 545. How is Bessie
Smith’s Back Water Blues(NAWM 182) typical of the form? How
is the performance of West End Blues by Louis Armstrong and
His Hot Five (NAWM 183b) typical of the New Orleans jazz style? Which
elements of the group’s performance are present in and which are missing from
the sheet music version (NAWM 183a)
3. Compare the music for the
verse of I Got Rhythm with its refrain (NAWM 181). What
harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic elements create a contrast between the two
sections? Why do you think Gershwin used these contrasts?
4. What aspects of Duke
Ellington’s Cotton Tail (NAWM 184) are typical of big
band music? What elements did Ellington compose in advance? What elements were
left to improvisation? Cotton Tail is a contrafact. Ellington
composed a new tune over the harmonic progression from I Got Rhythm. How
does Ellington modify the harmonic progression from I Got Rhythmin Cotton
5. What is the social
function of Anthropology (NAWM 197)? Where and for whom
would it be performed?
6. As you listen to the
recording of Edgard Varèse’s Hyperprism (NAWM 192),
record your first impressions. What did Varèse mean by spatial music and sound
masses? Listening to Hyperprism again, how did knowing about
Varèse’s ideas about the music change your understanding of the piece?
7. In what ways does the
Shaker tune Simple Gifts (shown in NAWM, vol. 3,
p. 526) convey simplicity? How does Aaron Copland reinforce that simplicity in
his use of the tune in Appalachian Spring (beginning in m.
8. The first movement of
William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony (NAWM 196)
unites symphonic and African-American traditions. What elements does it draw
from symphonic tradition? What elements does Still incorporate from
African-American traditions, including those illustrated in NAWM 164,
182, 183, and 184?
11 Five audio examples are attached. For each music excerpt,
identify its historical period and provide at least one-half, double-spaced
page (minimum 125–150 words) giving your reasons for your choice. You'll be
judged on the logic leading to your conclusion of period placement in addition
to the period placement itself. Include discussion of the musical
characteristics of the piece (see categories in Module 2), its style, use of
instruments and/or voices, form, etc. If you recognize the piece, identifying
the title or composer can be one of your reasons, but this information alone is
neither sufficient nor necessary for explaining your conclusions.
1. Music excerpt A
2. Music excerpt B
3. Music excerpt C
4. Music excerpt D
5. Music excerpt E