epidemiology question. Just the method

FratBro23
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Health & Medical
Price: $15 USD

Question description

How much for both assignments by Tuesday Next week.

assignment 1

An epidemiology curve is perhaps the most common tool used to illustrate disease patterns overtime. This type of chart, also known as a histogram, not only shows the outbreak time-line during an outbreak investigation but can assist with determining the success of disease control efforts. Here are some important components of creating an epidemic curve:

  • The X-axis (horizontal axis) is normally the date of illness onset
  • The Y-axis (vertical axis) is normally the number of cases (persons ill) of disease on the illness onset date
  • The count of cases (the bar of the graph) should be centered between the date/time intervals with a zero gap between the bars
  • Show pre-epidemic cases before the diseases outbreak. These cases may represent the cause of the epidemic.

Part 1: Using Microsoft Excel, organize the following data in a table using proper column headings (date of onset and case count).

Date of Illness Onset

6/15

6/17

6/17

6/18

6/18

6/18

6/19

6/19

6/19

6/19

6/19

6/19

6/19

6/20

6/20

6/20

6/20

6/20

6/20

6/20

6/21

6/21

6/21

6/21

6/21

6/22

6/22

6/22

6/22

6/23

6/23

6/23

6/23

6/24

6/24

6/26

6/27

6/27

6/27

6/28

6/28

6/28

6/28

6/28

6/28

6/28

Part 2: Next create an epidemic curve like the histogram pictured below. Be sure to properly label your graph. There are multiple methods to creating a histogram but regardless of the tool used, the important factor is organizing the data to produce the graph. The list of disease onset dates is in chronological order. In many outbreaks, a case of disease is not always identified and logged in the sequence of disease onset. In other words, your data collection tool will rarely be in chronological order. Note that a few dates are not listed because there were no cases reported. Be sure to include theses dates in your epidemic curve. YOU MUST SHOW YOUR WORK IN AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET. Charts pasted in a document will not be accepted.

Please go to Lynda.com to view the short video titled Creating a Histogram (time: 2 min 55 secs) for help on creating a histogram.

Note: Excel has a Data Analysis feature to create a histogram. It will even summarize your data and create the graph if the data is organized properly. Here is a link to help with creating a histogram using the Excel Data Analysis feature: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/excel-help/create-a-histogram-HP001098364.aspx.

Example


Answer the following questions about the epidemic curve you created:

  • What is the date of the likely index case?
  • Considering what the epidemic curve is showing after 6/26, what can you infer about the outbreak control measures?

Create the table, the epidemic curve, and write your answers in the same Excel file. Submit your file using the Upload Instructions below. 

assignment 2

 this unit you are learned that the association between variables (exposures) and outcomes can be investigated through descriptive or analytical study designs. The main types of analytical epidemiologic studies include the following:

Type of Study

Description of Study Type

Observational

Passively observe causes, preventions, and treatments for disease without interfering with its natural course.

Case Control

Involves the identification of cases- those with a disease- and controls – those selected with similar attributes (age, geography and engaging in similar activities) who do not have the disease. The characteristics of exposure for both groups are compared to determine the cause of disease. Finding controls to match the cases can be a difficult and time consuming.

Cohort

Prospective Cohort –a defined population which is observed over time for a specific exposure(s) to identify new cases of disease.
Retrospective – uses data collected from surveys, interviews and records to determine exposure levels to a contagion. This method can be used in outbreak investigations in lieu of case control studies.
Historical Prospective – uses historical information already collected on a defined population and is used to conduct the study.

Ecologic

The observed study subjects are units of populations such as geographic areas (counties, states, countries, …)

Intervention (Experimental)

Involves the deliberate change of the study subject’s status. The introduced change can be in the form of medication, interventions or preventions.

Randomized Control Trial

Study participants are randomly assigned to groups to receive or not receive medical or other intervention or prevention.

Quasi-experimental

A type of research in which the intervention is changed or introduced to a group that is not divided into exposure or non-exposure groups resulting in random exposure. This method of study is normally used in communities, schools and geographic areas.

Imagine you are an Epidemiologist at local department of public health. You received a call from Dr. Wilson, the Medical Director for a local nursing home facility, who reported 60 elderly residents exhibiting symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea. She was worried the residents were exposed to a stomach virus or have food poisoning.

Dr. Wilson provided you with the laboratory test results and asked you to perform an epidemiology investigation to determine the source of their illness.

  1. What type of study would you use and why? Your hypothesis is the residents became ill from a meal served within the past 48 hours. The suspected meal included grilled chicken, potato salad, biscuits, cake and ice tea. You are not 100% sure which item caused the illness but with consideration of the laboratory result you suspect the chicken caused the illness.

  2. What is the attack rate of those who eat chicken?

  3. Using the information in the data below, calculate the proper measure of association (odds ratio or relative risk) for the chicken using a Fourfold table (also called a 2 X 2 table). Your table should look similar to the example below.

    [img alt="Four Fold Table" src="http://lms.ecpionline.com/file.php/4422/images/Unit-3/BIO250-U3-Assignment-FourFoldTable.PNG">

  4. Do you have enough information to claim the chicken is the cause of the residents’ illness? Why or why not?

    Number of residents who eat chicken and were sick 

    Number of residents who eat chicken and were not sick

    15

    Number of residents who did not eat chicken and were sick

    5

    Number of residents who did not eat chicken and were not sick

    5

  5. You may create your answers to the questions above, your fourfold table and your calculations in either a Microsoft Word or Excel document. Upload your file using the direction below.


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