# Briefly explain two-three sentences please

**Question description**

#4

A study of reading comprehension in children compared three methods of instruction. The three methods of instruction are called Basal, DRTA, and Strategies. As is common in such studies, several pretest variables were measured before any instruction was given. One purpose of the pretest was to see if the three groups of children were similar in their comprehension skills. The READING data set described in the Data Appendix gives two pretest measures that were used in this study. Use one-way ANOVA to analyze these data and write a summary of your results.

#5

A study of reading comprehension in children compared three methods of instruction. The three methods of instruction are called Basal, DRTA, and Strategies. Basal is the traditional method of teaching, while DRTA and Strategies are two innovative methods based on similar theoretical considerations. The READING data set includes three response variables that the new methods were designed to improve. Analyze these variables using ANOVA methods. Be sure to include multiple comparisons or contrasts as needed. Write a report summarizing your findings.

#6

Search the Internet or your library to find a study that is interesting to you and that used one-way ANOVA to analyze the data. First describe the question or questions of interest and then give the details of how ANOVA was used to provide answers. Be sure to include how the study authors examined the assumptions for the analysis. Evaluate how well the authors used ANOVA in this study. If your evaluation finds the analysis deficient, make suggestions for how it could be improved.

#7

The *One-Way ANOVA*applet lets you see how the *F* statistic and the *P*-value depend on the variability of the data within groups and the differences among the means.

(a) The black dots are at the means of the three groups. Move these up and down until you get a configuration that gives a *P*-value of about 0.01. What is the value of the *F* statistic?

This answer has not been graded yet.

(b) Now increase the variation within the groups by dragging the mark on the pooled standard error scale to the right. Describe what happens to the

*F*statistic and the

*P*-value. Explain why this happens.

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