need help with Introduction and Conclusion

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Can anyone help write an introduction and conclusion to the report below:

When considering global expansion international managers must decide on the best means of entering an overseas market.  The five basic ways to expand oversees are exporting, licensing, franchising, joint ventures, and wholly owned subsidiaries.  Adding a line of clothes to Travel Wise’s products would mean evaluating new design and manufacturing alternatives both in the U.S. and abroad.  I would recommend using a joint venture with a host country company as an entry mode for its new line of travel clothing in the U.S. and foreign markets.  Joint ventures are formal business agreements.  A joint venture could be beneficial to the company in the U.S. and foreign markets by allowing the host country company’s knowledge of the markets and industry to take the business forward profitably.  A joint venture could also be beneficial for Travel Wise to broaden it horizon in the U.S. and foreign markets by introducing new products through an internationally known company familiar with clothing production.  A joint venture could also be beneficial for Travel Wise because it cuts developmental and production costs in half.  This could be a bad thing when risks are involved.  A joint venture with an internationally known company could help Travel Wise to get its new clothing line started and get it recognized.  Internationally known companies can help people see and recognize Travel Wise’s new clothing line as more than just travel accessories.  Disadvantages to joint ventures include loss of control over technology, disagreements, and conflicts between partners.  Many companies who enter a joint venture have conflicts over who controls what and eventually lose money or fail.  Before Travel Wise enters a joint venture, experienced managers should iron out technology, control, and other potential conflicts that arise when entering new markets.


Should the clothing be outsourced to suppliers overseas, or should Travel Wise consider building its own manufacturing facility here in the United States?

There are many factors to consider when deciding on whether to outsource the clothing manufacturing line of business or keep it in house.  The biggest one is cost.  An argument can be made to keep this in the United States because when expanding into new products or lines of business, it is advantageous to keep the functions close to home so that they can be closely managed and supervised.  However, the facility in this case would be very costly.  Travel Wise is already successful in the way they conduct their current business, outsourcing most of the goods it already sells; this particular line of business can be performed overseas much cheaper and probably more quickly as well.  Kirsch can discuss Travel Wise’s requirements and negotiate with existing manufacturers that already have experience in clothing manufacturing.  She can even discuss the new ideas with her existing suppliers, maybe one of them can manufacture and provide these products as well.  This could eliminate some of the management issues of not being readily available and close to the functions, and it could result in some financial savings with additional products and volume.  So outsourcing is the better option. 

Although it sounds like Travel Wise has done its homework, Kirsh can benefit by reviewing some key practices to establish a strategic and balanced outsourcing relationship.  Accenture is a world leader in outsource consulting as its “experience and global capabilities make us a world leader in application outsourcing, infrastructure outsourcing, business process outsourcing, and bundled outsourcing” (Salvino, 2012). Travel Wise should use an end-to-end approach of the business process, including outsourced processes, create to collaborative governance to understand everyone’s objectives and to resolve conflicts quickly and fairly, focus on long-term value and not just cost reductions, and rely on and use others’ expertise and knowledge (Salvino, 2012).  By keeping these things in mind, Travel Wise should be successful in its expansion into the clothing line.

Learning Team Discussion Response for Week 4 (QUESTION 3)

  There are many different types of relationships that Travel Wise could forge in other countries to produce accurate, up-to-date, insightful travel guides. One of the biggest is to have a friendly, open and honest relationship with the other countries. In order to do this, Travel Wise must learn the different customs and cultures that other countries follow. Some countries speak different languages compared to us, others follow different hierarchies and customs compared to our country, and some countries have different ways of doing business. Take for example, if Travel Wise wanted to do business with India, they would need to realize that India have many different languages that they speak, some of them not recognized by their own government (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004).

  India has some different and some of the same hierarchies compared to us, which are as followed: 

·  The influences of Hinduism and the tradition of the caste system have created a culture that emphasizes established hierarchical relationships.

·  Indians are always conscious of social order and their status relative to other people, be they family, friends, or strangers.

·  All relationships involve hierarchies. In schools, teachers are called gurus and are viewed as the source of all knowledge. The patriarch, usually the father, is considered the leader of the family. The boss is seen as the source of ultimate responsibility in business. Every relationship has a clear- cut hierarchy that must be observed for the social order to be maintained. (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004)

The Role of the Family is very important to India people. The roles of India people are:

·  People typically define themselves by the groups to which they belong rather than by their status as individuals.

·  Someone is deemed to be affiliated to a specific state, region, city, family, career path, religion, etc.

·  This group orientation stems from the close personal ties Indians maintain with their family, including the extended family.

·  The extended family creates a myriad of interrelationships, rules, and structures and along with these mutual obligations comes a deep-rooted trust among relatives. (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004).

Etiquette and Customs in India are the following:

·  Religion, education and social class all influence greetings in India.

·  This is a hierarchical culture, so greet the eldest or most senior person first.

·  When leaving a group, each person must be bid farewell individually.

·  Shaking hands is common, especially in the large cities among the more educated who are accustomed to dealing with westerners.

·  Men may shake hands with other men and women may shake hands with other women; however there are seldom handshakes between men and women because of religious beliefs. If you are uncertain, wait for them to extend their hand (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004).

Business Etiquette and Protocol in India are the following:

·  Indians prefer to do business with those they know.

·  Relationships are built upon mutual trust and respect.

·  In general, Indians prefer to have long-standing personal relationships prior to doing business.

·  It may be a good idea to go through a third party introduction. This gives you immediate credibility.

·  If you will be travelling to India from abroad, it is advisable to make appointments by letter, at least one month and preferably two months in advance.

·  It is a good idea to confirm your appointment as they do get cancelled at short notice.

·  The best time for a meeting is late morning or early afternoon. Reconfirm your meeting the week before and call again that morning, since it is common for meetings to be cancelled at the last minute.

·  Keep your schedule flexible so that it can be adjusted for last minute rescheduling of meetings.

·  You should arrive at meetings on time since Indians are impressed with punctuality.

·  Meetings will start with a great deal of getting-to- know-you talk. In fact, it is quite possible that no business will be discussed at the first meeting.

·  Always send a detailed agenda in advance. Send back-up materials and charts and other data as well. This allows everyone to review and become comfortable with the material prior to the meeting.

·  Follow up a meeting with an overview of what was discussed and the next steps (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004).

Business Negotiating

·  Indians are non-confrontational. It is rare for them to overtly disagree, although this is beginning to change in the managerial ranks.

·  Decisions are reached by the person with the most authority.

·  Decision making is a slow process.

·  If you lose your temper you lose face and prove you are unworthy of respect and trust.

·  Delays are to be expected, especially when dealing with the government.

·  Most Indians expect concessions in both price and terms. It is acceptable to expect concessions in return for those you grant.

·  Never appear overly legalistic during negotiations. In general, Indians do not trust the legal system and someone's word is sufficient to reach an agreement.

·  Do not disagree publicly with members of your negotiating team.

·  Successful negotiations are often celebrated by a meal (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004)

Dress Etiquette

·  Business attire is conservative.

·  Men should wear dark colored conservative business suits.

·  Women should dress conservatively in suits or dresses.

·  The weather often determines clothing. In the hotter parts of the country, dress is less formal, although dressing as suggested above for the first meeting will indicate respect (India-Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, 2004).

  In order for Travel Wise to form a relationship with India to produce accurate guides, they need to have an open and honest relationship with the country. They also must follow the customs and cultures of the India people. 

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