7th grade summer instructional packet

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Question description

1. In the process of natural selection, the organisms that are best suited to their environments are most

likely to survive and _________________________.

2. Natural selection is affected by ____________________, or traits that are different in members of

the same species.

3. The only traits that can be acted upon by natural selection are those that are controlled by


4. A new _____________ can form when a group of individuals become isolated from the main group.

5. The actions of animals most commonly can cause the type of weathering known as ____________.

6. Some plants produce acids that result in ____________________ weathering.

7. Features of topography, such as the Columbia Plateau and Mount Hood, are called ______________.

8. The vast, flat or gently rolling grassland in the interior of North America is called the


9. The force that moves sediment in a landslide or mudflow is ____________________.

10. Plant leaves may form a fossil called a(n) ____________________, a thin layer of carbon on rock.

11. Scientists know how groups of animals changed over time by studying information contained in the


12. Paleontologists are scientists who study _________________________.

13. A(n) ____________________ is a gap in the geologic record where some rock layers have been lost

because of erosion.

14. About 2.5 billion years ago, the first organisms that could use energy from sunlight released

__________________ into the atmosphere.

15. The energy from the sun that warms your face is transferred by a process called ______________.

16. An igneous rock that is formed from lava is called a(n) ____________________ rock.

17. During the 1800s, the igneous rock called ____________________ was widely used in the United

States to build bridges and public buildings.

Name: ______________________________________ Date: ____ Science Teacher: ______________

18. Foliated and nonfoliated are terms used to describe the texture of ______________________ rocks.

19. Dissolved minerals and particles of sediment stick together to form sedimentary rock in a process

called ____________________.

20. Sediment settles out of moving water by the process of ____________________.

21. The carrying away of rock fragments by water, wind, or ice is called ____________________, an

important process in the formation of sedimentary rocks.

22. Power is the rate at which ____________________ is transferred from one object to another.

23. Work is the transfer of ____________________ from one object to another.

24. If the velocity of an object is doubled, its kinetic energy is multiplied by ____________________.

25. A baseball flying through the air has ____________________ energy because of its motion.

26. A change in an object’s position relative to a reference point is called ____________________.

27. Acceleration is the rate of change in ____________________.

28. A golf ball ____________________ when either its speed or direction changes.

29. Plants make their own food using energy that comes from the ____________________.

30. Small openings called ____________________ allow carbon dioxide to enter a leaf.

31. Chloroplasts contain a pigment called ____________________ that captures the energy in light.

32. During respiration, molecules of ____________________ are first broken down in the cytoplasm.

33. Energy from glucose is released in the process of ____________________.

34. The main difference between respiration and fermentation is that respiration uses

____________________ to obtain energy from food.

35. The process in which yeast produces carbon dioxide and alcohol is called _________ fermentation.

36. The main difference between cellular respiration and fermentation is that cellular respiration uses

____________________ to obtain energy from food.

37. The process in which yeasts break down sugars and produce carbon dioxide and alcohol is called

____________________ fermentation.

38. Water vapor turns into droplets of liquid water in the process of ____________________.

39. Certain bacteria change nitrogen gas into a usable form in a process called ________________.

40. Producers use carbon from the gas _________________________ to make sugars and starches.

41. The genetic code is found in the order of nitrogen ____________________ along a gene.

42. In pea plants, the tall-stem allele and the short-stem allele are different forms of the same


43. If D represents the dominant allele of a gene, then _______________ represents the recessive allele.

44. If a(n) ____________________ allele is present, its trait will appear in the organism.

45. If each of ten events is equally likely to occur, the probability of each individual event occurring is

____________________ percent.

46. In a cross between two hybrid Tt pea plants, _______________ percent of the offspring will be Tt.

47. If all of the sex cells of an organism have the T allele, the genotype of that organism must be


48. A carrier of a trait controlled by a ____________________ allele does not express the trait.

49. A(n) ____________________ is used to track the occurrence of a trait in a family.

50. A(n)____________________ helps couples understand their chances of having a child with a

genetic disorder.

51. Strip mining is a process used to collect _________________close to Earth's surface.

52. A radioactive gas that is naturally formed by certain types of rocks underground is called


53. A ridge of land that separates two watersheds is called a(n) ____________________.

54. Over many years, the levels of nutrients in a lake build up in the process of ____________________.

55. The area of soil in which the pores are totally filled with water is called the _____________ zone.

56. People cannot use most of the freshwater on Earth because it is in the form of _______________.

57. People may not have enough water during a(n) ___________________, a period when rainfall is

below normal.

58. Filters and settling tanks remove solid materials from wastewater during the

____________________ treatment step.

59. Wetlands help prevent ____________________ by absorbing runoff from heavy rains.

60. The hypothesis of _________________________ was that all the continents once were joined as a

single supercontinent and have since drifted apart.

61. The process of _________________________ continually adds new crust to the ocean floor along

both sides of the mid-ocean ridge.

62. Subduction occurs where the oceanic crust bends down toward the mantle at a(n)______________.

63. A continental plate collides with an oceanic plate at a(n) ____________________ boundary.

64. In the phenomenon known as the ____________________ effect, electric current will flow when

light shines on certain substances.

65. When white light from the sun is refracted by rain drops, a ____________can result.

66. As parallel rays of light pass through a(n) ____________________ lens, they are bent toward the

center of the lens.

67. If you state that your basketball team will win tonight’s game because your team has always beaten

the other team in the past, you are making a(n) ____________________.

68. ____________________ is the process of grouping together items that are alike in some way.

69. A scientist’s open-mindedness should always be balanced by ____________________, which is

having an attitude of doubt.

70. You travel a total of __________________ degrees if you circle the globe completely and return to

the spot from where you departed.

71. The basic SI unit of mass is the __________________.

72. A common tool used to measure length is the ____________________.

73. Temperature is measured using a(n) ____________________.

74. _________________ are data points that do not fit with the rest of a data set.

75. An experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time is called a(n)

____________________ experiment

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